Life Without Minerals is Just
as Impossible as Life without
Do You Know ?
There are 35 different minerals
needed to make the average
The average car contains 39 different
Our body requires almost 16 different
types of minerals for various functions
like forming bones & teeth, normal
Minerals Used In Solar Panels:
•Boron Minerals (Semiconductor Chips)
•Cadmium(Thin film Solar cells)
•Coal(to make steel)
•Molybdenum (Photo Volatic Cells)
•Selenium (Solar Cells)
•Silica (Solar Cells)
•Tellurium (Solar Cells)
•Titanium di oxide Semiconductor Chips
A mineral is a naturally occurring
homogeneous solid, inorganically
formed, with a definite chemical
composition and an ordered atomic
1.Formation of Minerals through
Crystallization of Magma:
As the magma starts to cools, it will start to grow
crystals. This process is called crystallization and it is
analogous to precipitation of crystals from solutions.
Uncut DIAMOND from a
Mineral precipitation from
Calcite dripstones form from
calcite saturated groundwater in
Mineral precipitation from
Malachite (a copper
carbonate) precipitated in
open spaces of a copper
deposit. Each band marks
a growth episode.
Tracing out a mineral from given
Minerals can be identified by physical and
chemical properties. They can also be classified
by more complex optical, chemical or x-ray
diffraction. Some of them can be sufficiently or
fully identified with physical properties only.
Some Physical Properties of
Form/Habit and Crystal Structure
Imp. Minerals State
COAL Raniganj, Jharia,
DIAMOND Chattisgarh &
GOLD Kolar gold-fields
IRON ORE Jharkhand,
GYPSUM Rajasthan, Tamil
COBALT Rajasthan, Kerala
Contribution and Rank of India in World Production of Principal Minerals & Metals, 2010
Source: World mineral production data compiled from World Mineral Production, 2006-2010; British Geological survey
What is MINING?
The process of extracting ore or
minerals from the ground.
We already know that anything that can’t be grown is
So minerals are mostly formed in earth’s crust and hence
we need to explore the earth to extract the minerals and
process them into useful appliances.
Mining is a money making business. Not only do mining
companies prosper, but governments also make money
from revenues. Workers also receive income and benefits.
Mining of Coal Extracting
Thermal Power Plants
Power Is GeneratedCities are Lighted UP!!
Mining Is done broadly in two ways:
Surface Mining/ Open Pit Mining
Comparing Surface and Underground
Surface Mining Underground Mining
Surface Mining is also called
as Open Cast/pit Mining.
It operates where there is
huge availability of mine
land and economical upto
certain depth say 200-300
Most of the metal mines in
India are Surface Mining
It Operates where
availability of land for
mining is less and when
the ore is available at a
huge depths greater than
Mostly Coal Mines , Kolar
Gold Mines are operated
Hatti Gold Mines in Karnataka
Korba Coalfield in Chattisgarhwhich is the
largest open cast mine in Asia.
Rampura Open pit mines in Rajasthan
Malanchkhand Copper Mines in Madhya
Kolar Gold Mines in Karnataka
Singareni Colleries in Andhra Pradesh
Jharia Coal fields mining at a depth of
500-600m in Jharkhand
Steps Involved In Mining:
• Geological Mapping
• To trace out a mine at some virgin area
• Geochemical and Geophysical Prospection
• If minerals are present deep in Earth
• To provide the deposit
• To know about extent, geometry, Inclination, quantity of deposit
• Opening up of a MINE
• Different methods for Surface and underground mining
Major Mines in India
Gold Deposits are
Environmental Impacts of
Formation of Sink holes.
Loss of Bio-diversity.
Contamination of Soil, ground water & surface
water by chemicals in mining processes.
Health of local population is effected by chemicals
released in Mine Processes.
How to reduce Environmental
Impacts of Mining:
Environmental performances at mines are improved
so that they can produce less waste and using less
Legislations and regulations to reduce environmental
impacts can be enacted.(Any Mining company who
failed to comply these laws are strictly punishable)
Cleaning up abandoned Mine sites.
Hence our endeavor to bring down the
hazards by all available means to an
acceptable level must continue.
Mine safety in last 50 years(Coal
The accidents has been reduced from 295 fatalities from 223
accidents in 1951-60 to 170 fatalities from 140 fatal accidents
Annual average figure in the first decade of the new
millennium (upto 2004) is 111 fatalities from 88 fatal
Ten yearly average death rate per 1000 persons employed
from 0.91 to 0.32 from 1951- 60 to 1991-2000.
Fatality Rate per 1000 persons
Fatality Rate: Non-Coal
Fatality Rate: Coal
Source: The Economin Times, Vikas Dhoot & YASHODHARA DASGUPTA, ET Bureau Jun 14, 2013, 04.00AM IST
Hence from above census we can conclude
that Mining is not so dangerous these days
if some measures are taken:
Mine workers are provided with passive personal dosimeters to evaluate
individual doses due to exposure to alpha and gamma radiation
Well-designed ventilation network provides adequate fresh
Effective Management of Waste.
Generation and dispersion of dust are controlled at mine source using dust
The mining personnel are provided with personal protective equipment such
as respirators, ear-muffs, safety goggles, gumboots, safety helmet etc for
protection against injuries and harmful exposures
Hence we can conclude that mining
is not that dangerous only if safety
measures are followed.
Careers at Mining
Today’s world faces complex problems. We all need to work
together to manage the Earth’s natural resources wisely.
More scientists and engineers will be called upon to find
the answers we need, especially in the mining industry
since it supplies the world’s mineral products. There are
literally hundreds of careers related to mining. A few are
listed below. Careers in mining offer the opportunity for
world travel, good income and the opportunity to make a
difference. Maybe one of these careers would suit you!
“The wealth of the state is its source in the mining
and metallurgical industry; the power of the state
comes out of these mineral resources.”
–Kautilya in Arthasastra
‘’Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s
needs, but not every man’s greed.’’
– Mahatma Gandhi