Permit Backyard Urban                    Agriculture in Long Beach                                                        ...
Agriculture,including livestock farming,was the foundation of Long Beach’s    history and early economy.
Food SecurityAffordable, nutritious, and culturally appropriate*         food for all people at all times (As defined by th...
Community Food SecurityThe Community Food Security Coalition (www.foodsecurity.org) statesthat, “at a basic level, CFS is ...
Food Security=Health Security    =Energy Security       =National Security     USDA, Nat’l War Garden Commission, Food Adm...
Current rural/urban divide threatens food security  1910, LA county was the most productive  agricultural county in the co...
City Folk                                    misunderstand                                         chickensURBAN CHICKENS,...
City Folk                                    misunderstand                                            goatsURBAN GOATS, AN...
City Folk                                  misunderstand                                          goatsMYTH: Goat milk doe...
City Folk                                     misunderstand                                          chickensCHICKENS and ...
City Folk                                      misunderstand                                    chickens & goatsCHICKENS, ...
City Folk                                    misunderstand                                         chickensCHICKEN-POWERED...
City Folk                                   misunderstand                                           goatsGOAT-POWERED EDUC...
The New City Schools Farm is on a quarter-acre lot inthe heart of the city at 15th & LB Blvd. This appears tobe part of th...
City Folk                                     misunderstand                                          chickensCHICKEN-POWER...
Goat-powered economy      San Francisco     CityGrazing.com
City Folk                                     misunderstand                                             goatsMYTH: They ar...
City Folk                                     misunderstand                                             goatsMYTH: Goats w...
City Folk                                    misunderstand                                            goatsMYTH: They are ...
City Folk                                misunderstandMYTH: Chickens make too much noise.                                 ...
City Folk                                     misunderstand                                             goatsMYTH: Goats m...
City Folk                                   misunderstand                                        chickensMYTH: Maybe a hen...
The Problem         The Solution                                          City Folk                                     mi...
City Folk                                 misunderstand                                         goatsMYTH: Goats stink.TRU...
City Folk                                 misunderstand                                      chickensMYTH: Chickens are me...
City Folk                                misunderstand                                     chickensMYTH: Chickens are mess...
City Folk                                   misunderstand                                           goatsMYTH: Goats are m...
City Folk                                     misunderstand                                             goatsMYTH: All tha...
City Folk                                     misunderstand                                          chickensMYTH: Chicken...
City Folk                                    misunderstand                                         chickensMYTH: Chickens ...
City Folk                                    misunderstand                                         chickensTRUTH: “Highly ...
City Folk                                    misunderstand                                         chickensMYTH: Chickens ...
City Folk                                     misunderstand                                          chickensRe: CHICKENS,...
City Folk                                    misunderstand                                         chickensAs of June 2010...
CA plague                                         City Folk                                    misunderstand              ...
City Folk                                    misunderstand                                            goats               ...
City Folk                                   misunderstand                                        chickensCHICKENS and PROP...
City Folk                                    misunderstand                                            goatsGOATS and PROPE...
Commercial birds                        City Folk                   misunderstand                        chickens  Loved b...
Commercial dairy                          City Folk                     misunderstand                             goats Lo...
“Chickens suffer from a PR problem.People think they are dirty, noisy &smelly. The truth, a few cared forhens are cleaner ...
“Goats suffer from a PR problem too.People think they are dirty, noisy &   Long Beachsmelly. The truth, a few cared for   ...
San FranciscoGOATS. SF allows 2 female GOATS per city lot; no permitis needed, no specific regulations, no lot size restric...
Healthy & Sustainable    Food for San FranciscoMayor Gavin Newsom, July 9, 2009Issued an Executive Directive mandating a c...
City Folk                                   misunderstand                                      chickens &                 ...
SeattleIn September of 2007, Seattle legalized thekeeping of miniature goats by UNANIMOUS voteof Seattle’s city council.ww...
Phyllis Shulman                Legislative Assistant to       Seattle Council President Richard Conlin                    ...
SeattleGOATS. Seattle allows up to 3 small animals outright, dwarfgoats included, on all lots in all zones. Additional ani...
Portland, ORGOATS. Over 50 goat owners in Portland. Allowed three orfewer; no space restrictions apply13.05.015 “A person ...
New York CityArticle 161. Animals. “In addition to domesticated dogs and cats, ananimal may be kept, possessed, harbored o...
New York CityGOATS. ?FOWL. Chickens are considered pets under the health Code. Unlimited# of hens allowed; no roosters. Mu...
ChicagoGOATS. Yes. There is no specific prohibition, but slaughtering,nuisance, sanitation, and humane treatment and housin...
Long Beach chicken laws LB code permits 20 non-crowing fowl, but the setback restrictions essentially take this right away...
Long Beach goat lawsLB code bans owning goats south of AnaheimSt. and east of the LA River flood controlchannel.Goat owners...
Long Beach                                      wants changeHere is a sample of what people are saying in support of Urban...
Long Beach                                      wants changeHere is what I have to say and have said.“It seems that drug d...
Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.16.010 re “Livestock Running At Large-Distan...
Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.20.130 re “Goats–Location” sets a boundary r...
Long Beach code hinders urban agricultureSo what is the history behind the Anaheim boundary?☹ Was it to discourage “non-wh...
Long Beach code hinders urban agriculture Per a 1958 report, most of LB’s ethnic minorities lived in the part of town nort...
Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.20.140 re “Goats–Number” limits one’s posses...
Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.20.150 re “Goats–Distance from Dwelling” lik...
Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.16.080 re “Breeding Prohibited” places a res...
Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.20.160 re “Rabbits or Goats – Enclosure Sani...
Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.20.030 re “Fowl–Distance from Dwelling” plac...
Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.20.070 re “Fowl–Enclosure Sanitation” mandat...
MiniGoat Briefing Paper prepared byPhyllis Shulman, Conlan’s office, Seattle                                       1/5
MiniGoat Briefing Paper prepared byPhyllis Shulman, Conlan’s office, Seattle                                       2/5
MiniGoat Briefing Paper prepared byPhyllis Shulman, Conlan’s office, Seattle                                       3/5
MiniGoat Briefing Paper prepared byPhyllis Shulman, Conlan’s office, Seattle                                       4/5
MiniGoat Briefing Paper prepared byPhyllis Shulman, Conlan’s office, Seattle                                       5/5
Public Health Analysis, Seattle                                  1/14
Public Health Analysis, Seattle                                  2/14
Public Health Analysis, Seattle                                  3/14
Public Health Analysis, Seattle                                  4/14
Public Health Analysis, Seattle                                  5/14
Public Health Analysis, Seattle                                  6/14
Public Health Analysis, Seattle                                  7/14
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Public Health Analysis, Seattle                                  10/14
Public Health Analysis, Seattle                                  11/14
Public Health Analysis, Seattle                                  12/14
Public Health Analysis, Seattle                                  13/14
Public Health Analysis, Seattle                                  14/14
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      1/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      2/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      3/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      4/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      5/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      6/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      7/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      8/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      9/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      10/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      11/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      12/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      13/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      14/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      15/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      16/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      17/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      18/19
Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version                                      19/19
DONNA MARYKWAS                          donna@longbeachgrows.orgFounder & Director,      Ph.D., Biochemistry,Long Beach Gr...
Presentation to Long Beach, CA Sustainable City Commission December 1, 2010
Presentation to Long Beach, CA Sustainable City Commission December 1, 2010
Presentation to Long Beach, CA Sustainable City Commission December 1, 2010
Presentation to Long Beach, CA Sustainable City Commission December 1, 2010
Presentation to Long Beach, CA Sustainable City Commission December 1, 2010
Presentation to Long Beach, CA Sustainable City Commission December 1, 2010
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Presentation to Long Beach, CA Sustainable City Commission December 1, 2010

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The director of Long Beach Grows (Long Beach, California) submitted this report to the city's Sustainable City Commission, entered into the record, that describes the advantages of, current challenges to, and misconceptions about urban agriculture. We are one step closer to food security through urban agriculture. Read the full story here: http://exm.nr/hSZcMf

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  • Thanks Alex Chen. Please consider friending Long Beach Grows on Facebook and indicating that you wish to be on our mailing list, if you wish. Best wishes, Donna
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  • I applaud you on your efforts on helping us change our city rules. My adjacent neighbors, who already receive home grown vegetables from me, also believe in the urgent need for change in LB urban policies.
    Thank you,
    Alex Chen
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  • Dear Friends at the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy,
    This presentation has only recently been made to the City of Long Beach Sustainable City Commission. The Commission recommended that the issue be forwarded to one of the City Council's committees. My fight for food justice and food security through urban agriculture has only just begun. I am learning a lot about city politics through this process and am hoping to change the city’s policy/municipal code in favor of urban agriculture, including small scale animal husbandry. This is just a small portion of my activities as the founder and executive director of LONG BEACH GROWS.
    Donna Marykwas
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Presentation to Long Beach, CA Sustainable City Commission December 1, 2010

  1. 1. Permit Backyard Urban Agriculture in Long Beach Why bother? - a short list To eat the freshest, most nutritious, affordable organic food as local as possible. To ensure your own food security and independence. To provide safe wholesome education and entertainment for your family. Why get chickens? - for fresh nutritious home-grown eggs from healthy happy hens, instead of from dirty crowded battery hens. Why get goats? - for a ready supply of fresh organic goat milk from healthy happy goats instead of from dirty crowded battery cows, and for goat milk yogurt, goat milk kefir, goat cheese, etc. (with just a little more effort). Weed abatement. Chicken- and goat-powered composting. Ready-made organic fertilizer. Novella Carpenter & NigerianCommercial Birds MY BIRDS San Francisco is doing it! Dwarf lap goat at her Oakland, CA Ghost Town Farm Seattle is doing it! SF Mayor mandated a census of ALL possible arable space including backyards & rooftops. SF allows 2 female goats per city lot, with no lot size restrictions or setbacks. For more information Seattle allows up to 3 small animals outright, dwarf goats included, on all lots in all zones. Seattle allows up to 3 fowl outright, on all lots in all zones. Donna Marykwas Seattle allows up to 3 potbelly pigs (up to 150 lbs. each) on all lots in all zones. donna@longbeachgrows.org SF is more densely populated than LB, but is embracing backyard urban agriculture: SF’s population was 808,976 in 2008 on 46.7 square miles of land www.longbeachgrows.org area (17,322/sq.mi.); Seattle’s population was 598,541 in 2008 on 83.87 square Grown by Carol Morison, the miles of land area (7136/sq.mi.); LB’s population was 492,682 in 2008 on 50 www.foodsecurity.orgonly commercial grower willing square miles of land (9854/sq.mi.) (Wikipedia). to have her birds filmed for Food Inc. Isn’t Long Beach as progressive, inclusive & diverse as San Francisco & Seattle? Long Beach chicken laws Long Beach goat lawsLB code permits 20 non-crowing fowl, but the setback restrictions essentially LB code bans owning goats south of Anaheim St. and east of the LA Rivertake this right away. In reality, code enforcers say that only one bird is allowed, flood control channel. Goat owners in other parts of LB can keep only 1still with restrictions! lonely goat, but the setback restrictions make this unlikely. But the code Will one egg a day feed a family? provides provisions for permitting dangerous animals, including lions, tigers, & bears, oh my!
