An Analysis of Wind Energy and Danish Power Clusters                                          ANDERS LARSEN E03647        ...
CONTENTS                                        1.         I N TR O D U C T I O N          22.         HI S TO R Y & D Y N...
1. INTRODUCTION   The document’s main purpose is to clarify and complement the presentation of ProfessorMathews 2010-2011,...
2. HISTORY & DYNAMIC       COMPETITIVE FORCES-DIAMOND       ANALYSIS OF THE DANISH WIND       TURBINE INDUSTRYTHE DIAMOND ...
2.3. DEMAND CONDITIONLocal demand came from the Danish educated consumers. The 1970s oil embargo, priceincreases and the p...
FIGURE 1 DYNAMIC FORCES FRAMEWORK ADAPTED TO CASE. ADAPTED FROM THEORY IN: MATHEWS,STRATEGIZING, DISEQUILIBRIUM AND PROFIT...
forces of supply and factor conditions to act on the industry and the firms, creating synergiesand maximizing the results....
time, production and sourcing are carried out as close to the market as possible. In 2008, Vestasopened the world’s larges...
accumulation processes that are activated as actors become involved with an emerging path.From the supply side, producers ...
FIGURE 4 P., R. GARUD, ET AL. (1997). PATH CREATION AND DEPENDENCE IN THE DANISH WIND TURBINE FIELD.The firms in Denmark p...
FIGURE 5 FIVE TYPICAL COMPONENT FIRMS IN DENMARK     7. THE NEW EUROPEAN POLICY:        ENERGY 2020IN 2007 THE EUROPEAN CO...
The consequences are far more than serious, since the whole industry interconnection is deeplylinked to the demand pull an...
9. BIBLIOGRAPHY" ProvenModels - dynamic competitive forces - John A. Mathews ." ProvenModels - Management Models |        ...
Print.Porter, Michael E.. Clusters and the new economics of competition . Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review ,         19...
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark: Factsheet Denmarkhttp://www.denmark.dk/NR/rdonlyres/916BAEE6-AFB8-4720-B118-03366A...
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How denmark powers its Future

  1. 1. An Analysis of Wind Energy and Danish Power Clusters ANDERS LARSEN E03647 ALESSANDRO PAPELLO 627411 CHRISTIAN JØRGENSEN E03629 JONAS PETTERSSON E03685 MARIA D SANCHEZ HERRERO (LOLA) E03697 SIYUN SHEN 636471 1/1/2011 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CLASS: PROFESSOR J OHN A. MA THEWSL U I S S G U I D O C A R L I U N I V E R S I T Y V I A L E R O MA N I A 3 2 0 0 1 9 7 R O MA I T A L Y T E L + 3 9 0 6 8 5 2 2 5 5 0 4 FAX +3906 8522 5985
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. I N TR O D U C T I O N 22. HI S TO R Y & D Y N A M I C C O M P E TI T I V E F O R C E S - D I A M O N D A N A L Y S I S O F T H E D A N I S H W I N D TU R B I N E I N D U S TR Y 3 2 . 1 . T HE F A C TO R C O N D I T I O N 3 2 . 2 . F I R M S TR A TE G Y , S TR U C TU R E A N D R I V A L R Y 3 2.3. DEMAND CONDITION 4 2 . 4 . R E L A TE D A N D S U P P O R T I N G I N D U S TR Y 4 2.5. GOVERNMENT 4 2 . 6 . C HA N C E 4 3. T HE R E A L E X A M P L E O F T HE F R A M E W O R K : A A R HU S . T HE C L U S T E R . 5 4. V E S TA S : W O R L D ’ S # 1 TU R B I N E M A N U F A C TU R E R 6 5. HO W D I D T HE A C T O R S I N C L U S T E R C O N TR I B U TE T O T HE I N D U S TR Y ? 7 6. DIFFERENCE IN WIND TURBINE PATH BETWEEN DENMARK AND USA 8 7. T HE N E W E U R O P E A N P O L I C Y : E N E R G Y 2 0 2 0 1 0 8. C O N C L U S I O N S A N D R E C O M M E N D A TI O N S 11 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY 12 1
  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION The document’s main purpose is to clarify and complement the presentation of ProfessorMathews 2010-2011, Master Course in International Business, about Denmark’s Wind Clusters.Therefore, some introductory parts about the Danish land or the global wind industry will beoverlooked, in favor of a deeper analysis on the framework applied to the case, the realapplication of it – the Aarhus cluster- as well as an intensive explanation of the theories andindustry analyzing techniques used in this example.Keeping in mind, that no explanation can come without an informational context, we haveintroduced the history of the cluster in the explanation of the Dynamic Competitive ForcesFramework applied to the Danish Wind Industry cluster.Following, we will also take a look at United States’ evolution in this industry and how does itcompare to Denmark’s, using the “Bricolage