Project Scope Management


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Project Scope Management

  1. 1. Project Scope Management09/15/12 1
  2. 2. Project Scope Management Process GroupProcess Group Scope Management ProcessInitiatingPlanning Collect Requirements Define Scope Create WBSExecutingMonitoring & Control Verify Scope Control ScopeClosing09/15/12 2
  3. 3. 4.1 Collect Requirements The process of defining and documenting all Stakeholders’ needs to meet the project objectives. This process is critical to project success.Inputs • Project charter • Stakeholder registerTools & • Interviews • Group decision makingTechniques • Focus groups techniques • Facilitated workshops • Questionnaires and • Group creativity techniques surveys • Observations • PrototypesOutputs • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability • Requirements management plan matrix09/15/12 3
  4. 4. Inputs1. Project Charter: contains information as Project Sponsor, Project Manager, and the high-level project/ business needs and product requirements1. Stakeholder Register: is used to identify Stakeholders ( individuals & organizations ) that can provide information on detailed project and product requirements.09/15/12 4
  5. 5. Tools & Techniques1. Interview: Project manager/ team sits down with stakeholders one-on-one to get them to explain exactly what they need so that you can be sure your project can meet its goals. Might involve multiple interviewers/interviewees1. Focus Group:– Prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts.– A facilitator to guide the conversation. Interactive discussions.1. Facilitated Workshops:- Bring key - cross functional stakeholders. Reconciling differences.- Build trust, improve communication, increase stakeholder consensus.09/15/12 5
  6. 6. Tools & Techniques1. Group Creativity Techniques– Brainstorming. A technique used to generate and collect multiple ideas related to project and product requirements– Nominal Group Technique. Allows a group to convert a long list of ideas into smaller list of ideas with the greatest potential– Mind Map. A way to visualize ideas that relate to each other to reflect commonality and differences in understanding, and generate new ideas– Delphi Technique. A way of letting everyone in the group give their thoughts about what should be in the product while keeping them anonymous– Affinity Diagram: Sort large numbers of ideas into groups for review/analysis1. Group Decision-Making techniques– Unanimity. Everyone must agree on the solution– Majority. More than half of the group must agree on the solution– Plurality. The idea that gets the most votes wins– Dictatorship. 09/15/12 6
  7. 7. Tools & Techniques1. Questionnaires and Surveys: Use a questionnaire and/or survey to get requirements from a bigger group of users, customers, or stakeholders Appropriate with broad audiences and statistical analysis1. Observations: Observes an end user performing the tasks to be analyzed in the end user’s own environment Stakeholders have difficulties or reluctant to tell their requirements1. Prototypes: Are models of the product that you’re going to build that let your stakeholders get a better idea to elicit requirements more effectively.09/15/12 7
  8. 8. Outputs1. Requirements Documentation– Describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Can contain various type of information, help make sure the requirements are clear and unambiguous. “ How the work we do will acceptably meet requirement ? “1. Requirements Management Plan– Define the activities for gathering, documenting, prioritizing, measuring, tracing, and managing the scope of requirements throughout the project1. Requirements Traceability Matrix– Shows the relationship between requirements and business objectives– A requirement that does not map back to an objective is deemed as out of scope and must be removed from the list of requirements09/15/12 8
  9. 9. 4.2 Define Scope The process of developing a detailed description of the project & product. The preparation of a detailed project scope statement is critical to project success and build upon the major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints that are documented during project initiation.Inputs • Project charter • Organizational process assets • Requirements documentationTools & • Expert judgment • Alternatives identificationTechniques • Product analysis • Facilitated workshopsOutputs • Project scope statement • Project documentation updates09/15/12 9
  10. 10. Inputs 1. Project charter 1. Requirements Documentation Output from Collect Requirements 1. Organizational Process Assets Templates and standards from similar projects will help to definethe deliverables save work, and improve thoroughness and accuracy09/15/12 10
  11. 11. Tools & techniques 1. Expert Judgment – Bring in an expert to help you figure out what work needs to be done to achieve project objectives 1. Product analysis – Translate high-level product description into tangible deliverables – Includes product breakdown, system analysis, system engineering, value engineering, functional analysis… 1. Alternatives identification – Exploring different product concepts, design options, and project approach can help to find the combination that delivers the maximum fulfillment of project requirements 1. Facilitated workshops – Help to define cross- functional requirements and allow for relationship building and improved communication among stakeholders09/15/12 11
  12. 12. Outputs 1. Project Scope Statement – Describes the project’s deliverables and the work needed to create those deliverables – Components of the Project Scope Statement • Project objectives • Product scope description • Product acceptance criteria • Project deliverables • Project boundaries • Project assumptions (Examples of assumptions include, but are not limited to, existing conditions, availability of information, and length of the reporting periods.) • Project constraints ( Available skilled resources, Contract terms, & Requirement ) 1. Project Document Updates – Any change with project requirements documentation need to be noted and tracked back to the project objectives via the requirements traceability matrix09/15/12 12
  13. 13. 4.3 Create WBS The process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components. The planned work is contained within the lowest level WBS components, which are called Work Packages. A Work Package can be scheduled, cost estimated, monitored and controlled.Inputs • Project scope statement • Organizational process assets • Requirements documentationTools & • DecompositionTechniquesOutputs • WBS • Scope baseline • WBS dictionary • Project document updates09/15/12 13
  14. 14. Inputs 1. Project Scope Statement Output from Define Scope 1. Requirements Documentation Output from Collect Requirements 1. Organizational Process Assets WBS templates and WBS from similar projects can be used tomore rapidly assemble the project’s WBS09/15/12 14
  15. 15. Tools & Techniques 1. Decomposition: WBS Control Accounts Work packages Activities WBS dictionary09/15/12 15
