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Mutli Media Project

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Notes on Innovation project

Notes on Innovation project

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  • 1. Speech is Italicized Handheld Wireless Computers Encompass: PDA’s Wireless laptops/compact laptops/Ultra compact laptops Mobile Phones Smart Phones Tablet PC’s Game consoles - Wii Media Players – IPod’s Hybrid devices which include a mixture of mobile phones and tablet PC’s Handheld Wireless computers encompass everything from PDa or Personal Digital assistants to Hybrid devices which a mixture of mobile phones and tablet PC’s Need for Handheld Wireless: N The need for business professionals to keep track of: • Contacts • e-mail • voice mail • addresses • phone numbers Mobility of Communication to access the Internet M Ability to connect anytime - as long as an Internet portal is available A Need for speed to connect – electronic trading The project will be narrowed to Personal Digital Assistants or PDA’s 2 Categories  Hand Held Computers:  Larger Liquid Crystal Display  Mini Keyboard  Palm-Size Computer
  • 2.  Stylus  Touch Screen Characteristics of PDA’s  No Hard Drive  Programs stored on Read-only Memory(ROM)  Microprocessor  Input/Output ports History of the PDA These Companies invented and marketed their PDA’s  1980 - Invented By Psion Company  1993 - Apple used touch sensitive screens and handwriting recognition  1995 - Us Robotics – Palm Pilot http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iz4GwLpxAhc Lead Thinkers on this Research  Cheung Sum Wing  Hew Foon Khe Foon Lead Designers  Psion - Nick Healey - as a programmer, with a degree in Computer and Microprocessor Engineering  Apple- Newton- Steve Capps and Michael Tchao http://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/06/26/psion_special/page8.html, Oct.3,2009 Development Problems Psion's weak point is Internet connectivity in countries where GSM wireless service isn't available Apple’s Newton- Problem in getting fonts to open Applications 1. Sent faxes but did not receive them 2. Limited communication- need a cell phone and pager also 3. Poor handwriting recognition Palm Pilot - limited memory and a relatively slow processor, also key components still written in Assembler and Good assembler programmers are hard to find more difficult to develop programs; more instructions to write; more chance of errors more difficult to manage complex algorithms and data structures more difficult to debug - lack of debugging aids
  • 3. 4. http://www.mobiletechreview.com/psion.htm, Retrieved 10 03,2009 5. http://developer.apple.com/textfonts/Tools/, Retrieved 10 03,2009 6. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1563/is_n11_v11/ai_14610713/ 7. http://www.ajw.com/Pila.htm, Retrieved 10 03,2009 The Intended Market In the beginning, the business world in order to be mobile in communications Research Findings Three most frequent uses of the handhelds centered:  On utilizing the devices as  (21.8%)-Communication  (20.5%)- multimedia access  (17.9%)-Task management tool  On the use of handhelds as  (14.1%)-Assessment  (12.8%)-Capture tools  (6.4%)-Representational  (6.4%)-Analytical tools Communication tools This refers to employing the handheld devices to communicate information from one person to others Multimedia access tools Accessing multimedia resources such as e-books, databases, web pages, PowerPoint presentations, audio files and video clips Task management of time Assessment Tools - answer examination questions, tests, or quizzes. Capture tools This refers to utilize the devices to capture various data and media such as video, still pictures, audio Representational tools a concept of creating Euler nodes or mapping software to create maps with at least four nodes and four vertices. Analytic tools - This refers to employing the devices to manipulate certain data or variables such as graphic calculators
  • 4. Production Would be initiated by one of the current leading manufacturers Packaging Licensing of PDA’s would be bought by the university Marketing Consists of two 1 hour classes to instruct faculty and students on usage Distribution Set number of PDA for 2 classes and corresponding faculty Knowledge 1995 – Co-Worker 2001 – PDA’s in the classroom A small video supporting knowledge studies from universities on PDA’s http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rOyGyXatx5c Persuasion Stage Costs can be minimized – a lot of students already have their own PDA’s, no need to furnish one, grants are available for usage of PDA in classrooms High Mobility – will cause an increase in grade scores and we will be statistically looking for this confirmation Good visuals in color, sound, and networking- much more appealing than paper and blue ink They have the familiar “Start” menu Standard Microsoft application - like Microsoft Word and Excel, Standard support for the Hardware – By the manufacturer, no need for extensive training of IT personnel Supports other Hardware – such as printers and audio input Increases Motivation of Students – by high mobility and access http://www.campustechnology.com/Articles/2002/09/Ready-or-NotPDAs-in- the-Classroom.aspx?Page=1 Decision Stage Faculty - faculty creates a list of performance objectives Hardware costs
