Locating Articles Using the Locate Journals Service
Lola Gilbert
ED5803 Design and Development Project
TOPIC SELECTION
Topic: Locating Articles Using the Locate Journals Service
I selected this topic because it is a subject w...
The delivery environment will be online, from on or off campus, and can be completed
individually or in groups.
The applic...
c. Click on the drop-down menu arrow.
d. Select the “Title equals” option from the drop-down menu.
e. Type the name of the...
article that they located.]
Reference:
Rothwell, W.J., & Kazanas, H.C. (2008). Mastering the instructional design process:...
published, then the article will not be accessible to the learner. Learners may
erroneously select a database that does no...
Learners will be completing this instruction in a paper-based and self-instructed
environment. There will not be anyone pr...
SEQUENCING OF OBJECTIVES AND INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
Sequencing of Objectives
Sequencing Strategy: Step-by-Step Sequencin...
technologies used should serve a purpose that cannot be accomplished any other way.
Objective #1: Using the Internet, lear...
describe in detail every sub-step they needed to
complete in order to complete the step. It will
instruct them make sure t...
them that these materials will enable them to
complete this step.
6. Prompt the performance.
Inform learners that it is ti...
also provide of other tools that make completing a
task easier, like using a website’s address to
navigate to a specific w...
relevancy of the content, the content, examples, and practice activities for
learners to try the concepts or skills, and f...
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U07a1 lola gilbert_sequencingofobjectivesandinstructionalstrategies

  1. 1. Locating Articles Using the Locate Journals Service Lola Gilbert ED5803 Design and Development Project
  2. 2. TOPIC SELECTION Topic: Locating Articles Using the Locate Journals Service I selected this topic because it is a subject with which I have a lot of experience. Our current catalog does not provide article title searching. Instead, when a person looking for a specific article needs to see if we have it, they have to find the article by locating the journal in which the article was published. My interest lies more in creating instruction for this topic that focuses on the learner completing the task, versus an instructor completing the task. Until our catalog has the capability to provide article level searching, we (each person in my department) teach this task at least 10 times a day. I believe that the content is manageable because when we demonstrate the process for a student and then have them walk through it themselves, it takes about five minutes. However, since the learner will be taking themselves through the process, then it may take longer, but it shouldn’t take more than 20 minutes. This topic is an intellectual skill because the learner must have the knowledge required in order to problem solve how to find an article they want from a citation or reference list. Learners are using a process to solve a problem by drawing on their knowledge, which qualifies this topic as an intellectual skill. Goal of Instruction: The goal of this instruction is to develop learners who can independently locate articles they need, when they are not able to perform article level searches. Rationale: Lifelong learning is valued highly at our university. Helping students learn to be able to function without our assistance will help them become more independent with their studies and even after they graduate. Since there is an obvious need for learning this skill, and since it is problem that can be addressed with instruction in a cost-effective manner, then it makes sense to create instruction for this skill. LEARNER ANALYSIS AND WORK SETTING ANALYSIS Learner Analysis Learners must know how to use a computer, access the internet, navigate the internet, read or understand English and must have patience. Learners must be able to use a keyboard and/or mouse. Learners ages range from 16-70 years old, have diverse life experiences, are from diverse cultures, are diverse races, are both male and female, have diverse educational interests, have diverse employment goals, are in different stages of both their academic and job careers, have different physical capabilities, speak different languages, and have different learning styles. Work Setting Analysis The instructional development environment will include a computer workstation, Microsoft Word, and a computer screen shot program.
