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Gold by ck Gold by ck Presentation Transcript

  • PROJECT ABOUTPROJECT ABOUT GOLDGOLD
  • MEANINGMEANING  Gold is a chemical element with the symbol AuGold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a dense, soft,and atomic number 79. It is a dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal with a bright yellowmalleable, and ductile metal with a bright yellow color and luster that is considered attractive,color and luster that is considered attractive, which is maintained without tarnishing in air orwhich is maintained without tarnishing in air or water. water. 
  • Gold Characteristics  SymbolSymbol: : AuAu  Melting point: Melting point: 1,064 °C1,064 °C  Electron configuration: Electron configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1  Atomic number: Atomic number: 7979  Boiling point: Boiling point: 2,856 °C2,856 °C  Atomic mass: Atomic mass: 196.96657 ± 0.000004 u196.96657 ± 0.000004 u
  • Color of GoldColor of Gold  Whereas most other pure metals are gray or silveryWhereas most other pure metals are gray or silvery white, gold is yellow. This color is determined by thewhite, gold is yellow. This color is determined by the density of loosely bound (valence) electrons; thosedensity of loosely bound (valence) electrons; those electrons oscillate as a collective "plasma" mediumelectrons oscillate as a collective "plasma" medium described in terms of a described in terms of a quasiparticlequasiparticle called  called plasmonplasmon.. The frequency of these oscillations lies in theThe frequency of these oscillations lies in the ultraviolet range for most metals, but it falls into theultraviolet range for most metals, but it falls into the visible range for gold due to subtle visible range for gold due to subtle relativistic effectsrelativistic effects  that affect the  that affect the orbitalsorbitals around gold atoms. around gold atoms.[24][24][25][25]  Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic  Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic  caesiumcaesium..  Common Common colored goldcolored gold alloys such as rose gold can alloys such as rose gold can be created by the addition of various amounts ofbe created by the addition of various amounts of copper and silver, as indicated in the triangularcopper and silver, as indicated in the triangular diagram to the left. Alloys containing palladium ordiagram to the left. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are also important in commercial jewelry asnickel are also important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys. Less commonly,these produce white gold alloys. Less commonly, addition of addition of manganesemanganese, , aluminiumaluminium, , ironiron, , indiumindium  and other elements can produce more unusual and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications.colors of gold for various applications.
  • Isotopes of goldIsotopes of gold  Gold has only one stable Gold has only one stable isotopeisotope, 197Au, which, 197Au, which is also its only naturally occurring isotope.is also its only naturally occurring isotope. Thirty-six Thirty-six radioisotopesradioisotopes have been synthesized have been synthesized ranging in ranging in atomic massatomic mass from 169 to 205. The from 169 to 205. The most stable of these is 195Au with a most stable of these is 195Au with a half-lifehalf-life of of 186.1 days.186.1 days.
  • Applications of GoldApplications of Gold  Monetary exchangeMonetary exchange  InvestmentInvestment  JewelryJewelry  MedicineMedicine  Food and drinkFood and drink  IndustryIndustry  ElectronicsElectronics  Commercial chemistryCommercial chemistry
  • Monetary exchangeMonetary exchange  Gold has been widely used throughout the world as a Gold has been widely used throughout the world as a  vehiclevehicle for  for monetarymonetary exchange, either by issuance and exchange, either by issuance and recognition of recognition of gold coinsgold coins or other bare metal quantities, or or other bare metal quantities, or through gold-convertible paper instruments bythrough gold-convertible paper instruments by establishing establishing gold standardsgold standards in which the total value of in which the total value of issued money is represented in a store of gold reserves.issued money is represented in a store of gold reserves.