  2. 2. Agriculture,including livestock farming,was the foundation of Long Beach’s history and early economy.
  3. 3. Food SecurityAffordable, nutritious, and culturally appropriate* food for all people at all times (As defined by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture)* As determined by the individual, not by thegovernment or by others.
  4. 4. Community Food SecurityThe Community Food Security Coalition (www.foodsecurity.org) statesthat, “at a basic level, CFS is about making healthy food accessible toall, including low-income people. It’s about making nutritious &culturally appropriate food accessible, not just any food. It is aboutpromoting social justice & more equitable access to resources, &building & revitalizing local communities & economies. It’s aboutsupporting local, regional, family-scale, & sustainable farmers &businesses. It’s about empowering diverse people to work together tocreate positive changes in the food system & their communities... andmuch more.”
  5. 5. Food Security=Health Security =Energy Security =National Security USDA, Nat’l War Garden Commission, Food Administration
  6. 6. Current rural/urban divide threatens food security 1910, LA county was the most productive agricultural county in the country. 1955 was the last time LA county could feed itself. Now, most people living in “the city” are disconnected from the source of their nourishment.
  7. 7. City Folk misunderstand chickensURBAN CHICKENS, ANIMAL WELFARE & SUSTAINABLE LOCAL FOODSECURITY. Most commercial-grown chickens are raised in dirty crowdedconditions that can foster disease. Even if you personally don’t eat eggsor other animal products, by supporting small-scale backyard poultrygrowers you help minimize the other type of animal husbandry.Homegrown chickens are grown with love & respect & the eggs &manure that they provide are free of hormones, antibiotics & otherdrugs & chemicals. Their shells are stronger & since the birdsexperience natural sunlight & are allowed to scratch for their naturaldiet, the eggs are nutritionally superior.
  8. 8. City Folk misunderstand goatsURBAN GOATS, ANIMAL WELFARE & SUSTAINABLE LOCAL FOODSECURITY. Most milk consumed in the US is from CAFO cows raised indirty crowded conditions that can foster disease. Even if you personallydon’t drink milk or consume other animal products, by supporting small-scale backyard goat enthusiasts you help minimize the other type ofanimal husbandry. Whether or not the goats are raised for their milk,they will be treated with the same love & respect bestowed upon “man’sbest friend.” Throughout the world, there are more people & morecultures who drink goat milk than there are who drink cow milk. Goatmilk is more nutritious and less allergenic than cow milk. Once a doe isin milk, she can remain in milk long after her babies are weaned, so twoor three Nigerian Dwarf does can provide a family with milk year round.
  9. 9. City Folk misunderstand goatsMYTH: Goat milk doesn’t taste good.TRUTH: Fresh goat milk tastes similar to cow milk, unless the doehas access to a stinky buck.SOLUTION: Male goats kept as pets should be neutered. Bringdoes “to the country” for buck service when re-breeding isnecessary to keep them in milk.
  10. 10. City Folk misunderstand chickensCHICKENS and SUSTAINABILITY. Re: COMPOST. Chickens can be put towork, to weed, de-grub & condition the earth prior to planting & tofacilitate your composting efforts. They will eat and thus compost yourfruit & veggie kitchen scraps, they will keep what’s left of the compostpile churned, shred & well-aerated, they will eat the unwanted grubs,maggots & rollie pollies. All this keeps the birds well fed for a fractionof the cost of keeping them locked up in a coop with only commercialchicken food to eat.
  11. 11. City Folk misunderstand chickens & goatsCHICKENS, GOATS and SUSTAINABILITY. Re: FERTILIZER. Chickenmanure, chicken litter and goat manure provide an excellent source offertilizer & added organic material that can be applied directly to thevegetable garden or landscape plantings. (Chicken manure benefits fromcomposting to reduce plant burn.) By contrast, dog & cat waste shouldnot be used as fertilizer due to the intestinal parasites that might bepresent & passed on to us if not properly & thoroughly composted.
  12. 12. City Folk misunderstand chickensCHICKEN-POWERED EDUCATION. Chickens make great pets for peoplewho are allergic to dogs, cats & other more common domestic animals.Yes, chickens ARE domestic animals, having been domesticated for over12,000 years. Raising chickens provides numerous opportunities forwholesome entertainment & education of our children (& adults),including opportunities to learn about animal behavior, animaldevelopment, animal husbandry, organic food production, foodeconomics, food security, recycling, environmental stewardship, global &personal sustainability & more.
  13. 13. City Folk misunderstand goatsGOAT-POWERED EDUCATION. Goats make great pets for people whoare allergic to dogs, cats & other more common domestic animals. Yes,goats ARE domestic animals, having been domesticated for over 10,000years. Raising goats provides numerous opportunities for wholesomeentertainment & education of our children (& adults), includingopportunities to learn about animal behavior, animal development,animal husbandry, organic food production, food economics, foodsecurity, recycling, environmental stewardship, global & personalsustainability & more.