  3. 3. The delivery environment will be online, from on or off campus, and can be completed individually or in groups. The application environment will be online, from on or off campus, and for course assignments. TASK ANALYSIS A task analysis helps instructional designers determine the steps required in order for a person to perform a task. According to Rothwell and Kazanas (2008), a task analysis is a vital tool for instructional designers, “To design job-specific instruction, instructional designers must know in precise detail exactly what workers do, how they do it, why they do it, what mental, physical, and learning requirements are essential do doing it, and what equipment or other resources they must have to perform” (p. 139). Since a job analysis cannot provide such detailed information, a task analysis must be conducted to obtain this information, “The results of a job analysis are too general to provide this amount of detail. Consequently, task analysis is necessary as a starting point for preparing performance objectives to guide results to be achieved by instruction” (Rothwell & Kazanas, 2008, p. 139). Goal of Instruction: For learners to locate an article in a database using an article citation and the “Journals” tab on the Criss Library web site. Tasks: 1. Identify the title of the journal from the citation provided. [Learners will be provided with a citation from a journal article in the instruction packet. Learners will use the citation to locate an article. Learners who successfully complete this step (step 1) will be able identify which portion of the citation is the title of the journal.] 2. Navigate to Criss Library’s website homepage. a. Open an Internet browser session. b. Enter http://library.unomaha.edu in the browser search box. c. Press the “Enter” button. [Learners will need access to the Internet to complete the rest of this task. Learners will use the Internet to connect to the library’s website homepage. Learners who successfully complete this step (step 2) will need to be able to know how to open an Internet browser session, where to enter the library website address, and where the “Enter” button is on the keyboard or keypad.] 3. Locate a database which contains your article. a. Locate the “Journals” tab on the library website home page. b. Click on the “Journals” tab.
  4. 4. c. Click on the drop-down menu arrow. d. Select the “Title equals” option from the drop-down menu. e. Type the name of the journal in which the article is located in the search box. f. Click on the “Search” button. g. Select the most appropriate database for locating your article. [Learners will be viewing the library website homepage after successfully completing step two. Learners will use the “Journals” tab to find a database that contains the article they are trying to locate. Learners who successfully complete this step (step 3) must be able to find the “Journals” tab on the homepage, click on the tab, identify the drop-down menu arrow, identify and select the correct option from the menu, identify the search box in the menu, type the journal name into the search box, identify and click on the “Search” button, and select a database that contains the article identified in the citation that was provided, which means that the learner must be able to distinguish the databases’ periods of coverage and then to select that/one of those databases.] 4. Locate article in the selected database. a. Click on the title of the database that you selected. (NOTE: Complete steps 4b-4d if you are off-campus, otherwise skip to step 4e.) b. Enter your last name in the authentication page. c. Enter your library barcode (NU ID number) in the authentication page. d. Click on the “Submit” button. e. Click on the year the article was published. f. Click on the date and/or volume and issue number of the correct journal. g. Locate the article by scrolling through the results list. h. Click on the link to the article that you located. [All Learners will be viewing a list of the databases which contain the journal with the title that they entered in step three. Learners will use the database to find the article in the citation that was provided to them. Learners who successfully complete this step (step 4) must be able to find the title of database that they selected in step three, and click on the title which is a hyperlink that will connect them to the database. Learners who are located off-campus must locate where to enter their last name, enter their last name, locate where to enter their library barcode, know their library barcode, enter their barcode, and locate the “Submit” button, click on the “Submit” button to complete the authentication process. All learners must locate the year the article was published, click on the year the article was published, locate the date and/or volume and issue that the article was published, click on the date and/or volume and issue number, to scroll through a results list, locate the article within the results lists, and click on the link to the
