Genetic engineering-stem-cells-and-cloning-
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Genetic engineering-stem-cells-and-cloning-



What is genetic engineering, and stem cells, and cloning? You'll find some answers here.

What is genetic engineering, and stem cells, and cloning? You'll find some answers here.



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Genetic engineering-stem-cells-and-cloning- Genetic engineering-stem-cells-and-cloning- Presentation Transcript

  • Genetic Engineering, stem cells and Cloning
    • - The simple addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired change
    • - A technology used to order the genetic material of living cells in order to produce new substance or perform new functions.
    • -It is used by scientists to change the DNA of living organisms.
    • Imprecise technology :
    • -A genetic engineer moves genes blindly from one organism to another .
    • -Genetic engineering is like performing heart surgery with a shovel.
    • Side effects:
    • - Some scientists believe that introducing genetically modified genes may have an irreversible effect with consequences yet unknown.
  • What are Stem Cells?
    • Stem Cells are extraordinary because: :
    • They can divide and make identical copies of themselves over and over again (Self-Renewal)
    • They can remain Unspecialized with no ‘specific’ function. . . .
    • or they become Specialized (Differentiated) with the potential to produce over 200 different types of cells in the body.
  • Description: A colony of embryonic stem cells. 10X. Image in the Public Domain. Description: (A) Human ESCs; (B) Neurons derived from Human ESCs. Images courtesy of Nissim Benvenisty.
  • The Major Types of Stem Cells
    • A. Embryonic Stem Cells_
      • From blastocysts left over from In-Vitro Fertilization in the laboratory
      • From aborted fetuses (or foetuses)
      • B. Adult Stem Cells
      • Stem cells have been found in the blood, bone marrow, liver, kidney, cornea, dental pulp, umbilical cord, brain, skin, muscle, salivary gland . . . .
  • Advantages and Disadvantages to Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells. Host rejection minimized Possibility of rejection?? Difficult to isolate in adult tissue. Easy to obtain but blastocyst is destroyed Less Stable. Capacity for self-renewal is limited. Stable. Can undergo many cell divisions. “ Multipotent” (“can become many but not any”) “ Pluripotent” (can become any cell) Adult S.C. Embryonic S.C.
  • Why is Stem Cell Research So Important to All of Us?
    • - Stem cells allow us to study how organisms grow and develop over time.
    • - Stem cells can replace diseased or damaged cells that can not heal or renew themselves.
    • -We can test different substances (drugs and chemicals) on stem cells.
    • - We can get a better understanding of our “genetic machinery.”
  • What Human Diseases are Currently Being Treated with Stem Cells?
    • -Parkinson’s Disease
    • -Leukemia (Bone Marrow Transplants)
    • -Skin Grafts resulting from severe burns
    • Stem Cell Therapy has the Potential to:
    • -Regenerate tissues/organs
    • -Cure diseases like diabetes, multiple sclerosis, etc.
    • - A clone is a group of cells or organisms which are genetically identical and have all been produced from the same original cell.
    • -There are three main types of cloning , two of which aim to produce alive cloned offspring and one which simply aims to produce stem cells and then human organs.
  • Types of Cloning
    • 1. A dult cell or reproductive cloning
    • 2. E mbryo cloning
    • 3. T herapeutic or biomedical cloning
  • Adult cell or reproductive cloning
    • - This is the technology which resulted in Dolly the sheep.
    • - This form of cloning involves taking a cell from an adult animal and producing a new, identical individual.
    • -The process is very complex, involving three different females and several different stages.
  • Reproductive cloning egg take the nucleus (containing DNA) remove nucleus and take the rest of the cell adult cell Clone identical to the individual that gave the nucleus Dolly the sheep
  • Embryo cloning
    • - Embryo cloning is a relatively new technique. It is used with embryos from the best animals avaliable, or from genetically engineered embryos which are capable of producing human medicines in their milk. It is a big step on from embryo transfer.
    • - In embryo transfer the best animals are stimulated by hormones to release many fertile eggs at the same time. The eggs are fertilised and the early embryos are then flushed out of the uterus of the biological mother and transplanted into a number of surrogate mothers. Using this technique, some cows have produced fifty calves a year!
  • Therapeutic or Biomedical Cloning
    • - Therapeutic cloning involves using cells from an individual to produce a cloned early embryo which is then used as a source of embryonic stem cells.
    • -The hope instead is to produce pluripotent stem cells which can in turn develop into new tissues or organs for people who are seriously ill.
    • - Scientists said cloning techniques are still too underdeveloped to attempt on humans.
    • - Experience with animals has shown that most clone pregnancies fail, or result in offspring being delivered dead or deformed.
    • -Those clones that are born, live fewer years than they are supposed to and some aspects of their body systems don’t work well in the long term.
      • Does genetic engineering harm or benefit human society?.
      • What are the dangers of genetically engineered foods or why would it be a benefit for the world?.
      • How can cloning help or hurt farmers?.
      • Why would farmers, doctors and manufactures be interested in genetic engineering?.
      • Is genetic engineering the best solution?.
      • What is your personal opinion regarding genetic engineering and human cloning?.
  • Why the Controversy Over Stem cells?
    • - Embryonic Stem cells are derived from extra blastocysts that would otherwise be discarded following In-Vitro Fertilization.
    • -Extracting stem cells destroys the developing blastocyst (embryo).
    • - Questions for Consideration-
    • 1. Is an embryo a person?
    • 2. Is it morally acceptable to use
    • embryos for research?
    • 3. When do we become “human beings?”