vs. Breakthrough” approach from Garud, Raghu,and Peter Karnøe.We have also dedicated one of the closing points, to the new European policies and how thismay affect the cluster evolution in Denmark. We have considered this of special importance, dueto the effect of institutions and related official entities to the industry and to its competition.This part is related to a more dynamic analysis of the competitive forces. Overlooked by Porterin his static analysis, it was developed by Mathews as a revision of Porter’s framework, allowingit to acquire a dynamic status, allowing us to comprehend better the evolution of competition.For graphics, and more introductive data, please refer to the slides attached at the end.We are not going to analyze why it happens, but also how it happened, where did it start, whatconditions took part, how do the theories apply and who are the main actors of this amazingplay:THAT HAS TODAY CREATED, THE BIGGEST WIND INTERLINKED INDUSTRY OF THE WORLD,DESPITE ALL PREDICTIONS. 2
  4. 4. 2. HISTORY & DYNAMIC COMPETITIVE FORCES-DIAMOND ANALYSIS OF THE DANISH WIND TURBINE INDUSTRYTHE DIAMOND FRAMEWORK AND DYNAMIC COMPETITIVE FORCES FRAMEWORK CANEFFECTIVELY EXPLAIN THE SUCCESS OF DANISH WIND TURBINE INDUSTRY. THE FOUR MAINFACTORS, FACTOR CONDITIONS, STRATEGY, STRUCTURE AND RIVALRY, DEMAND AND RELATEDINDUSTRIES, ARE ALL INTERDEPENDENT AND TOGETHER FORM A PICTURE OF THEATTRACTIVENESS OF DANISH WIND TURBINE INDUSTRY. IN ADDITION TO THIS GOVERNMENTAND CHANCE ALSO HAVE AN IMPACT ON ALL FACTORS IN THE DIAMOND AND THECOMPETITIVENESS OF THE INDUSTRY. 2.1. THE FACTOR CONDITIONThis part comprises nature resources, human resources and traditional culture. Naturalresource in Denmark is wind --- an abundant “raw material” in Denmark due to the nation’s longshore and thus a requirement for the expansion.Concerning the human resources, one of the most important factor conditions in Denmark wasthe old blacksmith industry and tradition of building wind turbines, which started in the late19th century. It all began as private/individual experiments, some of which were moresuccessful than others. These persons were mostly handicrafts workers and engineers withprevious experience from the machine industry. Together researchers and manufacturersconsequently utilized their existing capabilities and skills in the building of the wind turbinesand the competencies they did not have in-house were accessible from sub-contractors whowere on the lookout for new business areas to carry their businesses through the ups anddowns of the business cycle.With reference to the traditional culture, in the old Danish industry, workers were keen onsharing knowledge and skill, hence the culture that persists in today’s wind turbine clusters.1 2.2. FIRM STRATEGY, STRUCTURE AND RIVALRYDanish wind power industry during the 1970s did not start from scratch, but was built on asolid base of theories and practical know-hows in machinery sector. It leverages the machinerypractices to develop the three-blade turbine which works as a standard even today.The industry adopted a “Learning by doing” approach, without scientific knowledge they used alearning process which continually try and fail and try again to improve the quality of windturbine. The efficiency of one component supplier grew with the number of units which alreadyproduced.Danish wind turbine industry faced rivalry of alternative energy as fossil fuel, nuclear power sothat the R&D never stopped in 20th century.1Jens Vestergaard (2004) Industry Formation and State Intervention: The Case of the Wind TurbineIndustry in Denmark and the United States. Aarhus School of Business. 3
  5. 5. 2.3. DEMAND CONDITIONLocal demand came from the Danish educated consumers. The 1970s oil embargo, priceincreases and the political measures had a huge impact on the public’s attitude towards energyand energy consumption, which until then had not been a matter at all. People suddenly becamemore aware of the environment problem, energy and eco-friendly policies became importantsubjects and were intensely discussed in the mass media, in the offices as well as in privatehouseholds in Denmark. Progressively more people were supportive of renewable and non-polluting energy sources and started to unite themselves in organizations and support groups. 