Ethics in science and plagiarism
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Ethics in science and plagiarism

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Ethics in science and plagiarism Ethics in science and plagiarism Presentation Transcript

  • Ethics in Science andPlagiarismMargit NothnaglCoordinating Director of StudiesLTJ faculty, SLU Alnarp Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • Compliance and ethicsBoth necessary for responsible research• Compliance: follow rules from the federal government, from funders, from the institution,…• Ethics: is the study of how human action affects other humans, sentient beings or the ecosystem. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • In research:1. Research ethics concerns problems and issues related to how people conduct research. For instance, how far can people go in risking the integrity and safety of other people to gain the knowledge that is being sought?2. The researchers ethics concerns the honour, honesty and transparency of the researcher, how people conduct themselves to achieve results, in their work together with colleagues, with the business community and with other institutions and people. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • Basic requirements for goodresearch practice (VR)1. The CUDOS norms2. The value of research – What? Why? How?3. Responsibility towards society4. Diff. practices in different disciplines5. The quality of research6. Honesty and integrity7. Researchers different roles Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • The CUDOS norms or rules(Robert Merton 1940s)1. The norm of communism, or communalism (C), means that the research community and society as a whole have the right to be informed of the results of research.2. His norm of universalism (U) requires scientific work to be evaluated with reference to scientific criteria alone.3. The norm of disinterestedness (D) means that the researcher must have no other motive for his or her research than a desire to contribute new knowledge.4. The fourth norm, organized scepticism (OS), requires the researcher to constantly question and scrutinize, but also to refrain from expressing an assessment until he or she has sufficient evidence on which to base it.Back Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • Different phases of researchrequire different practices• Planning phase• Conducting research• Publishing results Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • Examples for ethicalproblems in research• Quarrels in a research team about who should be the first author listed• There are research groups that recruit doctoral students for their projects and then simply use them as labour• Researchers cheat by distorting results or by falsifying, overemphasising their importance or giving misleading interpretations of their research results Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • Cheating andFraudCheating: Acting in a dishonest way in order to gain an advantage, especially in a game, a competition, an exam, etc.:Fraud: deliberately and in a deceptive way departing from the scientific demands or consciously breaking with generally accepted norms Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • 1980’s: FFP• Fabrication• Falsification• Plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research or in reporting research results  Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • Fabrication Inventing data or results and recording or reporting them as factual results Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • Falsification Manipulating research materials, equipment or processes or changing a written record or information so that it is no longer true Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • PlagiarismCopying another person’sideas, words or work withoutappropriate credit andpretend that they are yourown. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • Educate yourself about plagiarism.• Copying from books, from the internet, from previous work.• Hardly changing the original author’s words.• Cutting and pasting to create a paper from several sources.• Poor use of citation rules f. ex. some text quoted but some not marked as quotations.• Faking a citation. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • Example: Guidelines for imagemanipulation (J. Cell Biol.)• No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced.• Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if they are applied to the whole image and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original.• Nonlinear adjustments(e.g., changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed.• The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields, or exposures must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figure (e.g., using dividing lines) and in the text of the figure legend. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • Institutions studyingresearch ethics in Sweden• Linköping University - The Centre for Applied Ethics• Lund University - Department of Medical Ethics• Stockholm Bioethics Centre• Uppsala University - Centre for research ethics & bioethics Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  • Additional Info Sources: doktorandhandboken.nu SOU 1999:4 Codex: http://www.codex.uu.se/codex_eng/codex/index.html LTJs policy on cheating and plagiarism On being a scientist - Committee on the Conduct of Science, National Academy of Sciences (U.S..). (Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press, 1989.) Online Research Ethics Course (Practical Ethics Center at the University of Montana) http://www.vr.se Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se