Janet bowstead


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Janet bowstead

  1. 1. Janet Bowstead November 2010 1
  2. 2. PHD RESEARCH PROJECT (ESRC-FUNDED) The research project (2009-2012) will be:  mapping and analysing the relocation journeys of women experiencing domestic violence to services throughout England – 18,812 women in 2008-09  53.9% had children with them, 67.4% were of White British ethnic origin, 8.2% were disabled.  interviewing a sample of women about their experiences of relocation and resettlement.  working creatively with women and domestic violence services to explore a re- conceptualisation of women’s journeys 2
  3. 3. USING CONCEPTUAL ‘TOOL BOXES’ “All my books are little tool boxes.  If people want to open them, to use a particular sentence, a particular idea, a particular analysis like a screwdriver or spanner ... so much the better!” Foucault, Michel 1995 Dits et ecrits 1954-88 vol. 2 ed. D. Defert and F. Ewald, Paris: Gallimard. (1995:p720) 3
  4. 4. MICHEL FOUCAULT ON ‘PANOPTICISM’  “Surveiller et Punir” - “Discipline and Punish” (Foucault 1991)  Jeremy Bentham’s late eighteenth century ‘Panoptican’ prison plan 4
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  7. 7. PANOPTICAN  a structured system whereby “space becomes specified and functional” enabling the easy and effective exercise of disciplinary power  “surveillance is permanent in its effects, even if it is discontinuous in its action” because inmates internalise the gaze and regulate their own conduct  each individual is isolated, unable to communicate, an object of hierarchical observation from the centre; able to be seen but not to see. 7
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  9. 9. POWER AND CONTROL WHEEL DOMESTIC ABUSE INTERVENTION PROJECT (DULUTH)  abusive behaviours can be conceived as the spokes of a wheel, with physical and sexual violence holding it all together as the rim  segments of the wheel parallel the cells of the Panoptican - representing aspects of a woman’s life and autonomy – home, confidence, work, study, relationships, children, family  the abusive man is able to exercise surveillance over each aspect simultaneously, because of the positioning of his power and control at the centre. 9
  10. 10. INTERNALISING THE SURVEILLANCE  many women experiencing domestic violence internalise their partner’s demands to act, dress, organise the household, work, and bring up children in a particular way  Holland et al 1998 characterise this as the “male- in-the-head”, arguing that both men and women live under the normalising male gaze:  “We take the ‘male-in-the-head’ to indicate the surveillance power of this male-dominated and institutionalised heterosexuality”. (p11) 10
  11. 11. GILLES DELEUZE AND FÉLIX GUATTARI ON ‘RHIZOME’ (DELEUZE & GUATTARI 1988)  contrast with dendriform concepts and actions  open adventurous network forming ceaseless and unpredictable new connections  in contrast to the linearity and inflexibility of roots, travelling along predictable routes  tree roots or branches grow out from a centre, rhizomes grow opportunistically in all directions, starting up again after a rupture, and achieving deterritorialisation along lines of flight to connect with other multiplicities 11
  12. 12. RHIZOMIC JOURNEYS – LINES OF FLIGHT  women’s journeys to flee domestic violence - if she can travel unpredictably in space, to unanticipated locations, she is less likely to be able to be followed  escaping a regime of disciplinary power – an abuser who knows her contacts - so power does not simply weaken as a function of distance  making new connections, for example by using the network of women’s refuges, a woman is more able to escape the operation of power over space 12
  13. 13. MARC AUGÉ ON ‘NON-PLACES’ (AUGÉ 2008)  “a space which cannot be defined as relational, historical, or concerned with identity will be a non-place” (p63)  he associates non-places with certain ends, such as transport, commerce and leisure, rather than a concern with location  for example holiday-makers may be largely indifferent as to whether they travel from Gatwick, Heathrow or Stansted, and therefore airports become non-places. 13
  14. 14. REFUGES AS NON-PLACES  a woman fleeing domestic violence may be initially indifferent as to where she goes for refuge, so long as it is a place her partner does not know  she may formally or informally change her identity  she may sever contacts with friends and family  she can only disclose her address as a Post Office Box number  the building will have the functions of a house, but barely feels like a place of residence, let alone a home 14
  15. 15. MAKING PLACES  refuges can attempt to counteract their tendency to be non-places and instead contribute to a sense of belonging and place through considerations of  structural positioning – challenging discrimination  physical space – designing to feel less institutional  emotional space – bringing women together collectively for support and to reduce isolation (Burman & Chantler 2004) 15
  16. 16. USING CONCEPTUAL ‘TOOL BOXES’ FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES  Providing insights to analyse women’s spatial strategies in fleeing domestic violence.  sensitising concepts to assist in identifying patterns and processes within the empirical data  contextualising concepts to assist in analysing these patterns and generalising from the individual narratives of women’s journeys 16
  17. 17.  Foucault – on the spatiality of surveillance  Space as constraint  useful in understanding what women are overcoming to leave abusive relationships  Deleuze and Guattari – on escape along rhizomic lines of flight  Space as resource  useful in understanding the journeys themselves  Augé – on un-location and non-places  Space as place  useful in understanding what needs to be counteracted to create new homes and belonging 17
  18. 18. REFERENCES  Augé, M., 2008. Non-places: An Introduction to Supermodernity – 2nd English- language edition, London and New York: Verso.  Burman, E. & Chantler, K., 2004. There's No-Place Like Home: emotional geographies of researching 'race' and refuge provision in Britain. Gender, Place & Culture, 11(3), 375-397.  Deleuze, G. & Guattari, F., 1988. Rhizome. In A thousand plateaus. London: Athlone Press, pp. 3-25.  Domestic Abuse Intervention Project, Power and Control Wheel. Available at: http://www.theduluthmodel.org/wheelgallery.php.  Foucault, M., 1991. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Surveiller et Punir 1975 trans. Alan Sheridan 1977), London: Penguin.  Foucault, M. 1995 Dits et ecrits 1954-88 vol. 2 ed. D. Defert and F. Ewald, Paris: Gallimard.  Holland, J. et al., 1998. The Male in the Head: young people, heterosexuality and power, London: The Tufnell Press. 18
  19. 19. Janet Bowstead - Research Student Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit London Metropolitan University e-mail: j.bowstead@londonmet.ac.uk tel: 020 7133 5014 19