2.4. RELATED AND SUPPORTING INDUSTRYAt the end of the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s a well-functioning network ofsubcontractors supplying wings (blades), control systems and gears was established. TheDanish wind turbine cluster includes not only the manufactures, components suppliers but alsoresearch institutions, such as national laboratory and universities. Test center and users alsobecome a part of the cluster in which they provide input. 2.5. GOVERNMENTGovernment played an important role in the development of Danish wind turbine industry.First, it set up the Risø National Laboratory in 1978, which improved the research and testingworks. Second, it enacted the policy of energy package and energy plan, which permitted thelinking of wind power to the grid and set a base price for the wind power. The plan established amarket for wind turbine electricity and focused the market’s attention on the cost efficiency ofthe turbines. Lacking these subsidies wind turbines as suppliers of energy would not have beencompetitive compared to the traditional power plants and other energy sources. Finally, itsenvironment policy also supported the development of wind power industry. 2.6. CHANCEThe triumph of Danish wind turbine industry was due to some chances outside. First, two oilembargoes of 1973 and 1979 and the awakening green movement in the Western societies gavea real boost to the Danish wind turbine industry and set the stage for the present era of windpower. Second, California wind rushes during 1980-1986 stimulated the international windenergy industry to develop. In 1982 when an examination of the American market confirmedthat a basis for “something big” existed, all of the large wind turbine manufacturers immediatelyrushed to the other continent and came home with orders in sizes that were not even possiblein the small domestic market but which made it possible for the manufacturers to start batchproduction of wind turbines. 4
  6. 6. FIGURE 1 DYNAMIC FORCES FRAMEWORK ADAPTED TO CASE. ADAPTED FROM THEORY IN: MATHEWS,STRATEGIZING, DISEQUILIBRIUM AND PROFITS (STANFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2006). 3. THE REAL EXAMPLE OF THE FRAMEWORK: AARHUS. THE CLUSTER.“A CLOSER LOOK AT DENMARK’S WIND INDUSTRY REVEALS A LARGE CONCENTRATION OFCOMPANIES LOCATED IN THE CENTRAL DENMARK BELT FROM AARHUS IN THE EAST TORINGKØBING AND SKJERN IN THE WEST. “More than a third of the 175 companies which, according to Denmark’s Central BusinessRegister are directly involved with the production of wind turbines are located in this region.The largest and most globally significant companies reside in the area around Denmark’ssecond largest city, Aarhus. The Greater Aarhus area and its surrounding municipalities are alsohome to half of all Danish wind energy companies with five employees or more. Many globalcompanies have located their headquarters or development centers in the Aarhus area. Thisincludes the world’s largest wind turbine manufacturer, Vestas, which will be discussed in thefollowing point (see point 7 of the project).Aarhus is the leading global knowledge center of wind energy. One of the keys to its success iscross-sector cooperation. Aarhus has benefited enormously from the strong professional andindustrial environment in the region within energy and environmental technology. Many of thewind industry suppliers are also suppliers to other energy sectors and major environmental andenergy-tech companies in the area. This turns competition to coopetition, allowing the dynamic 5
  7. 7. forces of supply and factor conditions to act on the industry and the firms, creating synergiesand maximizing the results. FIGURE 2 AARHUS MAP WITH DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES. SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.AARHUSKOMMUNE.DK (USE BIBLIOGRAPHY TO SEE IN HIGH RES.) 4. VESTAS: WORLD’S # 1 TURBINE MANUFACTURERAS VESTAS IS THE GLOBAL LEADER ON THE WORLD MARKET FOR WIND ENERGY AND BETWEENTHE KEY DRIVERS OF THE DANISH WIND ENERGY CLUSTER.Vestas was founded in 1898 by H.S. Hansen, a blacksmith, in Denmark. Father and sonmanufactured steel windows for industrial buildings. In 1945, his son established the companyVEstjysk-STålteknik A/S, whose name was shortened to Vestas. In 1979, Vestas delivered thefirst wind turbines.Vestas has installed over 39,000 wind turbines in 63 countries on 5 continents. In 2008, Vestasinstalled a new turbine