PLANT TISSUE CULTUREPRESENTED BY: INSTITUTE OFLOK HITH KUMAR PAHARAMCEUTICAL B.PHARMA RESEARCH FINAL YEAR. GLA UNIVERSIYTY.
Introduction• Tissue culture is a special type of asexual propagation where a very small piece of tissue (shoot apex or even individual cell) is placed in sterile culture in a test tube.• It was Ist done in1885 by Wilhelm roux he extracted small part of medullary plate embryo of chicken.
Defination of PTC• PTC is a collection of technique used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissue or organ, Under sterile condition on a nutrient culture medium of known composition.
Principles• Selection of explants.• Sterilization of explant.• Plant transferred to solid culture media.• Addition of hormone.• Placed in another media.• Transplantation.
Selection of explant• The explant is selected it is either haploid or diploid explant• The plant growth can be achieved in two ways: 1.shoots directly by appropriate media 2.By somatic embryogenesis
Sterilization • Sterilization of explant placed in solid media is done by mercuric chloride.
Culturing • Culturing media contains gelling1) Essential elements or agentsmineral ions, supplied as acomplex mixture in liquid media withof salts. proper mixture of(2) An organic supplement nutrients sugar,supplying vitamins and vitamins andamino acids, and hormones.(3)A source of fixed carbon,usually supplied as the sugarsucrose.
Hormone for Ptc • Auxin and cytokinin are require for plant growth. • Excess of auxin results in proliferation of roots. • Excess of cytokinin results into proliferation of shoots.
Multipilcation media • It make a big blob of tissue called callus. • It may directly lead to formation of new shoots from explant. • The callus start‘s formation of new plantlets.
Removing into new culture • The growing plant is transferred to new culture media so it can multiply their & produce more shoot with out deprivation of nutreints.
Transplantation • When plantlets become larger they are transfered to the pots. • The young plants are grown in green house.
Applications • Can conserve endangered species. • Can obtain viral free plant. • Hybrids can be regenerated by protoplasm fusion. • Plant can be grown in less time.
Difference in PTC& Animal culture• It grow on at specific temperature i.e. normal temperature for human is 37°c.• Carbon dioxide is also require.• It needed proper change in media otherwise cells will not grow properly.• Animal cells needed protein and hormones for proper development.
Advantage • Exact copy of the plant is obtained. • Production of multiple plant without pollinator. • Whole plant can be genetically modified. • Totipotency can be used i.e. whole plant can grown by single cell.