  14. 14. The New City Schools Farm is on a quarter-acre lot inthe heart of the city at 15th & LB Blvd. This appears tobe part of the same location where the former LBOstrich Farm was located circa 1907-1910.
  15. 15. City Folk misunderstand chickensCHICKEN-POWERED ECONOMY. A benefit of facilitating residents tokeep chickens in the city (rather than discouraging them with intolerantmunicipal code) is the additional potential revenue for local stores thatsell hardware, lumber, garden & pet supplies & services. In addition, achicken-friendly Long Beach might attract tourism, as has been thecase in other cities. One example is Raleigh, N.C. which holds an annualtour of urban chickens and their coops.
  16. 16. Goat-powered economy San Francisco CityGrazing.com
  17. 17. City Folk misunderstand goatsMYTH: They are farm animals so need more space than a typical urbanhome can provide.TRUTH: They don’t need any more space than other domesticatedanimals, such as dogs.SOLUTION: Goat owners realize that part of their yard will be setaside and devoted to the goats. But we don’t mandate that people havea certain amount of yard space for their 4 great danes. So we shouldn’tmandate space requirements for the same # of goats.
  18. 18. City Folk misunderstand goatsMYTH: Goats will be a threat to public safety.TRUTH: John Kiesler of Animal Control recently said that there wereover 500 dog bites in Long Beach last year. How many goat bites werethere? Have you ever heard of a goat that killed someone? How about apit bull?
  19. 19. City Folk misunderstand goatsMYTH: They are mean and ill-tempered.TRUTH: They have a bad rap. They are the victims of urban prejudice.Many cultures equate the goat with the horny devil. Truth is they aregentle and affectionate. But they are goats. They might butt you if theyare in a playful or stubborn mood.SOLUTION: Use your common sense; don’t turn your back on them. EvenHeidi learned this lesson. Be gentle with them and they will be gentlewith you. Socialize them early and often. If necessary, dehorn to preventaccidental, but certainly not intentional, injury. However note that thegoats at Centennial Farm all still have their horns!
  20. 20. City Folk misunderstandMYTH: Chickens make too much noise. chickensTRUTH: Roosters, not hens, crow throughout the day, sunrise tosunset, more often if trying to 1-up another rooster. Hens are quietmost of the day & all through the night, the only time they makeany significant sound is when they are laying or have laid an egg.As a hen lays at most 1 egg a day, this amount of noise isinsignificant compared to other city noises. When they putthemselves to sleep at night, their soft purring is music to theears.SOLUTION: Don’t keep roosters.
  21. 21. City Folk misunderstand goatsMYTH: Goats make too much noise.TRUTH: Goats are not noisy. They are quieter than chickens. At night, andindeed most of the time, they are essentially silent. It is true that whenyou hear a goat vocalize you can immediately tell that it is a goat andnot a dog or cat, but the fact that you can identify it as a goat shouldnot justify a complaint about the “noise” it makes. Any such complaintsare based on prejudice. Truth is, there are many city sounds that areMUCH louder than a goat.
  22. 22. City Folk misunderstand chickensMYTH: Maybe a hen is quiet but you can’t get eggs w/o a rooster.TRUTH: You can’t get “fertile” eggs w/o a rooster. A hen ovulates(lays an egg) about once a day, w/ or w/o a rooster. It is amazinghow many city folk, including adults, believe otherwise.SOLUTION: It is difficult to sex chickens when they arehatchlings. Even if you order just females, you might end up with arooster, like Little Prince here. After he started crowing too often,we gave him to LBCC. We miss him.
  23. 23. The Problem The Solution City Folk misunderstand chickensMYTH: Chickens will stink up the city.TRUTH: Their feces is no smellier than that of any other pet. The birdsper se don’t smell. Large-scale commercial poultry operations withthousands of birds confined in crowded conditions w/o proper ventilation,poop management, & access to the disinfecting rays of the sun, can stinkdue to ammonia buildup.SOLUTION: Small-scale poultry keeping, including chicken coopsmaintained by chicken enthusiasts homesteading in the city, are thesolution not the problem.
  24. 24. City Folk misunderstand goatsMYTH: Goats stink.TRUTH: Only non-neutered male goats (aka bucks) produce a strongsmell. Neutered male goats (aka wethers) and female goats (akadoes) do not. The in-tact bucks stink because of their nasty habitswhen they are in rut.SOLUTION: Don’t keep bucks.
  25. 25. City Folk misunderstand chickensMYTH: Chickens are messy.TRUTH: No they are not. All animals poop, including the pigeonspooping in this public drinking fountain. We even found humanfeces in our “parkway” once; yuck.SOLUTION: If people can be entrusted to pick up after the 4 dogsthey are allowed to walk through the neighborhood, people shouldbe entrusted to manage their own chickens’ manure.
  26. 26. City Folk misunderstand chickensMYTH: Chickens are messy.TRUTH: No they are not. One report indicates that a typical henproduces 0.0035 cu ft of manure per day, but that an average doggenerates 3/4 lb of manure per day. Check out this slide foranother comparison.
  27. 27. City Folk misunderstand goatsMYTH: Goats are messy.TRUTH: In-tact male goats in rut are messy for reasons other than theirmanure. Females and neutered males are not.SOLUTION: Don’t keep in-tact bucks. Males kept as pets must beneutered.