every three hours worldwide, generating more than 60 million Mwah ayear. Being a pioneer in the industry, Vestas now counts with a staff of more than 20,000 people.Vestas reached revenues of EUR 6,035 million with operational margin of 11.1% in 2008 andthey got global market share of 19% (5,581 MW). Vestas’ core business comprises thedevelopment, manufacture, sale and maintenance of wind turbines.Their expertise in modern energy covers more than just wind turbines, specializing in planning,installation, operation and maintenance. Their competencies cover everything from site studiesto service and maintenance. So we can detect a high degree of vertical integration. At the same 6
  8. 8. time, production and sourcing are carried out as close to the market as possible. In 2008, Vestasopened the world’s largest research and development center for wind energy in Aarhus. 5. HOW DID THE ACTORS IN CLUSTER CONTRIBUTE TO THE INDUSTRY?SHAPING THE DANISH WIND TURBINE DESIGN WAS AN ACT OF COLLABORATIVE NETWORKCONSISTING OF MANY ACTORS INVOLVED IN WIND TURBINES LIKE DESIGNERS,MANUFACTURERS, SUPPLIERS, INSTITUTIONS, TEST ORGANIZATIONS AND POLICY MAKERS. THEACTORS IN DENMARK PURSUED A PROCESS THAT DEPLOYED MODEST RESOURCES TOPROGRESSIVELY BUILD UP A VIABLE WIND TURBINE PATH. FIGURE 3 EXPLICATIVE GRAPHIC OF THE SYSTEM.In the cluster a sectorial system of innovation played an important role. The firms do notinnovate in isolation rather innovations are product of various complementary processes. Thesecomplementary processes involve both firms as well as non-firm organizations (such asuniversities, research centers, government agencies, financial institutions and others). Thus thesectorial system of innovation approach emphasizes actors, networks, knowledge andinstitutions and the interactions between these elements. For instance, designers and producersbecome involved based on their beliefs and experiences on the design and production oftechnological artifacts. Users become involved based on the meanings that they attach toproducts with respect to their forms, functions and values in use. Evaluators become involvedbased on their understanding of the tests and standards required to compare and contrastdifferent products. Policy makers enact laws based on their beliefs on the efficacy of specificpolicy instruments to shape the rate and direction of a technology’s development.The momentum a technology generates as it accumulates inputs from actors shapes theactivities of distributed actors. These inputs are generated through learning and knowledge 7
  9. 9. accumulation processes that are activated as actors become involved with an emerging path.From the supply side, producers learn by doing and by experimenting. Through these processes,these actors generate capabilities that are critical for the systematic design, production anddistribution of goods and services. Users generate feedback when they use products andservices that emerge from the technology. Such learning by using generates knowledge ofcustomers’ emerging preferences. Institutional players generate other kinds of learning. Forinstance, those in regulatory bodies develop institutional mechanisms and policies to “steer” thetechnology development process. More proximally, test centers generate inputs by a process oflearning by testing. The testing criteria that they codify and the results of comparative testsbecome valuable community level knowledge.2 6. DIFFERENCE IN WIND TURBINE PATH BETWEEN DENMARK AND USAWe use overall contrasting labels “Bricolage” and “breakthrough” to highlight the differences inthe processes associated with actor involvement in the two paths. Bricolage, named used tolabel the processes of the Danish industry, was characterized by up-and-coming co-shaping. Forexample, designers and producers progressively scaled up designs all the while incorporatingthe inputs of the many companies involved. Users offered continual feedback while those in testcenters developed evaluation routines that co-evolved with experiences in the field. All thewhile, policy makers “modulated” the rise of the market to keep the technological path alive.A diverse logic of disseminated agency appeared in the development of the US wind turbineroute. Designers and producers tried to “leap-frog” Denmark with high-tech designs.Researchers at the test center followed a “linear” engineering