  5. 5. article that they located.] Reference: Rothwell, W.J., & Kazanas, H.C. (2008). Mastering the instructional design process: A systematic approach. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES AND MEASUREMENTS Objectives Performance objectives describe the task that a learner should be able to complete after having received instruction. According to Rothwell and Kazanas (2008), “A performance objective is an expression of the desired result of a learning experience. It differs from a performance goal in that is measureable and is an expression of what should be achieved. It differs from activities in that it describes desired results, not behaviors leading to results” (p. 171). 1. Using the Internet, learners will successfully navigate to Criss Library’s website homepage with no assists for 100% accuracy. [All learners will need to have access to the Internet in order to complete this task. Learners will use the Internet to access the library website’s homepage. Successful learners will be able to open an Internet browser session, locate the browser search box, know or be able to locate the website address to the library website’s homepage, enter the website address to the library website’s homepage, and press the “Enter” key on their keyboard or keypad within the criteria specified in the objective. Since the instruction is self-instructed, learners must be able to complete this objective on their own. Learners cannot complete the rest of the instruction if they do not first complete this task. There are many pages on the library’s website. There are also many libraries that have their websites available online. Learners must access this specific page of this specific library’s website. The only way to find articles in the library’s databases is by using this online tool. The library does not have a print equivalent, so learners must be able to use the Internet to complete this objective under this condition.] 2. Provided with a citation, learners will select a database that contains the article listed in the citation in 2 trials or less with no assists. [All learners will be provided a citation for an article located in a journal. Learners will use the “Journals” tab on the library website’s homepage to access the article in the citation. Successful learners will need to be able to locate the title of the journal in which the article was published, locate the “Journals” tab on the library website’s homepage, click on the “Journals” tab, locate the drop-down menu, click on the arrow on the drop- down menu, locate the “Title equals” option, select the “Title equals” option, locate the journal search feature’s search box, enter the journal title in the search box, click on the “Submit” button, locate a database that contains the article from the databases listed, and click on the database title hyperlink within the criteria specified in the objective. Learners must be able to determine if the database they selected contains the article in the citation. If the library does not have the period of coverage for when the article was
  6. 6. published, then the article will not be accessible to the learner. Learners may erroneously select a database that does not have the periods of coverage for the journal that is needed, so they should be allowed to make this mistake as part of the learning process. However, learners should be able to determine that the reason they could not locate the article in the database was because of the periods of coverage for the journal and to then select a database that does. Since the instruction is self-instructed, learners must be able to complete this objective independently. The only reason that learners would use the “Journals” tab to find an article instead of going directly into a database would be because they have a citation for a specific article. It is for this reason that learners would need to complete the task under the condition in the objective.] 3. Provided with a citation, learners will locate the article listed in the citation in a database in 3 trials or less with no assists. [All learners will be provided a citation for an article located in a journal. Learners will use the citation and the database they selected in objective 2 to locate the article in the citation. Learners completing this instruction from off-campus will need to complete a database authentication process. This process requires learners to enter their last name, enter their NU ID number, and click on the “Submit” button. All successful learners must be able to locate the year the article was published from the list of dates displayed, click on the year, locate the correct volume/issue or date, click on the correct volume/issue or date, scroll through the results list, locate the article from within the results, locate on the article’s title, and click on the article’s title link within the criteria specified in the objective. Once learners have selected a database that contains the article in the citation (objective 2), they must be able to locate the actual article. Learners may click on the wrong link or select the wrong article, so some room for error should be included. However, learners should be able to determine why they did not link to the article and make any necessary corrections to the steps they completed. Since the instruction is self-instructed, learners must be able to complete this objective independently. The structure of the results list is broken down by year, volume/issue or date, and then the articles are displayed in the results list by page number. In order to ensure that learners are able to find the article using this tool, they will need to have the citation available.] Measurements Performance measurements are instruments developed to measure whether or not a learner has successfully achieved a performance objective. In 2008, Rothwell and Kazanas explained how performance measurements should be written, “The performance measures should be written clearly and correspond to performance objectives, rely on appropriate methods of learning outcomes, comply with time and instructional constraints, and meet requirements for validity and reliability” (p. 192). Criteria for this instruction requires that the instruction be paper-based, self-instructed, and self-paced. This criteria impacts the measurement instrument that is selected to use for evaluating learner performance. 1. Describe the steps you completed in order to access the library website’s homepage.
