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  • 1. Project Time Management09/15/12 1
  • 2. Project Time Management Process GroupProcess Group Time Management ProcessInitiatingPlanning Define Activities, Sequence Activities, Estimate Activity Resources, Estimate Activity Durations, Develop ScheduleExecutingMonitoring & Control Control ScheduleClosing09/15/12 2
  • 3. 5.1 Define Activities This process involves taking the work packages created in the WBS and breaking them down further (decomposing) in order to reach the activity level, a level small enough to estimate, schedule, monitor and manage.Inputs • Scope baseline • Organizational process assets • Enterprise environmental FactorsTools & • Decomposition • TemplatesTechniques • Rolling wave planning • Expert judgmentOutputs • Activity list • Milestone list • Activity attributes09/15/12 3
  • 4. Inputs 1. Scope Baseline – When defining activities, explicit attention must be paid to the project deliverables, constraints, and assumptions documented in the scope baseline • Project Scope Statement • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • WBS dictionary 1. Enterprise Environment Factors – Project management information system (PMIS) 1. Organizational Process Assets – Organization-specific activity planning policies, procedures, and guidelines – A knowledge base of lessons learned containing activities lists or other historical information from previous projects09/15/12 4
  • 5. Tools & Techniques 1. Decomposition – The lowest level of WBS is work package => subdivide the work packages into smaller, more manageable components called activities. – WBS and activity can be developed either sequentially or concurrently 1. Roll Wave Planning – Plan the upcoming phase in detail, and leave later phases at a less detailed level 1. Templates – A standard activity list or a portion of an activity list from a previous project is often useable as a template for a new project. Templates can be used to help define and document project activities: • A description of the activity • Required resources and associated effort • Any risks that would normally be associated with the activity 1. Expert Judgment – Experts who are experienced and skilled in performing the activities should be consulted when defining them09/15/12 5
  • 6. Outputs1. Activity List – Extension to the WBS – Contain all project activities: • Detail work description • Completion criteria • Verifiable definition of output1. Activity Attributes – Activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. – Can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, and activity type such as level of effort (LOE),…, scope of activity,…1. Milestone List – The milestone list defines all the important contractually-required checkpoints or internally-driven reporting events,…to control project. – Add zero duration to schedule. 09/15/12 6
  • 7. 5.2 Sequence Activities The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities. Take the activities and milestones to sequence them into by using logical relationship…how the work will be performed. The result is a network diagramInputs • Activity list • Project scope statement • Activity attributes • Organizational process assets • Milestone listTools & • Precedence diagramming • Applying leads and lagsTechniques method (PDM) • Schedule network templates • Dependency determinationOutputs • Project schedule network Diagrams • Project document updates09/15/12 7
  • 8. Inputs 1. Activity List 2. Activity Attributes 3. Milestone List 4. Project Scope Statement – Contains the product scope description, including product characteristics, which may help sequence activities 1. Organizational Process Assets – Schedule network templates – Established processes or guidelines for developing network diagrams – Historical information from previous projects09/15/12 8
  • 9. Tools & Techniques 1. Precedence diagramming method (PDM) or Activity on Node (AON):09/15/12 9
  • 10. Tools & TechniquesActivity on Node (AON): 4 types ofdependencies between activities: – Finish-to-Start: finish ‘dig hole’ before starting ‘plant tree’ – Start-to-Start: start ‘design’ before starting ‘code’ – Finish-to-Finish: finish ‘testing’ before finishing ‘documentation’ – Start-to-Finish (SF): start “the ship is ready to go” before finishing “ticket windows closes”09/15/12 10
  • 11. Tools & Techniques 1. Dependency Determination: 3 types of dependencies • Hard logic: (mandatory logic) set by nature of work. E.g. have to setup computer before installing software; have to build walls before roof. • Soft logic: (discretionary or preferential logic) best practice. E.g. paint the outside of the house before or after the inside. • External: involve a relationship between project activities and non-project activities. E.g. set by Government agency, Union, or major supplier, environmental factors, etc.09/15/12 11
  • 12. Tools & Techniques 1. Applying Leads and Lags: – Lags: a lag is inserted waiting time between activities – Leads: a lead may be added to start an activity before the predecessor activity is completed 1. Schedule Network Templates: – A standard schedule network diagram or a portion of an schedule network diagram from a previous project is often useable as a template for a new project.09/15/12 12
  • 13. Outputs 1. Project Schedule Network Diagram:- A schematic display of the project schedule activities and the logicaldependency relationships among them. 1. Project Document Updates: – Activity list updates – Activity attributes updates09/15/12 13