science based technology-pushmodel as their source for exchanges with industry participants. Regulators passed policies tojump-start the technology, outgrowth the development of a vast market, and then brusquelyremoved subsidies.In terms of design and production, there were key differences in the traditions. Companies inthe US started with a advanced design, took large steps in design scale-up, and did not engage inmuch product development in-between stages. In contrast, actors in Denmark started with alow-tech design, took smaller steps in design scale-up, and engaged in product development in-between stages. (Therefore from the figure below we can see there are more scale-ups in Danishwind power.)2Garud, R. and P. Karnøe (2003). "Bricolage versus breakthrough: distributed and embedded agency intechnology entrepreneurship." Research Policy 32(2): 277-300. 8
  10. 10. FIGURE 4 P., R. GARUD, ET AL. (1997). PATH CREATION AND DEPENDENCE IN THE DANISH WIND TURBINE FIELD.The firms in Denmark possessed a core group of skilled workers, technicians and a few practicalengineers. Such a mix was representative of the “mechanical skill” base that had emerged as aresult of a “practical engineer” education typical of the Danish machine industry. These firmsbegan developing wind turbines without an appreciation of the complexities involved. Thepeople involved saw the wind turbine as presenting a set of problems similar to those they hadconfronted in the construction of agricultural machinery. (The table below shows five typicalcomponent firms in Denmark.)On the other side, experts in the US approached design from an engineering science knowledgebase, conceptualizing problems in terms of the formal, academic language of aerodynamics andstructural dynamics. The goal of many engineers was to create a design that had drasticallychanged features compared to existing technology. 9
  11. 11. FIGURE 5 FIVE TYPICAL COMPONENT FIRMS IN DENMARK 7. THE NEW EUROPEAN POLICY: ENERGY 2020IN 2007 THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL ADOPTED AMBITIOUS ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGEOBJECTIVES FOR 2020; THESE WERE REFERRED TO AS THE "20-20-20" TARGETS.They can be summarized in three main points, first being to reduce greenhouse gas emissionsby 20% compared to 1990 levels (or by 30% if the conditions are right); second being achieving20% of total energy consumption to be from renewable energy and increasing energy efficiencyby 20%; and third: that the 3% of the EUs GDP was to be invested in research and development.EU2020 seems to have forgotten to attach a feasible strategy to the policy. Of course, due to themomentum’s excitement, nobody seemed to realize the vacant. Recently, studies have shownthat the existing strategy is currently unlikely to achieve all the 2020 targets, for generaldisappointment and global shame.The main issue, concerning our research, is that –as said by the Dynamic Competitive ForcesFramework- what happens in the Institutions, affects the industry. This is proved by the factthat if governments do not get behind the proposal for a European grid (i.e. a new strategy forthe current objectives), we will “face an absurd situation in which renewable energy capacity isbeing built, but no adequate grid exists to deliver the 34% of renewable electricity needed by 2020to reach the EU’s binding renewable energy targets3”. Consequently, blocking Denmark’s windcluster growing capacity, since there will be no point in continuing to build stock and turbines, ifthey cannot be used.3Christian Kjaer, EWEA chief executive officer. (2010) http://www.euractiv.com/en/energy/eu-says-200bn-needed-energy-grids-2020-news-499806 10
  12. 12. The consequences are far more than serious, since the whole industry interconnection is deeplylinked to the demand pull and supply pull innovation and evolution. Thus, we cannot limit ourconcerns to environmental issues and energy costs, furthermore we need to take into accountthe impact of such a mistake on the global energy industry, keeping in mind that its valuedepends on its interconnections and no part of it has value itself. Comprising in union, a mega-web of synergies and linkages, basic to develop leverage, learning and in sum: Growth.Hence, the European Council has lately come up with a solution, which is still being revised dueto its controversial measures. One of which is to make, over the next ten years, energyinvestments in the order of 1 € trillion. Indeed, 200€ billion are needed to upgrade Europes gasand electricity grids over the coming decade.The new Europe 2020 strategy 4will drive major efforts in: Energy market regulation, gridmanagement and the security of energy systems; Technical innovation and investments;Education and incentives for domestic and business consumers to save energy, reduce Wastageand switch to low-carbon technologies and fuels. 8. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Denmark is now the leading center within the field of wind power. However during therecent years a significant change in technology and markets has taken place. Denmark is facedwith the challenge to maintain its leading position in spite of growing competition from firmsoperating in lower cost countries, especially China and India. The wind energy cluster and thepolitical system must assume a proactive position towards this change to ensure that Denmarkwill strengthen its position as unique value creator.The industrial environment is built on a foundation which consists of a significant effort inresearch and education as well as innovative development focused on environmentallysustainability. This field of wind power is influenced by cooperation and knowledge-sharing tofind technological development tracks.The Danish research-environment has a leading position within a number of areas, but greatchallenges in step with the rapid development of international markets put a lot of pressure ofthe Danish knowledge center to hold on the talented researchers and students. In order tomaintain the unique Danish position, an extraordinary effort must be put in.The strategic issues are focusing on both, development of the wind power industry byimproving wind turbines and effectiveness of wind power, and the improvement of theknowledge center regarding research and education.Creating one strategy for the whole value chain with sub-strategies for each of the dimensionsof the industry would strengthen the integration and the competitiveness of the wind powerindustry. This could be provided through common guidelines for the frames of cooperation.Following these recommendations, Denmark will be prepared to face the current challenges.4ENERGY 2020: A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy. Citizens’ Summary.http://ec.europa.eu/energy/strategies/2010/doc/2010_11_10_energy_2020_citizens_summary.pdf 11
  13. 13. 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY" ProvenModels - dynamic competitive forces - John A. Mathews ." ProvenModels - Management Models | Management Theory | Business Models | Michael Porter | Henry Mintzberg | Management Model | Business School . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Jan. 2011. <http://www.provenmodels.com/599>.A toolbox for cluster inspired regional development: innovative regions facing the challenges of globalisation.. Aalborg: North Denmark EU-office, 2008. Print."Blowing in the wind: the Danes have shown that wind energy thrives when there is consistent government support and community ownership." Alternatives Journal 1 Jan. 2004: 1. Print.Boon, M.C.. Why did Danish entrepreneurs take the lead in the wind turbine industry and not the Dutch?: a study on the interaction between evolution and strategy of two communities in an emerging industry. Rotterdam: Erasmus Universiteit, 2008. Print.Brandt, Urs Steiner, and Gert Svendsen. Switch point and first-mover advantage: the case of the wind turbine industry.. Aarhus: Department of Economics, Faculty of Business Administration, Aarhus School of Business, 2004. Print.Bæk, Jeppe. New ways in the transport of wind turbines: on transportational challenges to be faced by the wind turbine industry. S.l.: Nordisk Transportpolitisk Netværk, 2004. Print.Chiesa, Vittorio, and Davide Chiaroni. Industrial Clusters In Biotechnology: Driving Forces, Development Processes And Management Practices.. Singapore: World Scientific, 2004. Print."Denmark - Wind Power Hub." Visiolink - defining Digital Media. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2010. <http://www.e-pages.dk/windpower/21/>.Drejer, Ina, Frank Kristensen, and Keld Laursen. Cluster studies as a basis for industrial policy: the case of Denmark.. Denmark: N.A., 1999. Print.Energy statistics of OECD countries = [electronic resource] : Statistiques de leÌ•nergie des pays de lOCDE. 