  7. 7. Learners will be completing this instruction in a paper-based and self-instructed environment. There will not be anyone present to observe them while they complete the performance objective. Having the learner describe the steps that they completed to complete this task will provide the instructor with insight into the learner’s ability to successfully complete this task. Rummler, G. A. (2007), The past is prologue: An eyewitness account of HPT. Performance Improvement, 46: 5–9. doi: 10.1002/pfi.166 2. Select the database that contains the article listed in the above citation from the choices listed below: A. Performance Improvement (1090-8811) from 01/01/1997 to 01/31/2006 in ABI/INFORM Global. B. Performance Improvement (1090-8811) from 01/01/1997 to 01/31/2010 in Wiley Interscience Journals. C. The Past Is Prologue: An Eyewitness Account of HPT. D. Performance Improvement (1090-8811) from 01/01/2008 to present in Directory of Open Access Journals. Learners will be completing this instruction in a paper-based and self-instructed environment. There will not be anyone present to observe them while they complete the performance objective. This measurement item will allow the instructor to tell if the learner is able to determine the correct title from the two titles in the citation and if the learner is able to select the correct database in which to find the article in the citation. Claude Hillinger (2010). The Crisis and Beyond: Thinking Outside the Box. Economics: The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Vol. 4, 2010-23. 3. Select the article in the above citation from the choices listed below: A. Academic Search Premier B. Economics: The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal C. Information Efficiency and Financial Stability D. The Crisis and Beyond: Thinking Outside the Box Learners will be completing this instruction in a paper-based and self-instructed environment. There will not be anyone present to observe them while they complete the performance objective. This measurement item will allow the instructor to tell if the learner is able to determine the correct title from the citation provided, as well as if the learner can select the correct article from a list of choices. Reference: Rothwell, W.J., & Kazanas, H.C. (2008). Mastering the instructional design process: A systematic approach. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
  8. 8. SEQUENCING OF OBJECTIVES AND INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Sequencing of Objectives Sequencing Strategy: Step-by-Step Sequencing Rationale: The sequence in which instruction is presented affects the way that learning occurs. According to Rothwell and Kazanas (2008), instruction should sequenced systematically, “It [instructions] should be sequenced so learners will be systematically introduced to work activities in ways appropriate to the performance objectives, the learners themselves, and the situations or conditions in which they must learn” (p. 212). The performance objectives in this instruction follow a step-by-step process. Each step builds on the previous step in order to complete the task. It is the type of task that learners can be guided through by using a checklist. Learners will also not have the benefit of a trainer. They will be expected to learn through self-instruction. Rothwell and Kazanas (2008) supported step-by-step sequencing as appropriate for this instruction, “On occasion, training is not necessary for step-by-step learning to occur. Learners may be coached through a task by means of a job aid, such as a checklist or step-by-step description of a procedure. Alternatively, they may be coached through a task with a decision tool such as a flowchart, diagram, or electronic tool” (p. 215). The approach for this instruction will follow a step-by-step sequence. Learners will be provided with a checklist for completing each step. Each piece of information and each step completed will build on the next until the entire task is completed. Instructional Strategies Instructional strategies provide instructors with an arrangement for providing instruction, “In the most general sense, an instructional strategy is perhaps best understood as an overall plan for governing content (What will be taught?) and process (How will it be taught?)” (Rothwell & Kazanas, 2008, p. 231). It simply provides a guideline for what to teach, as well as how to teach it. These strategies are intended to be a useful tool for helping instructional designers design instruction. According to Rothwell and Kazanas (2008), “The aim of establishing an instructional strategy is, quite simply, to plan holistically. It helps instructional designers conceptualize, before they begin time-consuming and expensive preparation or selection of instructional materials, what must be done to facilitate learning” (p. 231). Completing this planning process forces instructional designers to carefully consider the decisions that they make. It also prevents designers from making costly errors that otherwise might not be discovered until the instruction was implemented. Rothwell and Kazanas (2008) offered guidance to instructional designers when they wrote, “In the the process of planning instructional strategy, instructional designers should take care to match the method with the objectives. They should also avoid the tendency—too often evident—to seize on using emerging technologies for their own sake (Piskurich, 1993)” (p. 231). While there is often outside pressure to incorporate these new technologies, they should never be included just to have them included. Any
