DARWIN A summary in 43 slides IES LLANES History workshop.
IES LLANES History workshop We are Aníbal Ibáñez Gordillo Beatriz Fernández Santos Carlos Barrena Beltrán Emilio Beltrán Martínez Ester Benjumea Domínguez Eva María Martínez López Fco. Javier Carmona Molero Gonzalo Morales Moreno J. C. Hernández Rodríguez Marcos Ibáñez Gordillo and Marta Calderón Álvarez (Coordinator: Miguel Camacho)
Ssssh! We are going to talk about Charles Darwin.
DARWIN was born in the English town of Shrewsbury (12 th February, 1809), 200 years ago. Our greatgrandparent's grandparents time.
* Darwin's family was as strange and interesting as their insects and pigeons collections. * This is his grandfather, ERASMUS DARWIN so famous as a doctor that George III, the king, invited him to be his personal doctor, but Darwin refused. *Darwin's grandfather was very critical.
What Erasmus Darwin loved more was nature and its origin, this means natural history.
In this book called ZOONOMY he defended that all living beings EVOLVED to perfection.
That idea was against the church ideas in that time.
Darwin's mother, Susana Wedgewood, was a very sensitive and religious person, and an active member of Shrewsbury's church.
Darwin said that there might be more cultured people, but his father was the smartest person he had ever known. In that inusual family environment, cultured , tolerant and free, the young Darwin grew up. His father, the doctor Robert Darwin, wasn't a religious believer at all.
Henslow was the person who invited Darwin to participate on the trip around the world on the H.M.S. Beagle. From 1831 to 1836 Darwin served as naturalist aboard the H.M.S. Beagle on a British science expedition around the world.
He was 22 years old.
Unfortunately 3 of the 5 years, he had to be inland (He got very ill on the ship)
He dedicated that time to think, write and pick up more plants, minerals and animals.
that a new species can evolve if that species is isolated from its own species.
Then if the three species of finches from the Galapago islands come from a common ancestor…
all the finches of America come from a common species Hypothesis: Separate species may have arose from an original ancestor
IT is the EVOLUTION tree . Species alive today descended with modification from species that lived in the past. All organisms on earth are united into a single family tree of life by common descent And so on……..
Darwin read Malthus, who considered that human beings will grow in a geometrical progression while the food grows in aritmethical progression. In the end there will be more people than food. And the excess of people will be reduced due to famine, diseases or wars. Darwin was surprised with the ideas of Malthus, because he saw the big force of nature. A lot of creatures multiply in great amounts, but only a few survive.
Observation 1: Organisms generally have more offspring than can survive to adulthood.
Observation 2: Offspring are not identical. There is variation in their appearance, size, and other characteristics.
Inference: Those organisms that are better adapted to their environment have a greater likelihood of surviving to adulthood and passing these characteristics on to their offspring.
Survival of the “fittest
This can be applied to all living beings: When there are bad conditions only those who adapt better are able to survive. For example, in a bird community not all of them are equal, those ones with a harder beak, and those who are more able to change their diet and eat seeds, will survive better and will reproduce more, and transmit that ability to their offspring.
“ I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term Natural Selection.”
— Charles Darwin from "The Origin of Species“, 1859
Darwin wrote a new version of his book “Origin of the species”
It was published in 1859, and became “ the book that revolutionized the world”
The first day all the books were sold. There were crowds of people waiting for the coming of more books.
In Darwin’s lifetime he would be recognized as one of the great masters of science. By the 1870s almost all serious scientists in England had accepted evolution.
It was translated into 30 languages but it didn't come to Spain until 1877, but its controversy arrived much sooner.
Wallace was very elegant: he accepted Darwin's supremacy and he called “darwinism” the new theory. In the 20th century, advances in palaeontology and genetics reinforced and completed the original theory . It's the current Theory of Neodarwinism. “ Nothing has any sense in biology if it is not considered under the eyes of evolution ". T. Dobzhansky
Darwin was responsible for a very clear difference between society before and after his book's publications. Fights between evolutionists and creationists had started. Some people said church couldn't agree with the evolutionism and believe in God at the same time.
In those times, almost everyone, the “Official Science” included, thought that the world was like God had made it the day of CREATION, just 6,000 years ago!
Today we know that the Earth is 4600 million years old.
Nowadays fundamentalist religious societies still think in a similar way and try to attack evolutionism with a false science, known as Intelligent Design , a modern creationism .
Some radical evolutionists have defended the natural selection and the survival of the fittest to explain the domination of some men above others. This is called Social Darwinism and those who defend it say: “ If natural selection works with the wildlife why not in society?” This wasn't Charles Darwin's idea.