2008 ed. Paris: OECD/IEA, 2008. Print.Future offshore: a strategic framework for the offshore wind industry.. London?: Department of Trade and Industry, 2002. Print.Garud, Raghu, and Peter Karnøe,Path dependence and creation . Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001. Print.Identification and analysis of industry cycles . na: Elsevier, 2009. Print.Karnøe,¸e, Peter. Comments on "Wind energy in America - a history" (a book by Robert W. Righter . Copenhagen Business School: Copenhagen, 1998. Print.Karnøe,¸e, Peter, and Raghu Garud. Path creation and dependence in the Danish wind turbine field . Copenhagen: Institute of Organization and Industrial Sociology, Copenhagen Business School, 1998. Print.Karnøe,¸e, Peter, Peer Hull Kristensen, and Poul Houman Andersen. Mobilizing resources and generating competencies: the remarkable success of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Danish business system. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press :, 1999. Print.Mathews, John A.. Strategizing, disequilibrium, and profit . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Business Books, 2006. 12
  14. 14. Print.Porter, Michael E.. Clusters and the new economics of competition . Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review , 1998. Print.Potter, Jonathan, and Gabriela Miranda. Clusters, innovation and entrepreneurship . Paris: Oecd, 2009. Print.The U.S. small wind turbine industry roadmap: a 20-year industry plan for small wind turbine technology. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2002. Print.Wijbrands, H.G.. Innovation networks for a better environment: how successful innovation networks van stimulate the wind turbine industry. Rotterdam: Erasmus Universiteit, 2006. Print.Winds of change a manufacturing blueprint for the wind industry.. Washington, DC: American Wind Energy Association, 2010. Print.Cluster Observatory: Country Report: Denmark (2007) http://www.clusterobservatory.eu/upload/Policy_Report_Denmark_20080116.pdfDanish Energy Authority (2002) Wind Energy in Denmark Status 2001http://193.88.185.141/Graphics/Publikationer/Forsyning_UK/Wind_Energy_in_Denmark170402.pdfDanish Exporters: http://www.danishexporters.dk/scripts/danishexporters/export.asp (11.01.10)DWIA (2008) Denmark – Wind Power Hub, Danish Industry Associationhttp://www.windpower.org/download/378/profilbrochure_2008.pdfDWIA (2009) Facts on production, number and capacity, Danish Wind Industry AssociationDWIA (2009) Past and present - successful developments followed by stalemate, Danish Wind IndustryAssociationEnergy Policy Statement (2008) The report of the minister of climate and energy pursuant to the Danish Acton Energy Policy MeasuresEnergy Statistics 2007, Danish Energy AgencyEREC: Renewable Energy Policy Review DenmarkGamesa: http://www.gamesacorp.com/en/where-are-we/contacts-by-countries/wind-turbines-manufacture Krohn, S. (2002) Danish Wind Turbines: An Industrial Success Story, Danish Wind Industry Associationhttp://guidedtour.windpower.org/media(483,1033)/Danish_Wind_Turbine_Industry,_an_industrial_succes_story.pdfKrohn1, S. (2002) The Wind Turbine Market in Denmark, Danish Wind Industry AssociationKrohn2, S. (2002) Wind Energy Policy in Denmark: 25 Years of Success – What Now? Danish Wind IndustryAssociationKrohn3, S. (2002) Wind Energy Policy in Denmark Status 2002, Danish Wind Industry AssociationMeyer, N.I. (2007) Learning from Wind Energy Policy in the EU: Lessons from Denmark, Sweden and Spain,European Environment, 17, 5, pp. 347-362 13
  15. 15. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark: Factsheet Denmarkhttp://www.denmark.dk/NR/rdonlyres/916BAEE6-AFB8-4720-B118-03366AB1154A/0/DenmarkOverview.pdfVestas: http://www.vestas.com/en/about-vestas/history.aspxVestergaard, J., et al. (2004) A Brief History of The Wind Turbine Industry of Denmark and the United States,Academy of International Business (Southeast USA Chapter) Conference Proceedings, November 2004, pp.322-327World Economic Forum: Global Competitiveness Report 2009World Economic Outlook DatabaseWorld Fact Book: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2078rank.htmlYettin, et al. (2003) Are Diamonds a Country’s Best Friend? Australian Journal of Management, 17, 1, June1992 14

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