  • 14. 5.3 Estimate Activity Resources The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity. RESOURCES: skilled human resources (specific disciplines either individually or in crews or teams), equipment, services, supplies, commodities, material, budgets, or funds.Inputs • Activity list • Enterprise environmental • Activity attributes factors • Resource calendars • Organizational process assetsTools & • Expert judgment • Bottom‐up estimatingTechniques • Alternatives analysis • Project management software • Published estimating dataOutputs • Activity resource requirements • Project document updates • Resource breakdown structure09/15/12 14
  • 15. Inputs 1. Activity list 2. Activity Attributes 3. Resource Calendar – Availability: when resource are available and how long during the project or for each activity – Geographic location, capabilities, skill (for labor resources) 1. Enterprise Environment Factors – Resource pool availability and skill levels 1. Organizational Process Assets – Policies and procedures: • How human resources may be used • Supplies and equipment- purchase vs. rental • Historical information on resources used for similar activities in previous projects09/15/12 15
  • 16. Tools & Techniques1. Expert Judgment – Bringing in experts who have done this sort of work before and getting their opinions on what resources are needed2. Alternative Analysis – Considering several different options for how you assign resources – Includes varying the number of resources as well as the kind of resources you use3. Published Estimating Data- Construction industry estimates of amount of materials needed for standardbuildings- Rates of software developer productivity of using software development tools4. Bottom-up Estimating – Involves breaking down complex activities into pieces, and working out the resource assignments for each of those5. Project Management Software – Some software can be used to plan, organize, and manage resource pools and develop resource estimates 09/15/12 16
  • 17. Outputs1. Activity Resource Requirements – Identifies the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package, including: • Technical capacity • Performance specifications for human resources ( availability ) • Details for material resources2. Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS) – RBS is hierarchical structure of the identified resources by resource category and resource type. • Resource categories include labor, material, equipment, and supplies. • Resource types include the skill level, grade level, ... – RBS is useful for organizing and reporting project schedule date with resource utilization information3. Project Document Updates – Activity list/ Activity attributes/ Resource calendars updates,...09/15/12 17
  • 18. 5.4 Estimate Activity Durations The process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources DURATIONS: the total number of work periods (not including holidays or other nonworking periods) required to complete a schedule activity or WBS component. Usually expressed as workdays, workweeks. Contrast with effort.Inputs • Activity list • Project scope statement • Activity attributes • Enterprise environmental • Activity resource requirements factors • Resource calendars • Organizational process assetsTools & • Experts judgment • Three‐point estimatesTechniques • Analogous estimating • Reserve analysis • Parametric estimatingOutputs • Activity duration estimates • Project document updates09/15/12 18
  • 19. Inputs 1. Activity List 2. Activity Attributes 3. Activity Resource Requirements 4. Resource Calendar – Human resources availability, capabilities, and skills, holidays and other non-working days5. Project Scope Statement – There may be constraints related to contract terms, skilled resource availability, requirements – Assumptions may be related to existing conditions, availability of information, length of project reporting periods, resource skill levels6. Enterprise Environment Factors – Databases containing historical data, productivity metrics, and commercially published information – Organization-specific productivity rates7. Organizational Process Assets – Organization calendars that specify work hours per day, holidays, non- working days – Organizational scheduling methodology, and documented lessons learned 09/15/12 19
  • 20. Tools & Techniques 1. Expert Judgment – Recommend maximum activity durations, suggest specific assumptions to make 1. Analogous Estimating (Top-Down) – Analogous estimating uses historical information and expert judgment. E.g. the last five projects similar to this one each took 5 months, so this one should also. – Analogous estimating is generally less costly and time consuming than other techniques, but it is also generally less accurate. – For overall project estimate given to the project manager from management or the sponsor – Useful when project has a limited detailed information, little technical data is available.09/15/12 20
  • 21. Tools & Techniques 1. Parametric Estimating – Use mathematical model based on such measures as time per linear meter or time per installation. E.g. if the assigned resource is capable of installing 25 meters of cable per hour, the duration required to install 1,000 meters would be 40 hours. (1,000 meters divided by 25 meters per hour). 1. Three-Point Estimate ( PERT analysis – Program Evaluation and Review technique): provides an Optimistic (O), Pessimistic (P) and Most likely (M) estimate for each activity  PERT = (O+4M+P)/6 ( Expected Activity Duration )  Activity Standard Deviation = (P-O)/6  Activity Variance = [(P-O)/6]^2 Useful when project teams facing a new type of activity09/15/12 21
