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  • 1. Life Without Minerals is Just as Impossible as Life without Water
  • 2. Do You Know ? There are 35 different minerals needed to make the average computer. The average car contains 39 different minerals. Our body requires almost 16 different types of minerals for various functions like forming bones & teeth, normal
  • 3. Minerals Used In Solar Panels: •Arsenic(Semiconductor Chips) •Bauxite •Boron Minerals (Semiconductor Chips) •Cadmium(Thin film Solar cells) •Coal(to make steel) •Copper (Wiring) •Gallium(Solar Cells) •Indium(Solar Cells) •Iron-ore (steel) •Molybdenum (Photo Volatic Cells) •Lead (Batteries) •Phosphate Rock •Selenium (Solar Cells) •Silica (Solar Cells) •Tellurium (Solar Cells) •Titanium di oxide Semiconductor Chips
  • 4. Minerals Used In LEDs: •Arsenic (Semiconductor Chips) •Baryte •Bauxite(Alumina for Glass & Adapters) •Boron Minerals(Semiconductor Chips) •Copper(Adapters,Wiring) •Gallium(Semiconductor Chips) •Indium(Semiconductor Chips) •Lead(Adapters,Glass) •Limestone(Soda Lime Glass) •Manganese •Nickel (Adapters) •Phosphite rock( Semiconductor Chips) •Silica (Glass) •Zinc (Adapters)
  • 5. MINERAL: A mineral is a naturally occurring homogeneous solid, inorganically formed, with a definite chemical composition and an ordered atomic arrangement
  • 6. Formation of Minerals Crystallization of Lava Precipitation Pressure & Temperature Hydrothermal solutions
  • 7. 1.Formation of Minerals through Crystallization of Magma:  As the magma starts to cools, it will start to grow crystals. This process is called crystallization and it is analogous to precipitation of crystals from solutions. Uncut DIAMOND from a volcanic rock
  • 8. From Precipitation: Mineral precipitation from solution: Calcite dripstones form from calcite saturated groundwater in cave Mineral precipitation from solution: Malachite (a copper carbonate) precipitated in open spaces of a copper deposit. Each band marks a growth episode.
  • 9. Some common Minerals in our Daily Life
  • 10. GOLD: Gold is the most familiar metal to most people. Used for  Jewelry.  Dentistry.  Electronic.  Host in other Applications
  • 11. Aluminum: Bauxite Mineral  It is commonly extracted from Bauxite ore: Aero planes Constructio n Power Lines Packaging Mainly Used for
  • 12. MICA:  It is very flexible and large sheets of it are used in making Window Glass in the past Mica is Mainly Used for: Electronic Components Cosmetics Colours & Paints Capacitors
  • 13. Quartz: Uses  Abrasives  Kitchen worktops & Bathroom furniture  Fibre Spectacles  Quartz Watches
  • 14. Talc & it’s Uses:  Talcum Powder  Paper making  Plastics  Ceramics  Paint  Cosmetics  Roofing  Rubber
  • 15. FELDSPAR:  Used in making Ornaments  Abrasives  Part of Cleaning product  Glaze on Ceramics
  • 16. Classification of Minerals: Minerals, being natural chemicals, are classified according to their chemistry and crystal form. The basic classification of minerals is:  Native Elements . Eg: Gold, Silver, Mercury, Graphite, Diamond.  Oxides. Eg: corundum (incl. sapphire), hematite, spinel.  Hydroxides. Eg: Goethite, brucite.  Sulfides. Eg: Pyrite, galena, sphalerite.  Sulfates. Eg: Baryte, gypsum.
  • 17.  Carbonates. Eg: Calcite, magnetite, dolomite.  Phosphates. Eg: Apatite, monazite.  Halides. Eg: Fluorite, halite (rock salt).  Silicates (most common)  Orthosilicates. Eg: Garnet, olivine.  Ring silicates. Eg: Tourmaline, beryl.  Chain silicates. Eg: Pyroxenes, amphiboles.  Sheet silicates. Eg: Muscovite mica, biotite mica, clay minerals  Framework silicates. Eg: Quartz, feldspars, zeolites
  • 18. Tracing out a mineral from given hand specimen: Minerals can be identified by physical and chemical properties. They can also be classified by more complex optical, chemical or x-ray diffraction. Some of them can be sufficiently or fully identified with physical properties only.
  • 19. Some Physical Properties of Minerals are:  Form/Habit and Crystal Structure  Colour  Streak  Lusture  Cleavage  Fracture  Hardness  Specific Gravity  Magnetic Property  Special Property
  • 20. Imp. Minerals State ALUMINIUM Kerala COAL Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Singareni, Mukum(Assam) etc COPPER Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Rajasthan etc DIAMOND Chattisgarh & Madhya Pradesh GOLD Kolar gold-fields (Karnataka). IRON ORE Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Orissa MICA Jharkhand,Bihar, Andhra Pradesh URANIUM Bihar GYPSUM Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh COBALT Rajasthan, Kerala
  • 21. Contribution and Rank of India in World Production of Principal Minerals & Metals, 2010 Source: World mineral production data compiled from World Mineral Production, 2006-2010; British Geological survey
  • 22. Anything that can’t be GROWN is MINED
  • 23. What is MINING? The process of extracting ore or minerals from the ground.
