Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Bones
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Bones

2,211

Published on

Types of bones and bone cycle

Types of bones and bone cycle

0 Comments
8 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,211
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
8
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 6: Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure
  • 2. The Skeletal System
    • Skeletal system includes:
      • bones of the skeleton
      • cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues
  • 3. Functions of the Skeletal System
    • Support
    • Storage of minerals (calcium)
    • Storage of lipids ( yellow marrow )
    • Blood cell production ( red marrow )
    • Protection
    • Leverage (force of motion)
  • 4. Bone Shapes
    • Long bones
    • Flat bones
    • Sutural bones
    • Irregular bones
    • Short bones
    • Sesamoid bones
  • 5. Long Bones
    • Are long and thin
    • Are found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes
    Figure 6–1a
  • 6. Flat Bones
    • Are thin with parallel surfaces
    • Are found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapula
  • 7. Sutural Bones
    • Are small, irregular bones
    • Are found between the flat bones of the skull
  • 8. Irregular Bones
    • Have complex shapes
    • Examples:
      • spinal vertebrae
      • pelvic bones
  • 9. Short Bones
    • Are small and thick
    • Examples:
      • ankle
      • wrist bones
  • 10. Sesamoid Bones
    • Are small and flat
    • Develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, and feet
  • 11. Bone Markings
    • Depressions or grooves:
      • along bone surface
    • Projections:
      • where tendons and ligaments attach
      • at articulations with other bones
    • Tunnels:
      • where blood and nerves enter bone
  • 12. Bone Markings Table 6–1 (1 of 2)
  • 13. Bone Markings Table 6–1 (2 of 2)
  • 14. Characteristics of Bone Tissue
    • Periosteum:
      • covers outer surfaces of bones
      • consist of outer fibrous and inner cellular layers
    • Dense matrix, containing:
      • deposits of calcium salts
      • bone cells within lacunae organized around blood vessels
    • Canaliculi:
      • form pathways for blood vessels
      • exchange nutrients and wastes
  • 15. Long Bones
    • Diaphysis:
      • the shaft
    • Epiphysis:
      • wide part at each end
      • articulation with other bones
    • Metaphysis:
      • where diaphysis and epiphysis meet
  • 16. Flat Bones
    • Resembles a sandwich of spongy bone
    • Between 2 layers of compact bone
  • 17. Compact Bone Figure 6–5 The osteon is The basic unit of mature compact bone Osteocytes are arranged in concentric lamellae Around a central canal (Haversian canal) containing blood vessels
  • 18. Spongy Bone
    • Does not have osteons
    • The matrix forms an open network of trabeculae
    • Trabeculae have no blood vessels
    Figure 6–6
  • 19. Red Marrow
    • The space between trabeculae is filled with red bone marrow :
      • which has blood vessels
      • forms red blood cells
      • and supplies nutrients to osteocytes
  • 20. Yellow Marrow
    • In some bones, spongy bone holds yellow bone marrow:
      • is yellow because it stores fat
  • 21. Bone Cells
    • Make up only 2% of bone mass:
      • osteocytes
      • osteoblasts
      • osteoprogenitor cells
      • osteoclasts
  • 22. Osteoblasts
    • Immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds (Make new bone)
    Figure 6–3 (2 of 4)
  • 23. Osteocytes
    • Mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix
    • Are between layers (lamellae) of matrix
    • Connect by canaliculi in lamellae
    • Do not divide
    Figure 6–3 (1 of 4)
  • 24. Osteocyte Functions
    • To maintain protein and mineral content of matrix
    • To help repair damaged bone by turning into osteoblasts.
  • 25. Osteoprogenitor Cells
    • Stem cells that divide to produce osteoblasts
    • Are located in inner, cellular layer of periosteum (endosteum)
    Figure 6–3 (3 of 4)
  • 26. Osteoclasts
    • Secrete acids and protein-digesting enzymes to dissolve old bone matrix in a process called osteolysis
    Figure 6–3 (4 of 4)
  • 27. Homeostasis
    • Bone building (by osteoblasts) and bone recycling (by osteoclasts) must balance:
      • more breakdown than building, bones become weak
      • exercise causes osteoblasts to build more bone
      • Lack of exercise causes bone loss

×