Different Forms of Government
Republic – led by                           representatives of                           the voters. Each is              ...
Parliamentary – a                        parliamentary                        system is led by                        repr...
Monarchy – a                        monarchy has a king                        or queen, who                        someti...
Theocracy – a form       of government       where the rulers       claim to be ruling       on behalf of a set of       r...
Totalitarian – Rule        by a single political        party. Votes for        alternative        candidates and        p...
Dictatorship – rule              by a single leader              who has not been              elected and may use        ...
Oligarchy – a form           of government           which consists of           rule by an elite           group who rule...
Where did the colonists get theirideas from?   John Locke    ◦ He believed that there      were rules in a state      of ...
 People have the right  to rebel if their  natural rights are  being taken away These rights are  considered essential  ...
   To protect these    rights, people create a    social contract    ◦ They consent (give      their permission) to      ...
   Government gets it’s    right to govern from    the consent of the    people, and without    the consent of the    peo...
   Montesquieu    ◦ Advocated a system of      government that divided      and balanced power of      government between...
   Ancient Greece and    Rome    ◦ Promoted the idea of      limiting peoples rights in      order to ensure that      th...
   Magna Carta (1215)    ◦ List of complaints      written by the nobles      against King John    ◦ Believed to be the  ...
 Led to American belief  in “no taxation  without  representation” Belief in trial by jury of  peers Established the id...
   Parliament (1295)    ◦ Originally a council of      nobles, but eventually      came to represent all      people in t...
 Representative  Democracy –  members elected to  speak for the people Parliament made  demands of the king in  form of ...
   English Bill of    Rights (1689)    ◦ Limited the power of      the king by placing      more power in the      hands ...
   Virginia Assembly    (1619)    ◦ Representative body      modeled after      Parliament   Mayflower    Compact (1620)...
   Fundamental Orders of    Connecticut    ◦ First Constitution in      America    ◦ Founded on rights of      people reg...
Articles of Confederation 1781-1789 : time called the  “Critical Period” After the Revolution, many  people had legitima...
 Founders were afraid of  making a central  government that was too  strong Many Americans felt that  any central govern...
Set up of Articles of Confederation The government was  just a central  legislature, unicameral  (one house) There was n...
 Most of the powers of  government were left  with the states, the  national government  had little power over  the state...
 Congress didn’t have the  power to collect money  from the states or the  people directly, it could  only request the mo...
Strengths of the Articles Helped get us  through the  Revolutionary War Helped us deal with  newly acquired lands  out w...
It helped define states relationship    with one another… All states had to accept  the laws of other states People coul...
Weaknesses of the Articles 2/3 approval needed to  pass a law in Congress Unanimous vote  needed to amend  (change) the ...
 No executive to  enforce the laws No federal court  system Congress couldn’t  regulate trade  between the states Cong...
 Congress could coin  money, but had to  ask the states for the  gold and silver to  back up the currency Congress can  ...
What led to the Constitutional    Convention?   Many political    leaders, like Alexander    Hamilton and James    Madiso...
Annapolis Convention (1785) Delegates from five states  went to Mt.Vernon to  discuss commerce (trade)  problems Low tur...
Shay’s Rebellion   Farmers in    Massachusetts had    serious economic    problems    ◦ If they couldn’t pay      their d...
 Farmers hit by both high  taxes to pay for  Revolutionary War, and  low prices for their  goods, farmers quickly  became...
 The farmers then  moved to the military  arsenal in the  state, where the  weapons were kept Congress was not able  to ...
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Different forms of government

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Different forms of government

  1. 1. Different Forms of Government
  2. 2. Republic – led by representatives of the voters. Each is individually chosen for a set period of time.United States of America
  3. 3. Parliamentary – a parliamentary system is led by representatives of the people. Each is chosen as a member of a political party and remains in power as long as his/her party doesGreat Britain, Israel
  4. 4. Monarchy – a monarchy has a king or queen, who sometimes has absolute power. Power is passed along through the family.Great Britain, Jordan
  5. 5. Theocracy – a form of government where the rulers claim to be ruling on behalf of a set of religious ideas, or as direct agents of a deity.Iran
  6. 6. Totalitarian – Rule by a single political party. Votes for alternative candidates and parties are simply not allowed. Citizens are allowed and ‘encouraged’ to vote, but only for the government’sChina chosen candidates.
  7. 7. Dictatorship – rule by a single leader who has not been elected and may use force to keep control. In a military dictatorship, the army is in control. Usually, there is little or no attentionNorth Korea to public opinion or individual rights.
  8. 8. Oligarchy – a form of government which consists of rule by an elite group who rule in their own interests, especially the accumulation of wealth and privilege. Only certain members of society have a valid voice in the government. This can reflect economicPakistan interests, a particular religious tradition or familial rule.
  9. 9. Where did the colonists get theirideas from? John Locke ◦ He believed that there were rules in a state of nature. ◦ He called these rules natural rights, and they included life, liberty and property.