  • 24. Why Mining?  We already know that anything that can’t be grown is mined.  So minerals are mostly formed in earth’s crust and hence we need to explore the earth to extract the minerals and process them into useful appliances.  Mining is a money making business. Not only do mining companies prosper, but governments also make money from revenues. Workers also receive income and benefits.
  • 25. Mining of Coal Extracting Mineral Thermal Power Plants Power Is GeneratedCities are Lighted UP!!
  • 26. How Mining??  Mining Is done broadly in two ways: Surface Mining/ Open Pit Mining Underground Mining
  • 27. Comparing Surface and Underground Mining: Surface Mining Underground Mining  Surface Mining is also called as Open Cast/pit Mining.  It operates where there is huge availability of mine land and economical upto certain depth say 200-300 m.  Most of the metal mines in India are Surface Mining  It Operates where availability of land for mining is less and when the ore is available at a huge depths greater than 300m.  Mostly Coal Mines , Kolar Gold Mines are operated
  • 28. Surface Mines:  Hatti Gold Mines in Karnataka  Korba Coalfield in Chattisgarhwhich is the largest open cast mine in Asia.  Rampura Open pit mines in Rajasthan  Malanchkhand Copper Mines in Madhya Pradesh
  • 29. Underground Mines: Kolar Gold Mines in Karnataka Singareni Colleries in Andhra Pradesh Jharia Coal fields mining at a depth of 500-600m in Jharkhand
  • 30. Steps Involved In Mining: • Geological Mapping • To trace out a mine at some virgin area • Geochemical and Geophysical Prospection • If minerals are present deep in Earth • Drilling • To provide the deposit • Modelling • To know about extent, geometry, Inclination, quantity of deposit • Opening up of a MINE • Different methods for Surface and underground mining
  • 31. Major Mines in India  Gold Deposits are found in: •Raichur •Chittoor •Singhbhum •Kolar
  • 32. Coal Mine deposits:  Jharia  Bokaro  Raniganj  Adilabad  Warangal  Godavari Valley  Cuddapah  Korba  Warda
  • 33. Copper Mines in India: Most of Copper deposits are found in Rajasthan  Sikar  Jaipur  Alwar  Balaghat  Gaya  Pali  Bhilwara
  • 34. Iron-ore Deposits:  Durg  Sundargarh  Guntur  Ongole  Bellary  Entire Goa  Keonjhar
  • 35. Environmental Impacts of Mining:  Soil Erosion.  Formation of Sink holes.  Loss of Bio-diversity.  Contamination of Soil, ground water & surface water by chemicals in mining processes.  Health of local population is effected by chemicals released in Mine Processes.
  • 36. How to reduce Environmental Impacts of Mining:  Environmental performances at mines are improved so that they can produce less waste and using less toxic chemicals.  Legislations and regulations to reduce environmental impacts can be enacted.(Any Mining company who failed to comply these laws are strictly punishable)  Cleaning up abandoned Mine sites.  Economic Measures.
  • 37. Is Mine a safety place to work??
  • 38. Hence our endeavor to bring down the hazards by all available means to an acceptable level must continue.
  • 39. Mine safety in last 50 years(Coal Mining):  The accidents has been reduced from 295 fatalities from 223 accidents in 1951-60 to 170 fatalities from 140 fatal accidents in 1991-2000.  Annual average figure in the first decade of the new millennium (upto 2004) is 111 fatalities from 88 fatal accidents.  Ten yearly average death rate per 1000 persons employed from 0.91 to 0.32 from 1951- 60 to 1991-2000.
  • 40. Fatality Rate per 1000 persons 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Fatality Rate: Non-Coal Fatality Rate: Coal Source: The Economin Times, Vikas Dhoot & YASHODHARA DASGUPTA, ET Bureau Jun 14, 2013, 04.00AM IST
  • 41. Hence from above census we can conclude that Mining is not so dangerous these days if some measures are taken:  Mine workers are provided with passive personal dosimeters to evaluate individual doses due to exposure to alpha and gamma radiation  Well-designed ventilation network provides adequate fresh  Effective Management of Waste.  Generation and dispersion of dust are controlled at mine source using dust extractor  The mining personnel are provided with personal protective equipment such as respirators, ear-muffs, safety goggles, gumboots, safety helmet etc for protection against injuries and harmful exposures
  • 42. Hence we can conclude that mining is not that dangerous only if safety measures are followed.
  • 43. Careers at Mining  Today’s world faces complex problems. We all need to work together to manage the Earth’s natural resources wisely. More scientists and engineers will be called upon to find the answers we need, especially in the mining industry since it supplies the world’s mineral products. There are literally hundreds of careers related to mining. A few are listed below. Careers in mining offer the opportunity for world travel, good income and the opportunity to make a difference. Maybe one of these careers would suit you!
  • 44. “The wealth of the state is its source in the mining and metallurgical industry; the power of the state comes out of these mineral resources.” –Kautilya in Arthasastra ‘’Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs, but not every man’s greed.’’ – Mahatma Gandhi

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