Republic – led by representatives of the voters. Each is individually chosen for a set period of time.United States of America
Parliamentary – a parliamentary system is led by representatives of the people. Each is chosen as a member of a political party and remains in power as long as his/her party doesGreat Britain, Israel
Monarchy – a monarchy has a king or queen, who sometimes has absolute power. Power is passed along through the family.Great Britain, Jordan
Theocracy – a form of government where the rulers claim to be ruling on behalf of a set of religious ideas, or as direct agents of a deity.Iran
Totalitarian – Rule by a single political party. Votes for alternative candidates and parties are simply not allowed. Citizens are allowed and ‘encouraged’ to vote, but only for the government’sChina chosen candidates.
Dictatorship – rule by a single leader who has not been elected and may use force to keep control. In a military dictatorship, the army is in control. Usually, there is little or no attentionNorth Korea to public opinion or individual rights.
Oligarchy – a form of government which consists of rule by an elite group who rule in their own interests, especially the accumulation of wealth and privilege. Only certain members of society have a valid voice in the government. This can reflect economicPakistan interests, a particular religious tradition or familial rule.
Where did the colonists get theirideas from? John Locke ◦ He believed that there were rules in a state of nature. ◦ He called these rules natural rights, and they included life, liberty and property.
People have the right to rebel if their natural rights are being taken away These rights are considered essential – so much a part of human nature that they can’t be taken away
To protect these rights, people create a social contract ◦ They consent (give their permission) to live in a society where they obey the limits placed on them by the government, in exchange for knowing that their rights are protected
Government gets it’s right to govern from the consent of the people, and without the consent of the people, there is no legitimate government ◦ Locke argues that if government fails to protect these rights, they have the right to overthrow the government
Montesquieu ◦ Advocated a system of government that divided and balanced power of government between the classes ◦ This is the best way to ensure that the government would not be dominated by a single social class and could help the common good
Ancient Greece and Rome ◦ Promoted the idea of limiting peoples rights in order to ensure that they participate in society
Magna Carta (1215) ◦ List of complaints written by the nobles against King John ◦ Believed to be the cornerstone of modern democracy ◦ Government should be based on the rule of law (the king’s power is limited by requiring him to follow the law, thereby limiting government’s power)
Led to American belief in “no taxation without representation” Belief in trial by jury of peers Established the idea of due process of law ◦ No government can take action against it’s citizens without following certain rules and laws
Parliament (1295) ◦ Originally a council of nobles, but eventually came to represent all people in the realm ◦ Divided into two houses, House of Lords (nobles, upper house), and House of Commons (citizens, lower house)
Representative Democracy – members elected to speak for the people Parliament made demands of the king in form of bills Colonies modeled governments after Parliament Congress eventually modeled after Parliament
English Bill of Rights (1689) ◦ Limited the power of the king by placing more power in the hands of the people ◦ Becomes part of the legal tradition in America ◦ Right to a fair and speedy trial by jury ◦ Right to petition
Virginia Assembly (1619) ◦ Representative body modeled after Parliament Mayflower Compact (1620) ◦ Pilgrims organized a government for the people and by the people
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut ◦ First Constitution in America ◦ Founded on rights of people regardless of religious beliefs Massachusetts Town Meetings ◦ Open to all ◦ Direct Democracy – people vote directly on the issues ◦ Only adult, white males with property could vote
Articles of Confederation 1781-1789 : time called the “Critical Period” After the Revolution, many people had legitimate fears about the new government ◦ To most people, their state was their “country” ◦ Each state functioned like a separate nation with its own constitution and government
Founders were afraid of making a central government that was too strong Many Americans felt that any central government was likely to deprive them of their rights, just like under the British crown People felt that government should be close to the people so the people could control it easier, and protect their rights
Set up of Articles of Confederation The government was just a central legislature, unicameral (one house) There was no executive or judicial branches Most legal disputes were handled in state courts
Most of the powers of government were left with the states, the national government had little power over the states or its citizens Only state government had authority over their citizens
Congress didn’t have the power to collect money from the states or the people directly, it could only request the money from the state governments, which in turn would raise it from its citizens Congress couldn’t regulate trade among the different states
Strengths of the Articles Helped get us through the Revolutionary War Helped us deal with newly acquired lands out west (Ohio Valley) and what to do with them
It helped define states relationship with one another… All states had to accept the laws of other states People could travel from state to state, not needing things like passports Set up extradition laws (laws that would send a criminal in one state back to the original state that he/she committed a crime in)
Weaknesses of the Articles 2/3 approval needed to pass a law in Congress Unanimous vote needed to amend (change) the Articles All states, regardless of size, had one vote Legislators in Congress were paid by their states, not the federal government
No executive to enforce the laws No federal court system Congress couldn’t regulate trade between the states Congress could declare war, but couldn’t raise the army to fight it
Congress could coin money, but had to ask the states for the gold and silver to back up the currency Congress can tax, but it had no power to collect those taxes from the states
What led to the Constitutional Convention? Many political leaders, like Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, didn’t like the Articles of Confederation, claiming that the new government couldn’t handle the problems of the United States
Annapolis Convention (1785) Delegates from five states went to Mt.Vernon to discuss commerce (trade) problems Low turnout at conference Hamilton and Madison suggested that a meeting be held in Philadelphia to amend (change) the Articles to make government stronger
Shay’s Rebellion Farmers in Massachusetts had serious economic problems ◦ If they couldn’t pay their debts, they lost their homes and their farms, and were sometimes sent to prison
Farmers hit by both high taxes to pay for Revolutionary War, and low prices for their goods, farmers quickly became angry with the state government 600 farmers, led by Captain Daniel Shays, marched on the Massachusetts courts and closed them down – figuring that if the courts weren’t in session they couldn’t lose their farms
The farmers then moved to the military arsenal in the state, where the weapons were kept Congress was not able to raise an army to put down the rebellion, and had to rely on the Massachusetts militia to end the rebellion
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