  9. 9. technologies used should serve a purpose that cannot be accomplished any other way. Objective #1: Using the Internet, learners will successfully navigate to Criss Library’s website homepage with no assists for 100% accuracy. Instructional Event Instructional Strategy (Describe how you will accomplish the instructional event) 1. Capture the attention of the learner. The instruction packet will provide the following statistic to the learner: The Google Blog now reports that the company has located over 1 trillion web pages (Google, 2008, para.1). It will then ask the student the question, “How challenging is it for you to find a single web page out of over 1 trillion web pages?” 2. Describe to learners what performance objectives are to be achieved. The packet will explain that during this instruction learners will be expected be able to use the Internet to navigate to the Criss Library Website Homepage. It will explain that in order for students to continue with any further steps, that they must be able to accomplish this objective. It will It will also explain that learners will be expected to do this without any assistance. 3. Help learners recall prerequisite learning. The packet will ask students to think about the all the methods they have used to find web sites in the past. Then it will remind them of the ways to locate web pages by listing the different ways in the packet. Next it will ask students to ask themselves out of all the ways possible, which way was the most time efficient and accurate? 4. Present instruction to facilitate learners’ achievement of performance objectives. Packets will include a written lecture that provides an example of how a person would navigate to a specific website page. 5. Guide the learners through the materials so they begin to meet the objectives. The packet will cue the learner to use the previous example and the information provided in the packet to navigate to the library website homepage. 6. Prompt the performance. The instructions will direct the learner to complete the step by working through the checklist provided in the instructional packet from the beginning. 7. Give feedback to the learners. The instruction will ask the learner if they are now viewing the library website’s homepage. It will congratulate them if they did and ask them to review the checklist and try again. 8. Evaluate how well the learners are beginning to achieve the objectives. Learners will be asked to put away all materials except for the sheet in the packet titled “Navigating to the Criss Library Website’s Homepage Evaluation” worksheet. Students will be asked to
  10. 10. describe in detail every sub-step they needed to complete in order to complete the step. It will instruct them make sure to provide as much detail as necessary, including which browser they used and any problems that they encountered. 9. Work toward helping the learners retain what they have learned and apply it. The instruction packet will instruct learners to review the steps that they completed. Then it will encourage them to try to navigate to at least three other specific web pages from the web site addresses listed in the packet. Objective #2: Provided with a citation, learners will select a database that contains the article listed in the citation in 2 trials or less with no assists. Instructional Event Instructional Strategy (Describe how you will accomplish the instructional event) 1. Capture the attention of the learner. The instruction packet will include the following fact: The Criss Library subscribes to nearly 500 different databases. Then it will ask them, “How do you know which database to use to locate an article when the database is not included in the citation? How would you like to know the easiest way to find a database that contains your article? 2. Describe to learners what performance objectives are to be achieved. The packet will explain that during this instruction learners will be expected be able to use the citation provided in the packet and the “Journals” tab on the library website’s homepage to locate a database that contains the article in the citation. 3. Help learners recall prerequisite learning. The instruction packet will ask learners to recall learning to navigate to the library website’s homepage. Then it will explain that they will use that skill to complete this step. 4. Present instruction to facilitate learners’ achievement of performance objectives. The instruction packet will explain that during this instruction learners will now incorporate using the “Journals” tab on the library website’s homepage to find a database that contains the article in the citation. It will explain that the “Journals” tab is a tool that will make finding articles easier. It will also provide a list of other tools that make completing a task easier, like using a website’s address to navigate to a specific webpage versus performing a browser search. 5. Guide the learners through the materials so they begin to meet the objectives. The instruction packet will instruct learners to make sure that they have Internet access, the citation provided, and the “Selecting Your Database” checklist before beginning. It will tell