  • 22. Tools & Techniques 1. Reserve Analysis – Duration estimates may include contingency reserves, (sometimes referred to as time reserves or buffers) into the overall project schedule to account for schedule uncertainty. The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration. – As more precise information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve may be used, reduced, or eliminated. Contingency should be clearly identified in schedule documentation.09/15/12 22
  • 23. Outputs 1. Activity Duration Estimates – The Activity Duration Estimates are estimates of how long each activity in the activity list will take – The estimate can be in hours, days, weeks... any work period 1. Project Document Updates – Activity attributes updates – Assumption about skill levels, resources availability, etc.09/15/12 23
  • 24. 5.5 Develop Schedule The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule.Inputs • Activity list • Resource calendars • Activity attributes • Activity duration estimates • Project schedule network • Project scope statement diagrams • Enterprise environmental factors • Activity resource • Organizational process assets requirementsTools & • Schedule network analysis • What‐if scenario analysisTechniques • Critical path method • Applying leads and lags • Critical chain method • Schedule compression • Resource leveling • Scheduling toolOutputs • Project schedule • Schedule data • Schedule baseline • Project document updates09/15/12 24
  • 25. Inputs 1. Activity list 2. Activity Attributes 3. Project Schedule Network Diagram 4. Activity Resource Requirements 5. Resource Calendar 6. Activity duration estimates 7. Project Scope Statement 8. Enterprise Environment Factors – Any scheduling tools that can support the developing of the schedule9. Organizational Process Assets – Project calendar that the project must follow – Organizational scheduling methodology 09/15/12 25
  • 26. Tools & Techniques 1. Schedule Network Analysis – Uses two sets of dates for each activity: • Early start and finish dates specify earliest dates on which activity may occur, based on its predecessors, lags, and duration • Late start and finish dates specify latest date by which and activity must occur in order to meet project deadlines09/15/12 26
  • 27. Tools & Techniques1. Critical Path Method (CPM)– Uses the schedule model to mathematically analyze the project’s activities and schedule network. Determines the early and late start and finish dates for each activity without regard for resource considerations. Three-step calculation:  Forward pass: calculates early start (ES)/ early finish (EF) dates  Backward pass: calculates late start (LS)/ late finish (LF) dates  Slack or float: amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying a succeeding (next) activity or the project finish date. (General definition)  Free float: amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start/ latest start date of its successor/ OR without impacting the next activity  Total float: amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project end date  Project float: amount of time an project can be delayed without delaying the externally imposed project completion date required by customer, management.– Determine the Critical Path:  Find the longest (duration) path through the network  Delay in completion of any activity on critical path will delay completion of project unless corrective action is taken09/15/12 27
  • 28. Critical Path exampleQ2. You are the project manager for a new project and have figured out thefollowing dependencies:•Task 1 can start immediately and has an estimated duration of 3 wks•Task 2 can start after Task1 is completed and has an estimated duration of 3 wks•Task 3 can start after Task 1 is completed and has an estimated duration of 6 wks•Task 4 can start after Task 2 is completed and has an estimated duration of 8 wks•Task 5 can start after task 4 is completed and after Task 3 is completed . This tasktakes 4 weeks.What is the duration of the critical path?A. 18.5 weeksB. 19 weeksC. 20 weeksD. 18 weeks 09/15/12 28
  • 29. Float example09/15/12 29
  • 30. Float example09/15/12 30
  • 31. Float example09/15/12 31
  • 32. Float example09/15/12 32
  • 33. Float example• Question: Float of activity B,C? – Forward pass: ES, EF Note: LF-EF = LS - ES – Backward pass: LS, LF 09/15/12 33
  • 34. Tools & Techniques 3. Resource Leveling – Evaluates all of the resources to see if the critical path needs to change to accommodate resource assignments09/15/12 34
  • 35. Tools & Techniques 1. Critical Chain Method: schedule network analysis method that accounts for limited resources in the project schedule: – Applies after the critical path has been identified – Adds buffers to the weakest links in project schedule.  Critical path + Resource availability + Buffer = Critical chain 1. Scenario Analysis: is performed to evaluate various possible scenarios that could bring the schedule back into alignment with the project management plan. The most common technique is the Monte Carlo analysis  “Monster Carlo Analysis”: use a computer to simulate the outcome if a project making use of 3-time estimates for each activity or network diagram 1. Applying Leads and Lags: Helps the project team identify ways to bring project activities that are behind schedule back into alignment with the project management plan09/15/12 35