  16. 16. Tools & Techniques1. Decomposition:– Is the subdivision of project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components until the work and deliverables are defined to the work package level.– The work package is the lowest level in the WBS and is the point at which the cost and activity durations for the work can be reliable estimated and managed.– The level of detail for work packages will vary with the size and complexity of the project.  Rolling Wave Planning: Decomposition of some deliverables can be waited until uncertainty is clarified.  Team Buy-In (make team speaking the same language): is the most valuable result of creating a WBS 09/15/12 16
  17. 17. Outputs1. WBS: “Specifies What will be done, not How or When “2. WBS Dictionary: provides a description of the work to be done for each WBS work package and contains: A number identifier, Related control account (for cost), A statement of the work to be done, Who is responsible for doing the work, Any schedule milestones.09/15/12 17 17
  18. 18. Outputs 1. Scope Baseline – A component of the project management plan. It includes: » Project scope statement » WBS » WBS dictionary 1. Project Document updates – The creation of the WBS may result in necessary revisions to certain project documents – Anytime you make a change, you need to get it approved, and then update the baseline09/15/12 18
  19. 19. 4.4 Verify Scope The process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables. Verifying scope includes reviewing deliverables with the customer or sponsor to ensure that they are completed satisfactorily and obtaining formal acceptance of deliverable by the customer or sponsor. ==== > Check for AcceptanceInputs • Project management plan • Requirements traceability matrix • Requirements documentation • Validated deliverablesTools & • InspectionTechniquesOutputs • Accepted deliverables • Project document updates • Change requests09/15/12 19
  20. 20. Inputs 1. Project Management Plan – The Scope baseline in the Project management plan is needed to Verify Scope 1. Requirements documentation ( output of Collect Requirement ) – Includes all of the requirements and their associated acceptance criteria for the project 1. Requirements Traceability Matrix ( output of Collect Requirement ) – Shows the relationship of the requirements to the project deliverables 1. Validated Deliverables ( output of Perform Quality Control ) – Validated deliverables have been reviewed for correctness in the Perform Quality Control and are accepted by the stakeholders in Verify Scope ==== Accepted deliverable for acceptance fr. Verify Scope09/15/12 20
  21. 21. Tools & Techniques 1. Inspection – Is a technique, includes activities such as measuring, examining, and verifying to determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product acceptance criteria. – Inspection techniques: sometimes called review, product review, testing, measurement, desk-check, audit, and walkthrough • Walkthrough – The producer describes product and asks for comments from the participants. – Comments generally serve to inform participants about product rather than correct it. • Desk-check – Carefully examine the product. – Participants use a checklist to review the product one portion at a time. – Issues and defects are recorded, and a product disposition is determined09/15/12 21
  22. 22. Outputs 1. Accepted Deliverables: == input to Close Project – If the work done right, the stakeholders will formally accept the deliverables – Deliverables that are not accepted must be documented with the reasons. It is a useful component of the lesson learned and audit trail of the project 1. Change Requests – When two or more requirements are in conflict, or when a requirement was incorrectly specified, change requests are required and processed using a Perform Integrated Change Control 1. Project Document Update – Verify Scope can result in necessary updates to requirements documents, quality documents, and scope statements09/15/12 22
  23. 23. 4.5 Control Scope The process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baselineInputs • Project management plan • Requirements traceability • Work performance information matrix • Requirements information • Organizational process assetsTools & • Variance analysisTechniquesOutputs • Work performance • Change request measurements • Project management plan • Organizational process assets updates • updates • Project document updates09/15/12 23
  24. 24. Scope Creep  Refers to the change in a projects scope after the project work has started. Typically, the scope expands by the addition of new features to an already approved feature list. As a result, the project drifts away from its original purpose, timeline, and budget.  This change in scope often comes about from small, seemingly insignificant change requests that the project team accepts to keep the project sponsor happy  Causes of Scope Creep:- Poorly detailed Project Scope Statement in the Project Initiation Document- Poor Project Management Requirements have been delivered- Poor control of the Project by the Project Manager- Indecisive Project Stakeholders- Too many Project Stakeholders who have differing priorities and objectives 09/15/12 24
  25. 25. Inputs 1. Project Management Plan – Scope management plan/ Scope baseline ( Project scope statement, WBS, WBS dictionary. ) 1. Work Performance Information ( output of Direct & Manage Project Execution, includes Deliverable status, Schedule progress and Cost incurred) – Information about project progress, such as which deliverables have started, their progress and which deliverables have finished. 1. Requirement Documentations ( output of Collect Requirement ) – Includes any documents describing requirements and how they meet business needs 1. Requirements Traceability Matrix ( output of Collect Requirement ) – Show the relationship of the requirements to the business and project objectives 1. Organizational Process Assets – Policies related to controlling scope and methods of monitoring and reporting09/15/12 25
  26. 26. Tools & Techniques 1. Variance Analysis – Variance from the approved scope baseline are accessed – Performance measurements are used to access the level of variation – Performance measurements are typically part of progress report – The variance report identifies the deviations from the approved scope baseline09/15/12 26
  27. 27. Outputs 1. Work Performance Measurements ( difference from Work Performance Information output from Direct & Manage Project Execution ) – Show planned versus actual performance or other scope performance measurements 1. Organizational Process Assets Updates – Description of the variance causes – Corrective actions chosen and rational – Lessons learned3. Change Request – Variances from the approved scope baseline may generate change requests 1. Project Management Plan Updates – Scope baseline updates – Other baseline updates5. Project Document Updates – Requirements documents 09/15/12 27
  28. 28. Exercises• Requirement Document Form• Requirement Traceability Matrix Form09/15/12 28