Using context means to figure out what
words mean by how they are used in the
sentence or paragraph where they appear.
Type Description Example
Example clues This type of context clues uses
familiar ex. To illustrate the meaning
of unfamiliar words.
• The air in Manila is found
to have noxious materials
such as air freshener,
insect repellants, smoke
from vehicles , and dust
This refers to the use of an unfamiliar
word in comparison to a familiar word.
Some phrases that signal comparison
clues are like, as, same, same as, and
• The taciturn student is like
a mute television.
• The concentric circles
used as a model for world
Englishes are similar to
the overlapping circles
shown on the board.
In a contrast clue, a new word is the
opposite of the known word. Some
phrases are the following: although,
but, through, however, yet, different
from, unlike, in contrast to, not, and
as opposed to.
• In March, the weather is
usually pacific unlike the
bad and stormy weather
during the months of June
• Mike’s daughter is very
mischievous .However his
son always behave well.
This type of clues uses hints
to make educated guesses
or inferences, about the
meaning of word.
• When her son was
imprisoned, she felt that
all her dreams for him
vanished. She could no
longer look at her son
lingering behind the cold
bars of the prison
together with the other
This type of context clues uses
simpler synonyms of unfamiliar
• Voracious or avid readers
frequent the malls to buy the
• The work assigned to me
was cumbersome and tiring.
In this type of context clues,
the unfamiliar word is defined
in the sentence itself.
• A philatelist is someone who
collects different kind of
• A claustrophobic is
someone who is afraid of
This type of context clues uses
explanation s to simplify the
meaning of unfamiliar words.
• Conjugation is done by
adding -s-es -d-ed to the
base from of the verb
1. Mexicans and other nationalities have tried to defeat Manny
Pacquiao. But all their attempts and energies have remained
futile. Their losses are testaments to Manny’s stature as the
greatest boxer of this century. Manny remains to be
2. The stratification in the society makes clear distinctions
between the reach and the poor. The level occupied by the
rich is far from the position the poor people hold.
3. The pleasant, calm and gentle breeze during the months of
January and February make the balmy air more conducive
for sleeping and relaxation.
4. Biodegradable materials like leftover foods. Fruit peelings,
and plant leaves must be separated from those that do not
5. Poems written by Andress Mojica are usually unfathomable.
Many could hardly understand the message he wants to
convey. Readers would usually encounter difficulties in
interpreting his masterpiece.
6. I have always live in cubbyholes. After moving away from
home, my first apartment was just a cubbyhole in a large
building. It was not more than 8’ by 12’ and had a bed in one
corner. My second is like a large walk in closet. My current
one is about 10 feet long by 12 feet wide, but it at least has
7. The floors of the restaurant were extremely skuzzy. They
were covered with spilled grease, crumbs of food, and
8. The contractor was always well remunerated for his work.
For example. He received 10,000 for a small addition to a
house and last year he was received 5,000 for
reconstructing a stairway.
9. The department store carries a variety of breeches, and
even some plain unlabeled brands made of cotton.
Clues are words used in a sentence which help in
understanding the specific meaning of a new unfamiliar
• The special meaning of a word depends on the other words
in the sentence of the surrounding group of sentences
1. Definition clues- the author gives the meaning of the word. It has a
term, genus and description.
Model: Spelunking is a hobby, sport or activity of exploring caves.
(term) (genus) (description)
Read the following definitions and identity the term,
genus and description. Follow the model
a. A Haber dasher is a seller of furnishings, drapery of
goods and ribbons.
b. An effigy is an image (likeness) of a person or thing.
c. Cohabitation is the state of living together as husband
d. An itinerary is a work containing notices of places and
situations to meet in the pursuit of a partial line of work.
2. Comparison shows similarity of thing while contrast
shows the difference.
Read the following sentence. Pick out the pair of vocabulary
and classify whether there is comparison or contrast.
a. Inez walk sheepishly into the classroom hoping the
teacher wouldn’t notice how late she was, while jack rapidly
b. He is a gregarious as my extrovert cousin.
c. You tell his innate characteristics, not the acquired ones.
d. He is such an extraordinary man that everybody
considers him marvelous.
3. An appositive is a descriptive word or phrase placed beside the unknown
work and often enclosed or set off by commas.
Example. Many eleemosynary or philanthropic agencies helping the poor
and disadvantage people.
Directions: circle the vocabulary and underline the appositive.
a. We enjoy the magnificence of the beach resort, its splendor
b. The guest laughed and enjoyed the merriment with gaiety
c. Car napping, the crime of stealing other people’s cars is
rampant in Manila.
d. Euthanasia, mercy killing in plain language is very
e. Giving alms, feeding prisoners and establishing scholarship
are charitable philanthropy, her benevolence.
f. Sagacious persons, those who are wise and intelligent, think
4. Examples the meaning of the vocabulary can be taken
from the example given.
Example: Affluent people, like millionaire , hacienderos, and
big time businessmen should be the greatest contributors to
Directions: pick out the vocabulary and give the meaning.
a. Spurious things like fake marriage contacts, counterfeit
money, and false documents are secretly available for
b. Exercises, aerobics and gymnastics are strenuous
c. There goes the vagrant who wanders and begs from one
pace to another.
d. He writhes in pain as his body distorts, twists and
A personal experience and the experiences of others are good clues
Example: when I started having my menstrual cycle I felt conscious
about myself. And my relationship with others, then I have knew I have
a. The house is our home, an abode or residence. It is a place
where we live.
b. He was showing his versatility when he graduated with honors,
and an offer of free associations and two clubs.
c. They met so much adversities in life when their father was
absconded by the NPA’S their two brothers died in the flood
and when their house was buried in lahar.
d. She is so arrogant and proud pretending to be rich even if she
e. They entered the class with all the noise, banged the chairs
and pushed each other to get choice seats. Their rowdiness
caused their suspension for a week.
f. We graduated together, enrolled in the same school, the same
An can clarify meanings of unknown words.
Example: my grandfather lives a sedentary life. He sits at
the porch most of the time, seldom goes to bed or to the
Directions: Pick out the vocabulary that is being explained in
the context. Give a synonym.
a. The lecture was very comprehensive. It covered all
means of the topic and the examples were very clear.
b. The generous couple who donated a big amount did not
want their names published. They preferred to remain
c. She swears to the veracity of her testimony. She does not
lie and very accurate.