  10. 10.  People have the right to rebel if their natural rights are being taken away These rights are considered essential – so much a part of human nature that they can’t be taken away
  11. 11.  To protect these rights, people create a social contract ◦ They consent (give their permission) to live in a society where they obey the limits placed on them by the government, in exchange for knowing that their rights are protected
  12. 12.  Government gets it’s right to govern from the consent of the people, and without the consent of the people, there is no legitimate government ◦ Locke argues that if government fails to protect these rights, they have the right to overthrow the government
  13. 13.  Montesquieu ◦ Advocated a system of government that divided and balanced power of government between the classes ◦ This is the best way to ensure that the government would not be dominated by a single social class and could help the common good
  14. 14.  Ancient Greece and Rome ◦ Promoted the idea of limiting peoples rights in order to ensure that they participate in society
  15. 15.  Magna Carta (1215) ◦ List of complaints written by the nobles against King John ◦ Believed to be the cornerstone of modern democracy ◦ Government should be based on the rule of law (the king’s power is limited by requiring him to follow the law, thereby limiting government’s power)
  16. 16.  Led to American belief in “no taxation without representation” Belief in trial by jury of peers Established the idea of due process of law ◦ No government can take action against it’s citizens without following certain rules and laws
  17. 17.  Parliament (1295) ◦ Originally a council of nobles, but eventually came to represent all people in the realm ◦ Divided into two houses, House of Lords (nobles, upper house), and House of Commons (citizens, lower house)
  18. 18.  Representative Democracy – members elected to speak for the people Parliament made demands of the king in form of bills Colonies modeled governments after Parliament Congress eventually modeled after Parliament
  19. 19.  English Bill of Rights (1689) ◦ Limited the power of the king by placing more power in the hands of the people ◦ Becomes part of the legal tradition in America ◦ Right to a fair and speedy trial by jury ◦ Right to petition
  20. 20.  Virginia Assembly (1619) ◦ Representative body modeled after Parliament Mayflower Compact (1620) ◦ Pilgrims organized a government for the people and by the people
  21. 21.  Fundamental Orders of Connecticut ◦ First Constitution in America ◦ Founded on rights of people regardless of religious beliefs Massachusetts Town Meetings ◦ Open to all ◦ Direct Democracy – people vote directly on the issues ◦ Only adult, white males with property could vote
  22. 22. Articles of Confederation 1781-1789 : time called the “Critical Period” After the Revolution, many people had legitimate fears about the new government ◦ To most people, their state was their “country” ◦ Each state functioned like a separate nation with its own constitution and government
  23. 23.  Founders were afraid of making a central government that was too strong Many Americans felt that any central government was likely to deprive them of their rights, just like under the British crown People felt that government should be close to the people so the people could control it easier, and protect their rights
  24. 24. Set up of Articles of Confederation The government was just a central legislature, unicameral (one house) There was no executive or judicial branches Most legal disputes were handled in state courts
  25. 25.  Most of the powers of government were left with the states, the national government had little power over the states or its citizens Only state government had authority over their citizens
  26. 26.  Congress didn’t have the power to collect money from the states or the people directly, it could only request the money from the state governments, which in turn would raise it from its citizens Congress couldn’t regulate trade among the different states
  27. 27. Strengths of the Articles Helped get us through the Revolutionary War Helped us deal with newly acquired lands out west (Ohio Valley) and what to do with them
  28. 28. It helped define states relationship with one another… All states had to accept the laws of other states People could travel from state to state, not needing things like passports Set up extradition laws (laws that would send a criminal in one state back to the original state that he/she committed a crime in)
  29. 29. Weaknesses of the Articles 2/3 approval needed to pass a law in Congress Unanimous vote needed to amend (change) the Articles All states, regardless of size, had one vote Legislators in Congress were paid by their states, not the federal government
  30. 30.  No executive to enforce the laws No federal court system Congress couldn’t regulate trade between the states Congress could declare war, but couldn’t raise the army to fight it
  31. 31.  Congress could coin money, but had to ask the states for the gold and silver to back up the currency Congress can tax, but it had no power to collect those taxes from the states
  32. 32. What led to the Constitutional Convention? Many political leaders, like Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, didn’t like the Articles of Confederation, claiming that the new government couldn’t handle the problems of the United States
  33. 33. Annapolis Convention (1785) Delegates from five states went to Mt.Vernon to discuss commerce (trade) problems Low turnout at conference Hamilton and Madison suggested that a meeting be held in Philadelphia to amend (change) the Articles to make government stronger
  34. 34. Shay’s Rebellion Farmers in Massachusetts had serious economic problems ◦ If they couldn’t pay their debts, they lost their homes and their farms, and were sometimes sent to prison
  35. 35.  Farmers hit by both high taxes to pay for Revolutionary War, and low prices for their goods, farmers quickly became angry with the state government 600 farmers, led by Captain Daniel Shays, marched on the Massachusetts courts and closed them down – figuring that if the courts weren’t in session they couldn’t lose their farms
  36. 36.  The farmers then moved to the military arsenal in the state, where the weapons were kept Congress was not able to raise an army to put down the rebellion, and had to rely on the Massachusetts militia to end the rebellion
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