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  • 1. The Independence of Spanish South America
  • 2. Discontent in the Colonies
      • The naval blockade of Spain by the UK made it almost impossible for the colonies and Spain to have constant communication. The colonies were very isolated.
      • The ideals of the American (1776) and French (1789) Revolutions had spread to South America
      • The colonies had to defend and finance the same people who were unhappy with the administrative and financial decisions made by the Spanish Crown.
  • 3. Pretext for Independence
    • In Spain Napoleon put his brother Joseph in place as king (1808).
      • Joseph was seen as illegitamate by the majority of Spanish people.
    • So the local provincial governments and leaders in South America felt this gave them enough reason to revolt.
  • 4. Joseph Bonaparte
  • 5. Independence
    • The independence of South America was not a peaceful social movement.
    • Instead, independence was won in a series of military battles.
    • The movement was very long (1808-1825), and very bloody.
      • In addition to the wars with the Spanish crown, there were many civil wars.
    • This movement (and the battles), were largely lead by Simón Bolivar and Jose de San Martín
  • 6. Simón Bolivar and Jose de San Martín
  • 7. Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata
    • This was a focus point of rebellion.
      • In 1810 Buenos Aires created it´s own independent government, and in 1816 it declared it´s independence as the Republic of Argentina
      • General José de San Martín lead an expedition from Buenos Aires to conquer Chile. After a victory at Chocabuco (1817), General Bernardo O’Higgins declared Chile independent in 1818.
  • 8. The Viceroyalty of Neuva Granada
    • In 1810 Carcas was the center of rebellion which was being lead by Bolivar and Francisco de Mirada. After several military battles, Bolivar won independence for the following countries:
      • Colombia (battle of Boyacá, 1819)
      • Venzuela (battle of Carabobo, 1821)
      • Ecuador (battle of Pichinicha, 1822)
      • They became known as the Republic of Greater Colombia, and then in 1830 each country became independent.
  • 9. Viceroyalty of Peru
    • Peru was one of the loyalist strongholds in South America. There were no major rebellions there, and in fact they sent troops to Ecuador and Chile to supress rebellions.
    • Independence was brought in from the outside from other countries armies.
      • In 1821 San Martín proclaimed Peru’s independence
      • In 1824 Bolivar defeated the Spanish military at Junin and Ayacucho in 1824.
      • Upper Peru separated from the rest of the country in 1825 and became Bolvia in honor of Bolivar.