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Bones
 

Bones

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Types of bones and bone cycle

Types of bones and bone cycle

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    Bones Bones Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 6: Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure
    • The Skeletal System
      • Skeletal system includes:
        • bones of the skeleton
        • cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues
    • Functions of the Skeletal System
      • Support
      • Storage of minerals (calcium)
      • Storage of lipids ( yellow marrow )
      • Blood cell production ( red marrow )
      • Protection
      • Leverage (force of motion)
    • Bone Shapes
      • Long bones
      • Flat bones
      • Sutural bones
      • Irregular bones
      • Short bones
      • Sesamoid bones
    • Long Bones
      • Are long and thin
      • Are found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes
      Figure 6–1a
    • Flat Bones
      • Are thin with parallel surfaces
      • Are found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapula
    • Sutural Bones
      • Are small, irregular bones
      • Are found between the flat bones of the skull
    • Irregular Bones
      • Have complex shapes
      • Examples:
        • spinal vertebrae
        • pelvic bones
    • Short Bones
      • Are small and thick
      • Examples:
        • ankle
        • wrist bones
    • Sesamoid Bones
      • Are small and flat
      • Develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, and feet
    • Bone Markings
      • Depressions or grooves:
        • along bone surface
      • Projections:
        • where tendons and ligaments attach
        • at articulations with other bones
      • Tunnels:
        • where blood and nerves enter bone
    • Bone Markings Table 6–1 (1 of 2)
    • Bone Markings Table 6–1 (2 of 2)
    • Characteristics of Bone Tissue
      • Periosteum:
        • covers outer surfaces of bones
        • consist of outer fibrous and inner cellular layers
      • Dense matrix, containing:
        • deposits of calcium salts
        • bone cells within lacunae organized around blood vessels
      • Canaliculi:
        • form pathways for blood vessels
        • exchange nutrients and wastes
    • Long Bones
      • Diaphysis:
        • the shaft
      • Epiphysis:
        • wide part at each end
        • articulation with other bones
      • Metaphysis:
        • where diaphysis and epiphysis meet
    • Flat Bones
      • Resembles a sandwich of spongy bone
      • Between 2 layers of compact bone
    • Compact Bone Figure 6–5 The osteon is The basic unit of mature compact bone Osteocytes are arranged in concentric lamellae Around a central canal (Haversian canal) containing blood vessels
    • Spongy Bone
      • Does not have osteons
      • The matrix forms an open network of trabeculae
      • Trabeculae have no blood vessels
      Figure 6–6
    • Red Marrow
      • The space between trabeculae is filled with red bone marrow :
        • which has blood vessels
        • forms red blood cells
        • and supplies nutrients to osteocytes
    • Yellow Marrow
      • In some bones, spongy bone holds yellow bone marrow:
        • is yellow because it stores fat
    • Bone Cells
      • Make up only 2% of bone mass:
        • osteocytes
        • osteoblasts
        • osteoprogenitor cells
        • osteoclasts
    • Osteoblasts
      • Immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds (Make new bone)
      Figure 6–3 (2 of 4)
    • Osteocytes
      • Mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix
      • Are between layers (lamellae) of matrix
      • Connect by canaliculi in lamellae
      • Do not divide
      Figure 6–3 (1 of 4)
    • Osteocyte Functions
      • To maintain protein and mineral content of matrix
      • To help repair damaged bone by turning into osteoblasts.
    • Osteoprogenitor Cells
      • Stem cells that divide to produce osteoblasts
      • Are located in inner, cellular layer of periosteum (endosteum)
      Figure 6–3 (3 of 4)
    • Osteoclasts
      • Secrete acids and protein-digesting enzymes to dissolve old bone matrix in a process called osteolysis
      Figure 6–3 (4 of 4)
    • Homeostasis
      • Bone building (by osteoblasts) and bone recycling (by osteoclasts) must balance:
        • more breakdown than building, bones become weak
        • exercise causes osteoblasts to build more bone
        • Lack of exercise causes bone loss