  11. 11. them that these materials will enable them to complete this step. 6. Prompt the performance. Inform learners that it is time to find the database that they need. 7. Give feedback to the learners. The instruction will ask the learner if they located a database that contains the article in the citation. It will congratulate them if they did and ask them to review the checklist and try again if they did not. 8. Evaluate how well the learners are beginning to achieve the objectives. Learners will be asked some questions on how to complete this step. The questions will provide a citation and a list of possible choices. If learners answer the question correctly, then they have successfully completed this task and will be congratulated and advised that they can move on the next step. If they did not answer the question or did not answer it correctly, then they will be given feedback on why their response was not correct and asked to try again. 9. Work toward helping the learners retain what they have learned and apply it. The instruction packet will instruct learners to review the steps that they completed. Then it will encourage them to try and locate other databases for other article citations that are provided in the packet. Objective #3: Provided with a citation, learners will locate the article listed in the citation in a database in 3 trials or less with no assists. Instructional Event Instructional Strategy (Describe how you will accomplish the instructional event) 1. Capture the attention of the learner. Review what learners have already covered. Then ask them, “What do you think the next step will be?”. 2. Describe to learners what performance objectives are to be achieved. The packet will explain that during this instruction learners will be expected be able to find the article in the citation by using the database that they selected in the previous step. 3. Help learners recall prerequisite learning. The instruction packet will ask learners to recall learning how to select a database that contains a specific article. Then it will explain that they will use that skill to complete this step. 4. Present instruction to facilitate learners’ achievement of performance objectives. The instruction packet will explain that during this instruction learners will now incorporate using the database they selected to find the article in the citation. It will explain that the “Journals” tab is a tool that will make finding articles easier. It will
  12. 12. also provide of other tools that make completing a task easier, like using a website’s address to navigate to a specific webpage versus performing a browser search. 5. Guide the learners through the materials so they begin to meet the objectives. The instruction packet will instruct learners to make sure that they have Internet access, the citation provided, and the “Finding Your Article in a Database” checklist before beginning. It will tell them that these materials will enable them to complete this step 6. Prompt the performance. Inform learners that it is time to find the article in the citation provided. 7. Give feedback to the learners. The instruction packet will ask the learner if they located the article in the citation. It will congratulate them if they did and ask them to review the checklist and try again if they did not. 8. Evaluate how well the learners are beginning to achieve the objectives. Learners will be asked to answer some questions regarding how to complete this step. The questions will provide a citation and a list of possible choices. If learners answer the question correctly, then they have successfully completed this task. If they did not answer the question, then they will be given feedback on why their response was not correct and asked to try again. 9. Work toward helping the learners retain what they have learned and apply it. The instruction packet will instruct learners to review the steps that they completed. Then it will encourage them to try and locate other articles in other citations that are provided in the packet. Google. (2008, July 25). We knew the web was big. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2008/07/we-knew-web-was-big.html (2010, August 29). Rothwell, W.J., & Kazanas, H.C. (2008). Mastering the instructional design process: A systematic approach. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. INSTRUCTIONAL PACKAGE [This part of the Design Document is completed in u010a1. Construct a print-based instructional package that includes three components: (1) a learner guidesheet, (2) instructional materials, and (3) a test. A description of the required elements for each component is included below. 1. Learner guidesheet – Include instructions for your learners on how to use the instructional materials, a list of objectives they will master upon completion of instruction, and a brief explanation of the time required to complete the instruction. The learner guidesheet should be limited to one page. 2. Draft of instructional materials – Include objectives for each section, an introduction for each section of content that motivates learners and explains the
  13. 13. relevancy of the content, the content, examples, and practice activities for learners to try the concepts or skills, and feedback for them to consider. Include an APA-formatted reference page that summarizes the references you used to create the instructional materials. The draft of the instructional materials should be a minimum of five pages, but less than ten pages. 3. Test – Include the test items you developed in the Objectives and Measurements assignment. Organize these test items into an appropriate format with instructions for the learners. Remove this bracketed text after adding your content. Use the headings below to guide your work.] Learner Guidesheet How to use the instructional materials: Objectives: Time required to complete the instruction: Draft of Instructional Materials Lesson Objective(s): Introduction: Content related to objective(s): Practice exercise: Feedback: Test

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