  • 5. – A high powered PDA is priced under 400 dollars, average is 300, please remember this cost can be limited by students already having their own PDA but Costs are lower than a regular computer. – No textbook required to purchase, cutting costs to the school – An average class will incur 7,500 to 10,000 dollars Software Costs – Free sites for creating templates and lessons such as ThinkDB, Palmreader, Handango, Quick Office, ImagiMath, the Educator’s Palm Training costs Information Technology – development of instructional sheet, limited costs of 200 dollars Faculty – 2 hour classes which can be held at a cost of 53 dollars for 2 faculty which will become change agents and technology experts in the use Students – No cost, the one hour cost can be imbedded into the classroom http://www.mdsis.com.ar/descargas/whypalm_TCO.pdf Implementation Stage But my PDA, unlike my phone, actually “persuaded” me to learn how to better use it. (Schrage,2004) Innovation scholar Everett Rogers, who authored the classic Diffusion of Innovation, asserts that “trialability” is a key design quality that invites explorations. Trialability encourages people to explore innovative designs at relatively low risk and low cost (Schrage,2004) Time Period for Delivery would consist of 1 month from the manufacturer One hour class to instruction students on the use of the PDA 2 hour classes to instruct faculty- “While the teachers were clear on the basic operations of the PDAs, they were caught by surprise concerning student engagement and in the ways the software could be used to pose or solve particular coding problems.” As stated by Goldman, Pea, Maldonoado, Martin, White and associates at Stanford University (2004). Active enrollment of students in credit classes and corresponding training classes Schrage, M. (2004). The power of Persuasion, Retrieved 10 05, 2009 from http://www.leighbureau.com/speakers/MSchrage/essays/persuasion.pdf Goldman, S., Pea, R., Maldonado, H., Martin, L. White, T. & the WILD Team @ Stanford University. (2004). Functioning in the wireless classroom, P. 5. Retrieved 10 06, 2009 from
  • 6. http://hci.stanford.edu/publications/2004/WILDClassroomWMTE2004/WILD ClassroomWMTE2004.pdf Confirmation Stage Faculty - Measurements on test scores can be compared in PDA classes to previous years’ bell-curves to discern improvement Monthly Informal Meetings – by faculty can improve use of the PDA’s and inform users of any problems E-mail – To students can be utilized as announcements and outages Information Technology – Can record expenses to replace any damaged PDA’s Surveys – Electronic evaluations from students and Faculty can be requested on using the PDA’s http://www.tltgroup.org/resources/F_Eval_Cases/NCSU-PDA/Text.html Communication Channels  Knowledge – Mass Media for Education  Persuasion – Interpersonal  Decision – Interpersonal  Implementation – Interpersonal  Confirmation – Interpersonal Knowledge - mass media has stoked interest in the PDA in the business world and it has increased PDA interest into the educational field Persuasion - will start as soon as the student picks up their PDA and starts to create Decision – is on an interpersonal level on whether to adopt or reject the PDA’s abilities will occur if the student decides to drop the class, at the termination of the class and will be closely monitored by evaluation surveys. The decision might also be based on mass media appeal to our students. Implementation – Will on the devices will be localite as the student turns in the first assignment
  • 7. Confirmation – will be also interpersonal as the student decides to attend or not attend another class that is using PDA’s Be not the first by who the new is tried, nor the last to lay the old aside. -Alexander Pope, An Essay on Criticism, Part II Week 6 The PDA was first invented and used in 1980 so we are not the early adopters of the PDA. In education, adaptation occurred starting in the late 1990’s. We are not the early majority since PDA usage is now being used in high schools and elementary Grades, but we are not laggards either. PDA procedures are not in place for every institution. We are in the category of Late Adopters and high on the bell curve. We are not the first to use this new innovation but are being conservative on selecting new innovations for use at the university. http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_rogers_innovation_adoption _curve.html Week 7 Key Innovators and Early Adopters • Younger Instructors - Those born