  28. 28. City Folk misunderstand goatsMYTH: All that goat POOP will cause problems.TRUTH: Goat poop is comprised of small, dry, odorless pellets that aremostly partially digested hay. This is in contrast to dog poop that is big,smelly, messy, attracts flies, often left on public right of ways. Dogmanure contains higher levels of nitrogen than does the manure ofchickens, goats, & others. Truth is many dog & cat owners fail to pick upafter them, so runoff from city sidewalks, parkways, & lawns is a majorsource of nutrient (& microbial) pollution in ground and surface waters.SOLUTION: Require goat walkers to scoop any public poop. At home,compost the goat manure or add it directly to your garden.
  29. 29. City Folk misunderstand chickensMYTH: Chickens attract rodents/predators.TRUTH: Unfortunately, rodents are here to stay in LB; they come for theeasy pickings from trash cans, fruit trees, koi ponds, dog & cat food, wildbird feeders, gardens, etc.SOLUTION: Keep chickens, they will eat rodents. Store chicken feed inanimal proof containers. Spike it with cayenne to detract rodents; chickenscan’t taste the heat. Build the chicken run and coop properly to keep therifraff out & to discourage cozy rodent retreats.
  30. 30. City Folk misunderstand chickensMYTH: Chickens in the city will create a health hazard, e.g avianinfluenza aka bird flu.TRUTH: On the contrary! “The deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu is essentiallya problem of industrial poultry practices...When it comes to bird flu,diverse small-scale poultry farming is the solution, not the problem.”REFERENCE: 2006 GRAIN briefing, “Fowl Play, the poultry industry’scentral role in the bird flu crisis.”
  31. 31. City Folk misunderstand chickensTRUTH: “Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have NEVERbeen detected among wild birds, domestic poultry, or people in the UnitedStates.”REFERENCE: ...from the current CDC website at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/avian-flu-humans.htmThe CDC is the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of the USDepartment of Health & Human Services.
  32. 32. City Folk misunderstand chickensMYTH: Chickens will create a health hazard, cont.TRUTH: Reality is, there are more (& more serious) diseases that can bespread to us from dogs & cats than from chickens. It is important to keepperspective. The CDC website indexes “dogs, infections from” & “cats,infections from” but no “chickens, infections from.” Rabies. Cat ScratchFever. Toxoplasmosis. Ringworm. Giardiasis. Lyme Disease. Rocky MountainSpotted Fever. Flea-Borne Typhus. etc.
  33. 33. City Folk misunderstand chickensRe: CHICKENS, CATS, DOGS & RABIES. In CA, rabies is most often seen inbats, skunks & foxes, but all mammals are susceptible, including domesticcats, dogs & humans. Rabies is a very serious viral infection that can betransmitted to people from the saliva or bite of an infected dog, cat orother animal. If you are bit by an animal with rabies (w/ or w/o overtsymptoms) & you don’t receive post-exposure prophylaxis, you’ve had it.Once symptoms appear, rabies is almost always fatal. Chickens cannot getrabies!
  34. 34. City Folk misunderstand chickensAs of June 2010, Ron Arias, director of Long Beach Health & HumanServices, estimated that 72% of the dogs in LB are not registered sotheir rabies status is unknown. And what about all of those stray cats?Now there is a real public health threat.Chickens cannot get rabies! Rabies is extremely uncommon in goats.
  35. 35. CA plague City Folk misunderstand chickens Re: CHICKENS, CATS, DOGS & VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES. Cats & dogs can bring home ticks and fleas infected with the microbial pathogens responsible for such diseases as Lyme Disease (tick- borne), Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (tick-borne), Typhus (flea- borne), and plague (flea-borne).SOLUTION: Get chickens as part of your “no pesticide” vector controlprogram. They will eat these bugs in your yard.
  36. 36. City Folk misunderstand goats MYTH: Goats will create a public health hazard. TRUTH: All animals can get sick from infectious diseases. Compared to the seriousness of the communicable diseases that dogs, cats and other people can transmit to us, goats are relatively innocuous.SOLUTION: Recommend that goat owners have their animals testedfor the common goat diseases to help prevent goat-to-goattransmission, preferably before they purchase their goats. If a goattests positive for brucellosis, don’t consume its milk raw. LONG BEACHGROWS will hold classes and workshops to educate the public.
  37. 37. City Folk misunderstand chickensCHICKENS and PROPERTY RIGHTS. Chickens are not a blight on theneighborhood. They are silent & inconspicuous except for when they laytheir once daily egg. See the pretty chicken coop in the picture? Thiswould be illegal in Long Beach because the coop is not 50-100 feetaway from the house, even though it is the chicken owner’s own house!Homeowners should have the freedom to do what is right for theirfamilies without such onerous restrictions.
  38. 38. City Folk misunderstand goatsGOATS and PROPERTY RIGHTS. Goats are not a blight on theneighborhood. They are usually silent & inconspicuous. They are nevervicious nor are they descendants of vicious animals like wild dogs andwild cats. This is my yard where my 2 goats used to live. The codecurrently states that they would have to be 50 feet from this fencethat separates our yard from our neighbors. Yet the neighbors’ verynasty german shephard is allowed to growl right up against the fenceon the other side. Mean dog; OK. Docile goats; exiled. Homeownersshould have the freedom to do what is right for their families on theirown property without such onerous restrictions.
  39. 39. Commercial birds City Folk misunderstand chickens Loved birds
  40. 40. Commercial dairy City Folk misunderstand goats Loved dairy goats
  41. 41. “Chickens suffer from a PR problem.People think they are dirty, noisy &smelly. The truth, a few cared forhens are cleaner & quieter than onebig dog or the three neighborhoodcats that poop in the flower bed.Plus you get eggs...”
