Mauryans vs. Guptas Differences M: Buddhism M: More land M: Lasted longer G: Hinduism Similarities Classical India Began in Magadha Caste System
Mesopotamia vs. Olmecs Differences Similarities M: City-states M: Polytheistic and then monotheistic M: Invented writing and cuneiform M: Stories & poems [Epic of Gilgamesh] O: Polytheistic O: Developed numeric system O: Carved jade Based on agriculture Patriarchal Ruled by kings Distinct social classes Priests and temples; elaborate rituals Believed in astronomical and supernatural events
Rome vs. Han Dynasty Differences R: Didn’t retain identity R: Small city-states R: Law of 12 Tables R: Julius Caesar R: Senate [republic] R: Invented engineering H: Divided into areas H: Bureaucracy H: Invented everything else Similarities Emperors Social class [elites are better] Attacked by nomadic groups Diseases Difficult trade routes Women manhandled
Athens vs. Rome Differences Similarities Gods’ and goddesses’ names R: Military based R: Agricultural R: Empire A: Less invasion from Nomads A: Culture bases more on the arts Gods and goddesses Patriarchy Slavery Located in present-day Europe Traded through Mediterranean
Buddhism vs. Christianity Differences Similarities B: Four Noble Truths and Eight – Fold Path B: Nirvana B: Leader is a man B: Meditates B: Divisions: Theravada and Mahayana C: Leader is God C: Prays C: Leader’s death allowed salvation Soul lives on after death Egalitarian – everyone is equal Spread through trade Monotheistic Single founder
Hinduism vs. Confucianism Differences Similarities H: World’s largest ethnic religion H: No particular founder C: Superior/non-superior relationship C: Founded by Confucius C: No particular god Believed in social hierarchies Supported superiors Had guidelines to live life Many people follow the religion/philosophy
Classical India vs. Classical China Differences Similarities Different religions C: Politically controlled by non-hereditary bureaucracy [have to take test to receive power] C: Ruled by dynasty I: Politically fragmented into separate kinship groups I: Ruled by empire Ashoka Invaded by nomads Unified by a religion Located in Asia Distinct social classes Had higher powers [emperors/rulers]
River Valley Civilizations vs. Classical Civilizations Differences Similarities C: More numerous and better written records C: More communication because of trade C: Larger cities and capitals C: Stronger government and military works C: More contact with nomadic people C:Cultural characteristics still around C: More disease is spread R: Less complex writing systems R: Wider division of labor Complex, long distance trade Writing systems Complex government Clear social classes Gradually developing cities New religions developing New Law Codes Agriculture is important
Judaism vs. Christianity Differences Similarities J: Founded by Abraham J: Spread by diaspora [scattering of peoples by conquerors] J: Originated in Middle East C: Founded by Jesus of Nazareth C: Spread by 12 disciples C: Official religion of Rome C: Originated in Judea C: Paul responsible for spreading Christianity to Rome Sacred text Promise a better life Monotheistic Have a place of worship Believe in an afterlife Viewed God as a superior being Must live a moral life to have a good afterlife
Words to Define for Extra Credit China Shi forbidden city scholar-gentry India Varna jati Brahmins Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra Vedas Upanishads atman Ashoka theater state [pg. 104 gray book]
Consider “Why?” for T- chart comparisons.
These aren’t all the notes you should study! They’re only to help with the essay part of the test.
Tell me if any of the info is wrong so I can fix it. It should all be pretty accurate, though.