to technology will most likely be the first to instruct and learn the technology • Non-tenure Instructors – Wishing for tenure will be quick to pick up new technology to see if the grade levels and experiences excite their students Strategies for Innovators and Early Adopters Persuasion – Statistics of improvement in student grades and participation levels. This is a focal point of administration on whether to approve tenure. Complexity -Show how relatively ease it is to use the PDA through training Compatibility – Of the device with other software and linkage ability to other devices such as home laptops and the university’s computers Ease of Use or Trailability – thru training to show how the PDAs can be experimented with to increase visual aids for the student in and out of class
  • 8. Laggards • Older Instructors – who have tenure will be most likely to avoid the technology unless persuasion is used to adopt. Persuasion – Can come in the form of peer and administration pressure, bonuses and incentives • Retirement – those instructors that will retire soon may not wish to invest the time in the new innovation Persuasion –peer and administration pressure will not work but bonuses and incentives might. A little extra before retirement is always an incentive. Contests such as rewards of gift cards are an excellent idea. Strategies for Laggards • Group and peer pressure – the group and synergy can move mountains- stress compatibility with our existing values at the university and the needs of students to reinforce the rate of adoption • Change agents - to instill an enthusiasm for the PDA Usage and to show how easy it is to learn • Group meetings for faculty – to instill comradely and acceptance of the devices. Also, to show improvement among the students in communication and grades Week 8 Hybrid of Centralized and Decentralized Approach Centralized – The roll out will begin with a centralized approach in technology Decentralized – Soon the instructors with peer diffusion will try a problem centered approach to customize the PDA for their own class work. So we envision a hybrid of both these approaches. http://www4.uwm.edu/cuts/bench/princp.htm#cent Key Change Agents
  • 9. Dean – can create a need to change and improve grades by emphasizing accreditation and then translate that intent into action by sponsoring training sessions and to stabilize adoption by incorporating PDA’s into the course work Faculty Leaders – Can establish information exchange blogs or informal meetings to diagnose common problems with the PDA and to stabilize adoption to prevent discontinuance. This will also develop self-renewing practices among all of the participating instructors. Critical Mass Since we are high in the late adopters’ category in the Bell curve, the critical mass at 10% to 20% has been surpassed. Week 9 The need for PDA’s for this University To promote future growth of the student populace by: Accreditation – In which the Dean and everyone is always interested in and a direct result of future consider of tenure for faculty Improvement – Of mathematical scores Visualization of cutting edge technologies – To future student , the PDA’s , will enhance in their eyes the university as leaders of cutting technologies For Faculty Assessment – For faculty, as demonstrated by the pie chart, will greatly improve as well as communication and representational skills. How many papers have you ever graded and not been able to clearly understand the student’s logic? The PDA’s will help with this quandary. Analytical tools – Will be increased and simpler than paper and pencil methods Communication Multimedia access Task Management tool – You can store multimedia presentations and even use the calendar to monitor your daily schedules of items to do and never forget to e-mail back or check on a student again Representational For Students Communication – The ability to be mobile and communication with the professor at any time. They now longer need to track the professor down. They can ask a question anytime on homework. Multimedia access – Which involves e-mailing the professor in a blink of an eye and availability to other technologies such as the tutoring sites
  • 10. Task Management tool – Students can schedule those important tests, quizzes and assignments, leading to an improvement in grades. This is a win-win situation for the university, the faculty and the students! Any Questions?
  • 11. Source: Moallem, M., Kermani H. & Chen S. (2005). Handheld, Wireless computers: Can they improve learning and instruction?. Computers in the Schools [serial online]. December 2005;22(3/4):93-106. Education Research Complete, Ipswich, MA. Cheung, W. & hew, K. (2009). A review of research methodologies used in studies on mobile handheld devices in K-12 and higher education settings. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. 25(2):153

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