  42. 42. “Goats suffer from a PR problem too.People think they are dirty, noisy & Long Beachsmelly. The truth, a few cared for GROWSgoats are cleaner & quieter than onebig dog or the three neighborhood LongBeachGrows.Orgcats that poop in the flower bed.Plus you get milk...”
  43. 43. San FranciscoGOATS. SF allows 2 female GOATS per city lot; no permitis needed, no specific regulations, no lot size restrictionsnor setbacks.CHICKENS. 4 total “other small animals” allowed, includingchickens, ducks, geese, turkeys, parrots, rabbits, rats,guinea pigs, cats etc., 20 ft from any door or window ofhuman habitation, residential areaPIGS. ?BEES. ?SF (808,976 people in 2008; 17,322/sq.mi.) vs LB (492,682in 2008; 9854/sq.mi.)
  44. 44. Healthy & Sustainable Food for San FranciscoMayor Gavin Newsom, July 9, 2009Issued an Executive Directive mandating a census of ALL unusedland that can contribute to urban agricultural practices includinggardening and farming.The mandate states ”Food production and horticulture educationwill be encouraged within the City and, to the extent feasible,on City owned land, through urban agriculture includingcommunity, backyard, rooftop, and school gardens; ediblelandscaping, and agricultural incubator projects.”The mandate further states that residents must be allowed “theopportunity to make healthy food choices and reduceenvironmental causes of diet and related illnesses.”
  45. 45. City Folk misunderstand chickens & goatsWhen asked about the future of home farming of small livestock in theBay Area, and whether it’s here to stay, Rebecca Katz, Director ofAnimal Control in San Francisco, said “I see it growing, certainly withvegetable gardens. The Mayor has called for this here in San Francisco& he had the garden at the Civic Center Plaza for quite some time & hehas asked people to do this & it seems it’s a growing trend, it’s not afad. AND AS FAR AS ANIMALS GO THEY ARE GOING TO COME WITHIT. Like I said, people are coming to take chickens out of our care allthe time, they want fresh eggs.”
  46. 46. SeattleIn September of 2007, Seattle legalized thekeeping of miniature goats by UNANIMOUS voteof Seattle’s city council.www.goatjusticeleague.org
  47. 47. Phyllis Shulman Legislative Assistant to Seattle Council President Richard Conlin 206-684-8805 Comparing goats to dogs and cats said“These health issues are way less than cat feces or dog issues, but it is important to keep perspective. That is why I did the briefing paper. For example, cat feces is a major polluter of our urban streams. Dogs attack people and often bark all night.”
  48. 48. SeattleGOATS. Seattle allows up to 3 small animals outright, dwarfgoats included, on all lots in all zones. Additional animalspermitted on larger lot sizes of 20,000 sq.ft. or more.FOWL. Seattle allows up to 8 fowl outright, on all lots in allzones, in addition to the small animals above. Additional fowlpermitted on lots greater than 10,000 sq. ft., one more for eachadditional 1000 sq.ft. Setback of 10 ft from neighboring house.PIGS. Seattle allows 1 potbelly PIG (up to 150 lbs) on all lots inall zones.BEES. 4 hives allowed on all lots less than 10,000 sq.ft., 25 ft.from lot lineSeattle (598,541 people in 2008; 7136/sq.mi.) vs Long Beach(492,682 in 2008; 9854/sq.mi.)
  49. 49. Portland, ORGOATS. Over 50 goat owners in Portland. Allowed three orfewer; no space restrictions apply13.05.015 “A person keeping a total of 3 or fewer chickens,ducks, doves, pigeons, pygmy goats or rabbits shall not berequired to obtain a specified animal facility permit.” Roostersare not permitted. “If the Director determines that the keeper is allowingsuch animals to roam at large, or is not keeping such animals in a clean and sanitarycondition, free of vermin, obnoxious smells and substances, then the person shall berequired to apply for a facility permit to keep such animals at the site.”Portland allows up to 3 potbelly PIGS (up to 95 lbs. each) onall lots in all zones.BEES. Allowed 1 hive per quarter acre.Portland (582,130 people in 2008; 4335/sq.mi.) vs Long Beach(492,682 in 2008; 9854/sq.mi.)
  50. 50. New York CityArticle 161. Animals. “In addition to domesticated dogs and cats, ananimal may be kept, possessed, harbored or sold in the City of NewYork provided that possession of the animal is not otherwiseprohibited by law.”Article 161. Animals. “Pet animal or small animal means ANY bird,mammal, reptile, amphibian, fish, arthropod or other invertebrateskept as a pet for exhibit, work, companionship or protection by aperson, possession of which is not prohibited by the Commissioner orany Federal, State or local laws, rules or regulations.Article 161.09. Animals. “Except on premises abutting a slaughterhouse, no person shall yard horses or keep or yard cattle, swine,sheep or goats w/o a permit issued by the Commissioner. Such permitshall be issued only for unimproved ares of the Borough of Richmondused for farming purposes.”
  51. 51. New York CityGOATS. ?FOWL. Chickens are considered pets under the health Code. Unlimited# of hens allowed; no roosters. Must be kept clean.PIGS. ?BEES. Legalized by unanimous vote 3-16-2010. Must register hive(s)with NYC DOH.New York City, most densely populated city in U.S., most denselypopulated metro area in the world (~8.4 million people in 2008;27,540/sq.mi.) vs Long Beach (492,682 in 2008; 9854/sq.mi.)Minimum specific restrictions in the code. Instead, NYC offersrecommendations for “Best Management Practices” and leaves it up tothe discretion and best judgment of the individual to ensure that his/her animals are not a nuisance. EMULATE THIS!
