Robert gonouya


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Robert gonouya

  1. 1. PLAYING DEPENDENCY? Title: Understanding the NEET- homelessness interface and coping strategise of young people in Essex, Kent and London. By: Robert Gonouya Cities Institute Email:
  2. 2. Research Background  There are now 1.1 million young people classified as being not in education, employment or training(NEET) in the UK (Winnett, 2005) with at least 1% of this growing cohort being NEET at 16, 17 and 18(Department for Education, 2010).  Centre Point estimates that between 36 000 -52 000 young people are officially classified as homeless and approximately 75 000 young people experience periodic homelessness throughout each year. The numbers of homeless young people are on the rise, with ethnic minorities increasingly being over represented in these groups.  In London over 50% of young homeless people are Afro- Caribbean (Godfrey et al, 2002))  Therefore, there is a group of young people whose lives and transitions are shaped by their exposure to both NEETism and homelessness.
  3. 3. Research Aims  To reconceptualise youth transitions in relation to the interface between NEETism and Homelessness.  To critically examine the interface between NEETism (not in education, employment or training) and youth Homelessness.  To explore coping and risk management strategies by NEET -Homeless young people in transition to adulthood.  To understand the place and influence of cultural values on the attitudes of NEET-Homeless young people towards education, career aspirations, the
  4. 4. Hypothesis  A growing number of young people, including those from migrant groups are now using the status of Neetism and Homelessness to ‘make it’ through tumultuous transitions by playing dependency.  The word ‘playing’ is used in a metaphorical sense and suggests a kind of taking advantage of the system in a ‘clever’ way which makes it difficult to pin down by those outside of the ‘game’. It involves a disabling of oneself in order to enhance their capabilities - positioning oneself in order to negotiate a move which would otherwise have involved greater uncertainty, responsibility and accountability.  This may indeed be viewed as a form of resilience, particularly given that youth transitions are now characterised by high unemployment and a lack of permanent, full-time jobs, especially for those without qualifications.
  5. 5. Methodology  Qualitative Research  Literature review: will review existing material, including publications and data representing or reinterpreting evidence. My analysis will begin by gathering existing analysis of the costs and benefits of employment for NEET and homeless people, but also by exploring gaps in knowledge. This will be further developed following a series of exploratory interviews with a variety of participants.  Interviews with people who had experience of homelessness and being NEET who have tried to get into employment. In addition, I intend to also conduct semi-structured interviews with those that work with this issue, including hostel staff, parents and policy- makers.
  6. 6. Sampling    The scope of this empirical study will be limited to specific locations, namely, Essex, London and Kent. The locations have been selected for the ease of access to NEET –Homeless youths based on the researchers professional networks and contacts. In addition, nationally, these areas have high prevalence of NEETism and homelessness and a good representation of ethnic minorities.  Snowball technique, a form of purposive sampling, will be employed in this research. One other major advantage of using this method in this context is that it helps in the finding and recruitment of hard to reach /hidden populations such as homeless young people who may not be known to agencies.  A total of 60 young people representing 3 distinct cohorts will take part in the research. The groups will comprise of (a) 30 young people between the ages of 16-24 who are NEET and Homeless (b) 10 white born in the UK who are NEET but not homeless, (c) 10 with ethnic minority backgrounds who were born in the UK and (d) 10 youths from ethnic minorities not born in the UK (also known as really migrant).  
  7. 7. Data analysis Data generated during field work will be transcribed, organised and analysed using a software package called NVivo. The analytic activities will be organised in the following phases:-  Data collected during field work are made into text, for example transcripts.  Codes will then be developed and affixed to transcript pages.  Codes transformed into categorical labels.  Materials then sorted by these categories, identifying common patterns  Sorted materials will be examined further to select meaningful patterns.  Indentified patterns will then be considered in light of previous research and theories and a set of generalisations established.
  8. 8. Aims and Objectives of Literature Review  Review is exploring of the interface between NEETism and homelessness, aiming to understand the experiences of NEET and homeless young people in the different categories of youths in the UK.  Specifically, what have been the experiences of 'really migrant' youths (those who came into the UK after the age of 14 compared to those who are born here (ethnic minorities and white British)?  Are there differences in transition experiences between genders in these cohorts and how have they coped with the challenges?  In the context of youth transitions, the review will explore how (if at all) such aspects have been previously explored, understood and identify gaps within the literature.
  9. 9. Progress Highlights  Literature Review -3 Lots of Literature Reviewed:-  Youth Transitions  NEETism  Youth Homelessness
  10. 10. Youth Transitions
  11. 11. Review Highlights  Concepts of Youth and Adulthoods  Defining youth as an age or phase is unhelpful to understanding young people and that taking youth as a process provides scope for analysing the dynamics of young people as they transit to adulthood.  No single adulthood but many adulthoods. Morrow and Richards (1996) delineate 'adulthoods' as follows:  Political orlegal adulthood -which involves the acquisition of various rights and responsibilities at various stages, for example, the right to vote, marry and becoming criminally liable for offences committed.  Financial oreconomic adulthood which involves financial independence from the immediate family. Employment is the usual means by which this is attained.  Social and sexual adulthood which involves the development of lifestyles and individual identities through participation in consumer markets and managing one's own time and adult sexuality.  As such, it is the case that becoming an adult in the 21st century demands the successful coordination of multiple transitions.  Many young people fail/struggle and end up in undesirable situations such as being NEET and Homeless.
  12. 12. Review Highlights Continued  Normative models of youth transitions no longerrelevant  Hotch-potch of metaphors used to characterise transitions –forexample pathways, navigation, yo-yo)  The 'myth' of lineartransitions in the past, arguing that, "The range of choices may have been different, leading to a greater homogenisation of possible pathways and individuals may have had less expectation of being able to design their own trail but the individual still had to negotiate and manage their own trajectory, whether it was of their own choosing or not. Indeed, the absence of apparent choice might be hypothesized to have brought its own risks and dilemmas."(Vickerstaff,2001,p,3).  The family and the welfare state continue to be key influences on many youth transitions.  Social class, genderand ethnicity, are still important influences of transition outcomes, just as much as the labour market.
  13. 13. Theoretical Concepts/Underpinnings  Structure and Agency(Durkheim and Weber)  Risk(Beck)  Late Modernity(Beck and Giddens)  Cultural Capital/Social(Bourdieu)  Social Underclass(Charles Murray)  Attribution Theory(Rothbaum et al)  Strategy and Tactics(De Certau)
  14. 14. Looking Ahead  ‘Finalise’ Literature Review  Begin field work in January 2011 The End Q&A