Backward Chaining

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Backward Chaining

  1. 1. Lola Gilbert IDOL Capella University Backward Chaining: Using A Source to Find Other Sources October 30, 2011
  2. 2. Backward Chaining: Using A Source to Find Other Sources Concept: Backward Chaining Search Technique Backward chaining is a research technique where the person conducting research uses the references listed at the end of the book, article, or other referenced source, to find additional relevant information on the topic being researched. According to Andrew Booth (2008), “Footnote chasing (or ‘backward chaining’) involves following up references (footnotes) in books and articles of interest, and moving backward through a chain of reference lists” (p. 316). Although the name of the technique is called “footnote chasing”, the method can also be applied to endnotes. Instructional Strategy: Tutorial According to Fenrich (2005), “Tutorials: should include questioning. This reinforces learning and increases retention.; can be used for many low and high-level skills; can include drill and practice; can include problem solving and problem analysis; often include branching to remediation and enrichment; often include testing” (p. 80). Using a tutorial would be an effective instructional strategy for students to learn backward chaining.
  3. 3. Backward Chaining: Using A Source to Find Other Sources Instructional Strategy: Process Overview 1. Find Credible Source on Research Topic. 2. Review references listed in either footnotes or endnotes.
  4. 4. Backward Chaining: Using A Source to Find Other Sources Instructional Strategy: Process Overview 3. Select relevant source (or sources) from list of references. Folster, M. B. (March 01, 1989). A Study of the Use of Information Sources by Social Science Researchers. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 15, 1, 7-1. 4. √ Article □ Book □ Dissertation For each source, determine what type of source is described in citation. Folster, M. B. (March 01, 1989). A Study of the Use of Information Sources by Social Science Researchers. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 15, 1, 7-1.
  5. 5. Backward Chaining: Using A Source to Find Other Sources Instructional Strategy: Process Overview 5. √ Journal locator □ Database □ Library Catalog □ Web (Yahoo, Google, etc.) Determine best tool to use to find source type. 6. Determine where tool is located on library homepage. Journal of Academic Librarianship
  6. 6. Backward Chaining: Using A Source to Find Other Sources Instructional Strategy: Process Overview 7. Click on link to tool. 8. Enter information needed by tool finder and submit.
  7. 7. Backward Chaining: Using A Source to Find Other Sources Instructional Strategy: Process Overview 9. Select source from results list that has content coverage from year when article was published. 10. Repeat process for all relevant sources found in original source’s reference list.
  8. 8. Backward Chaining: Using A Source to Find Other Sources Instructional Media: Text, Audio, and Visuals • Text is an effective way to relay instructions, “You can effectively use text to teach most skills (most verbal information, intellectual skills, and cognitive strategies and some psychomotor skills and attitudes) unless the target audience has a poor reading ability or low motivation” (Fenrich, 2005, p. 99). • Audio is an effective way to provide information to learners with poor reading abilities, “You can audio effectively for students with poor reading abilities” (Fenrich, 2005, p. 99). • Images combined with text makes content meaning more clear to learners, “Compared to only using text, visuals combined with text reduce the learning time and help students to acquire and retain information” (Fenrich, 2005, p. 100).
  9. 9. Backward Chaining: Using A Source to Find Other Sources References Booth, A. (2008). Unpacking your literature search toolbox: on search styles and tactics. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 25(4), 313-317. doi:10.1111/j.1471- 1842.2008.00825.x Fenrich, P. (2005). Creating instructional multimedia solutions: Practical guidelines for the real world. Santa Rosa, CA: Informing Science Press. Folster, M. B. (March 01, 1989). A study of the use of information sources by social science researchers. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 15(1), 7-11.

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