  52. 52. ChicagoGOATS. Yes. There is no specific prohibition, but slaughtering,nuisance, sanitation, and humane treatment and housingordinances apply.FOWL. Can have unlimited # of chickens if use only for pets oreggs; roosters are not prohibitedPIGS. Yes. There is no specific prohibition, see above.BEES. Yes.Chicago, 3rd most populous city in the country (2.8 millionpeople in 2008; 12,557/sq.mi.) vs Long Beach (492,682 in 2008;9854/sq.mi.)
  53. 53. Long Beach chicken laws LB code permits 20 non-crowing fowl, but the setback restrictions essentially take this right away. In reality, code enforcers say that only one bird is allowed, still with setback restrictions!
  54. 54. Long Beach goat lawsLB code bans owning goats south of AnaheimSt. and east of the LA River flood controlchannel.Goat owners in other parts of LB can keeponly 1 lonely goat, but the setbackrestrictions make this unlikely.
  55. 55. Long Beach wants changeHere is a sample of what people are saying in support of UrbanAgriculture in Long Beach.“Any city that allows its residents to have pit bulls & cockatoos shouldnot dictate measures preventing its residents from keeping chickens &goats.”“Most people’s children make more noise than goats & chickens.”“We need to be able to feed our families fresh food.”“I currently live in Burbank, but plan to retire in Long Beach, & havebeen planning & dreaming about having chickens, large vegetable garden,maybe bees.”“So grateful for your efforts for reform in Long Beach.”
  56. 56. Long Beach wants changeHere is what I have to say and have said.“It seems that drug dealers have greater protections than urbanfarmers growing their own food for their personal consumption & forthe safe wholesome education & entertainment of their family &friends.”“Just came back from a restaurant/bar on the LB beach. The people atthe neighboring table had a big pitbull mix at their feet. So LB allowsdogs at the outdoor patios of restaurants, but I can’t have two 50 lbgoats in my own side yard! Something is amiss.
  57. 57. Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.16.010 re “Livestock Running At Large-Distance from Habitation” places a 100 ft restriction on the distance between the location of livestock, including goats, on private property and the residence(s) of neighbors unless the neighbors give exception. ☹ This setback excludes virtually all of LB residents. ☹ Small and relatively innocuous livestock (e.g. Nigerian Dwarf goats, Pygmy goats, sheep) are equated with large and messy livestock (e.g. ox, steer, bull, cow, hog, etc.) and subject to the same restrictions. ☹ It shouldn’t be subject to the neighbors’ approval/whim or your popularity. It should be either permitted or not. Otherwise “confusing, inconsistent, will foster state of misinformation and mixed messages. Consistent, comprehensive policy across the city will encourage and support consistent best practices and care.” Proposed. ☺ No setback restriction. There is no setback for the neighbors to have dogs. Goats are less of a menace. ☺ Reclassify goats (and similar small animals) as pets, not livestock, and lift the livestock restrictions. ☺ Remove all neighbor “Opt in/out” clauses throughout the code.
  58. 58. Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.20.130 re “Goats–Location” sets a boundary restricting goats from South of Anaheim and East of the LA River flood control channel. ☹ This boundary seems at best arbitrary; there is no significant difference in the lot size on one side of Anaheim or the other; if anything, the lots are less crowded South of Anaheim, not moreso. Proposed. ☺ Follow Portland, OR’s and Seattle’s and San Francisco’s lead. No lot size or zone restrictions! Leave it up to the discretion of the owners.
  59. 59. Long Beach code hinders urban agricultureSo what is the history behind the Anaheim boundary?☹ Was it to discourage “non-white” minority groups from settling in theheart of white Long Beach?The data on the next slide suggests so.
  60. 60. Long Beach code hinders urban agriculture Per a 1958 report, most of LB’s ethnic minorities lived in the part of town north of 10th Street, south of Signal Hill, west of Orange Ave. and east of Atlantic Ave. Until the 1960s, there were covenants against renting or selling property in various parts of the city to non-Whites. African American people initially settled near Anaheim St. and MLK Blvd. The city’s 2009 Historic Context Statement, Ethnographic Context section, states “In the late 19th and early 20th centuries...a growing number of settlers were attracted to the inland areas north of the beach. Consisting of dairies, cattle ranches, poultry farms, orchards, grain fields, and agriculture - including beets, beans, barley, cabbage, and alfalfa - the area became the communities of Signal Hill, Zaferia, Bixby Knolls, and Belmont Heights. Some of these areas became associated with ethnic minorities, including Mexicans, Chinese, Japanese, and African Americans.” For example, Zaferia was “a rural community located near the intersection of Anaheim Street and redondo Avenue, housing a large Mexican population” of sharecroppers who worked at Rancho Los Alamitos.
  61. 61. Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.20.140 re “Goats–Number” limits one’s possession to one live goat. ☹ One goat is a lonely goat. Goats are social animals needing the company of other goats. ☹ A lonely goat is a stressed goat. ☹ A lonely goat is more likely to vocalize in complaint. Proposed. ☺ Follow Portland, OR’s and Seattle’s and San Francisco’s leads. Portland allows 3 dwarf/mini/pygmy goats. Seattle allows 3 dwarf/mini/pygmy goats. San Francisco allow 2 goats (full sized or dwarf/mini/pygmy).