  • 36. Tools & Techniques 1. Schedule Compression: a technique that shortens the project schedule to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule objective without changing the project scope  Fast tracking: do critical path activities in parallel and only work if activity can be overlapped to shorten duration => rework, increase risk, require more attention to communication  Crashing: cost & schedule tradeoffs are analyzed to determine how to obtain the greatest amount of compression for the least incremental cost such as approving overtime, bringing in additional resources, or paying to expedite delivery to activities on the critical path. And only works for any activities where additional resources will shorten the duration. => increase cost 1. Scheduling Tools: software-based scheduling tools can help generate start and finish dates based on activity inputs, network diagrams, resources, and activity duration09/15/12 36
  • 37. Outputs 1. Project Schedule 1. Schedule Baseline – Defines the baseline start and baseline finish dates for project and the activity, and is agreed by project team – Used to analyze variances between actual and planned schedule performance09/15/12 37
  • 38. Outputs 1. Schedule Data – The schedule data is a collection of information about your schedule. Includes: • Milestones • Activities attributes • Assumption and constraints • Resource requirements by time period • Alternative schedules (best-case or worst-case scenario) • Schedule reserves 1. Project Document Updates – Activity resource requirements/ Activity attributes updates – Project calendar updates – Risk Register updates09/15/12 38
  • 39. 5.6 Control Schedule The process of monitoring the status of the project to update project progress and managing changes to the schedule baselineInputs • Project management plan • Work performance information • Project schedule • Organizational process assetsTools & • Performance reviews • What‐if scenario analysisTechniques • Variance analysis • Adjusting leads and lags • Project management • Schedule compression software • Scheduling tool • Resource levelingOutputs • Work performance • Change requests • measurements • Project management plan • Organizational process updates assets updates • Project document updates09/15/12 39
  • 40. Inputs 1. Project Management Plan 2. Project Schedule 3. Work Performance Information – Includes information about which deliverables are complete, and which have started, and comparisons of actual versus planned completion date4. Organizational Process Assets – Control schedule tools typically used by the organization – Accepted or required monitoring and reporting methods09/15/12 40
  • 41. Tools & Techniques1. Performance Reviews – Measure, compare, and analyze schedule performance data to determine: • Whether there are variations from the project schedule • The magnitude ( how big, how important ) of any variations • Whether corrective action is required to bring the project back on track – Techniques include: • Critical chain scheduling method, comparing the amount of buffer remaining to the amount of buffer needed to protect the delivery date can help determine schedule status. The difference between the buffer needed and the buffer remaining can determine whether corrective action is appropriate • Earned Value Management (next chapter)09/15/12 41
  • 42. Tools & Techniques 1. Variance Analysis: determine the cause and degree of variance relative to the schedule baseline and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required. 1. Project Management Software: create and manage schedule baseline, track planned dates versus actual dates, forecast the effects of schedule changes, manage scheduling changes. 1. Resource Leveling: used to optimize the distribution of work among resources….how to adaptability09/15/12 42
  • 43. Tools & Techniques5. What-If Scenario Analysis: Is performed to evaluate various possiblescenarios that could bring the schedule back into alignment with the projectmanagement plan. The most common technique is the Monte Carlo analysis6. Adjusting Leads and Lags: Helps the project team identify ways to bringproject activities that are behind schedule back into alignment with the projectmanagement plan7. Schedule Compression: is used to find ways to bring project activities thatare behind schedule back into alignment with the project management plan.Techniques for schedule compression: – Fast tracking: do critical path activities in parallel => rework, increase risk, require more attention to communication – Crashing: cost & schedule tradeoffs are analyzed. Ex: Approving overtime, bringing in additional resources, or paying to expedite delivery to activities on the critical path) => increase cost8. Scheduling Tool: is used to perform a schedule network analysis in order togenerate the updated project schedule. 09/15/12 43
  • 44. Outputs 1. Work Performance Measurements: measure whether they are ahead or behind schedule 2. Organizational Process Assets: As the result of the variance analysis and causal analysis of problems, the project team has learned a few lessons. Lessons learned updates can be valuable to the rest of the organization in the future 3. Change Requests: Schedule variance analysis, along with review of progress reports, results of performance measures, and modifications to the project schedule can result in change requests to the schedule baseline and/or to other components of the project management plan. 4. Project Management Plan Updates: Schedule baseline updates, schedule management plan updates/ 5. Project Document Updates: Project schedule updates, schedule data updates.09/15/12 44
  • 45. Exercises• Calculate critical path, slack of all activities:09/15/12 45