  62. 62. Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.20.150 re “Goats–Distance from Dwelling” like code 6.16.010, places a 100 ft restriction on the distance between the location of goats on private property and the residence(s) of neighbors unless the neighbors give exception. The same arguments against 6.16.010 apply here. Proposed. ☺ No setback restriction. There is no setback for the neighbors to have dogs. Goats are less of a menace. ☺ Reclassify goats (and similar small animals) as pets, not livestock, and lift the livestock restrictions. ☺ Remove all neighbor “Opt in/out” clauses throughout the code.
  63. 63. Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.16.080 re “Breeding Prohibited” places a restriction on the production of offspring of any animal. Dairy animals such as Nigerian Dwarf goats must be bred in order to produce milk. Proposed. ☺ Lift the breeding prohibition so that goat owners can bring their female goats on conjugal visits. ☺ Follow Seattle’s lead; nursing offspring may be kept without a license until they are weaned, no longer than 12 weeks from birth.
  64. 64. Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.20.160 re “Rabbits or Goats – Enclosure Sanitation” mandates the daily removal of the goat manure. However, the goat manure is valuable organic material for the garden. Plus, the properly managed practice of deep-bed composting of the manure in situ benefits the goats in other ways, such as maintaining warmth in cooler weather. Proposed. ☺ Instead of mandating this unnecessary and undesirable burden, adopt non-specific verbage characteristic of NYC’s code, which offers recommendations for “Best Management Practices” and leaves it up to the discretion and best judgment of the individual to ensure that his/her animals are properly cared for. Again, Long Beach Grows is willing to offer educational classes and workshops. Plus neighborhood relationships will improve when neighbors must talk it out amongst themselves rather than acting as code informants.
  65. 65. Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.20.030 re “Fowl–Distance from Dwelling” places a 50-100 ft restriction on the distance between the location of fowl (any more than 1 bird, which requires 20 ft) on private property and residential buildings. ☹ This setback excludes virtually all of LB residents. ☹ There should be no setback from one’s own residence. ☹ The birds are not a sound nuisance nor public health/public safety threat (certainly compared to dogs and cats). The primary issue is they stir up the dirt, thereby creating dust. This can be minimized if the ground is sprinkled regularly. Proposed. ☺ Specifically exclude any setbacks from applying to the owner’s own residence. ☺ Take Seattle’s lead. Reduce the setback to a maximum of 10 ft from neighbor’s residence. Offer recommendations for “Best Management Practices.” Long Beach Grows is willing to offer educational classes and workshops. Plus neighborhood relationships will improve when neighbors must talk it out amongst themselves rather than acting as code informants.
  66. 66. Long Beach code challenge to urban agriculture Current. ☹ LB Municipal Code 6.20.070 re “Fowl–Enclosure Sanitation” mandates that the bird manure must be removed daily. It is common knowledge among poultry scientists that the properly managed practice of deep-bed composting of the manure in situ is more safe and sanitary than its daily removal. The practice of deep-bed composting manure provides nutritional benefits to the birds, warmth in colder weather, and actively reduces fly infestation. Proposed. ☺ Instead mandating this unnecessary and undesirable burden adopt non-specific verbage characteristic of NYC’s code, which offers recommendations for “Best Management Practices” and leaves it up to the discretion and best judgment of the individual to ensure that his/her animals are properly cared for. Again, Long Beach Grows is willing to offer educational classes and workshops. Plus neighborhood relationships will improve when neighbors must talk it out amongst themselves rather than acting as code informants.
  67. 67. MiniGoat Briefing Paper prepared byPhyllis Shulman, Conlan’s office, Seattle 1/5
  68. 68. MiniGoat Briefing Paper prepared byPhyllis Shulman, Conlan’s office, Seattle 2/5
  69. 69. MiniGoat Briefing Paper prepared byPhyllis Shulman, Conlan’s office, Seattle 3/5
  70. 70. MiniGoat Briefing Paper prepared byPhyllis Shulman, Conlan’s office, Seattle 4/5
  71. 71. MiniGoat Briefing Paper prepared byPhyllis Shulman, Conlan’s office, Seattle 5/5
  72. 72. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 1/14
  73. 73. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 2/14
  74. 74. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 3/14
  75. 75. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 4/14
  76. 76. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 5/14
  77. 77. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 6/14
  78. 78. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 7/14
  79. 79. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 8/14
  80. 80. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 9/14
  81. 81. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 10/14
  82. 82. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 11/14
  83. 83. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 12/14
  84. 84. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 13/14
  85. 85. Public Health Analysis, Seattle 14/14
  86. 86. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 1/19
  87. 87. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 2/19
  88. 88. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 3/19
  89. 89. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 4/19
  90. 90. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 5/19
  91. 91. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 6/19
  92. 92. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 7/19
  93. 93. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 8/19
  94. 94. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 9/19
  95. 95. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 10/19
  96. 96. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 11/19
  97. 97. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 12/19
  98. 98. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 13/19
  99. 99. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 14/19
  100. 100. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 15/19
  101. 101. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 16/19
  102. 102. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 17/19
  103. 103. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 18/19
  104. 104. Seattle’s Goat Ordinance, Final Version 19/19
  105. 105. DONNA MARYKWAS donna@longbeachgrows.orgFounder & Director, Ph.D., Biochemistry,Long Beach Grows Molecular & Cell Biology,www.longbeachgrows.org Cornell UniversityLong Beach Urban University Professor ofAgriculture Examiner Microbiology, 12 yearshttp://exm.nr/9GKicS ©2010, D. Marykwas

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