  • InvestmentInvestment  Many holders of gold store it in form of Many holders of gold store it in form of bullionbullion  coins or  coins or barsbars as a hedge against  as a hedge against inflationinflation or or other economic disruptions. other economic disruptions.   The The ISO 4217ISO 4217 currency code of gold is XAU. currency code of gold is XAU.  Modern Modern bullion coinsbullion coins for investment or for investment or collector purposes do not require goodcollector purposes do not require good mechanical wear properties; they are typicallymechanical wear properties; they are typically fine gold at 24k,fine gold at 24k,  South African South African KrugerandKrugerand, first released in 1967,, first released in 1967,
  • JewelryJewelry  Because of the softnessBecause of the softness of pure (24k) gold, it isof pure (24k) gold, it is usually usually alloyedalloyed with with base metals for use inbase metals for use in jewelry, altering itsjewelry, altering its hardness and ductility,hardness and ductility, melting point, color andmelting point, color and other properties. Alloysother properties. Alloys with lower caratage,with lower caratage, typically 22k, 18k, 14ktypically 22k, 18k, 14k or 10k, contain higheror 10k, contain higher percentages of copperpercentages of copper or other base metals oror other base metals or silver or palladium insilver or palladium in the alloy. the alloy. CopperCopper is the is the most commonly usedmost commonly used base metal, yielding abase metal, yielding a redder color.redder color.[37][37]
  • MedicineMedicine  Conceived of as perhaps the most anciently administered medicine (apparently according to one source by shamanic practitioners  Even some modernesotericists  and forms of  alternative medicine assign metallic gold a healing power.  Some gold salts do have  anti-inflammatory properties and are used as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions.
  • Food and drinkFood and drink  Gold can be used in food and has the Gold can be used in food and has the E numberE number  175. 175.  Gold leafGold leaf, flake or dust is used on and in some, flake or dust is used on and in some gourmet foods, notably sweets and drinks asgourmet foods, notably sweets and drinks as decorative ingredient. Gold flake was used by thedecorative ingredient. Gold flake was used by the nobility in nobility in medieval Europemedieval Europe as a decoration in food as a decoration in food and drinks, in the form of leaf, flakes or dust, eitherand drinks, in the form of leaf, flakes or dust, either to demonstrate the host's wealth or in the beliefto demonstrate the host's wealth or in the belief that something that valuable and rare must bethat something that valuable and rare must be beneficial for one's health.beneficial for one's health.  Most of the gold leaf used for sweet and facialMost of the gold leaf used for sweet and facial products.products.
  • IndustryIndustry  Gold Gold soldersolder is used for joining the components of gold is used for joining the components of gold jewelry by high-temperature hard soldering or jewelry by high-temperature hard soldering or brazingbrazing  Gold can be made into Gold can be made into threadthread and used in  and used in embroideryembroidery..  Gold produces a deep, intense red color when used asGold produces a deep, intense red color when used as a coloring agent in a coloring agent in cranberry glasscranberry glass..  Gold is a good reflector of Gold is a good reflector of electromagnetic radiationelectromagnetic radiation  such as  such as infraredinfrared and  and visible lightvisible light as well as  as well as  radio wavesradio waves..    McLarenMcLaren uses gold foil in the engine compartment of uses gold foil in the engine compartment of its its F1F1 model . model .
  • ElectronicsElectronics  Gold is highly Gold is highly conductiveconductive to electricity, and to electricity, and has been used for has been used for electrical wiringelectrical wiring in some in some high-energy applications high-energy applications   For example, gold electrical wires were usedFor example, gold electrical wires were used during some of the during some of the Manhattan ProjectManhattan Project's's atomic experimentsatomic experiments
  • Commercial chemistryCommercial chemistry  Gold is attacked by and dissolves in alkalineGold is attacked by and dissolves in alkaline solutions of potassium or sodium solutions of potassium or sodium cyanidecyanide, to, to form the salt gold cyanide—a technique thatform the salt gold cyanide—a technique that has been used in extracting metallic goldhas been used in extracting metallic gold from ores in the from ores in the cyanide processcyanide process. Gold. Gold cyanide is the cyanide is the electrolyteelectrolyte used in used in commercial commercial electroplatingelectroplating of gold onto base of gold onto base metals and metals and electroformingelectroforming..
  • Cultural historyCultural history  Egyptian hieroglyphsEgyptian hieroglyphs from as early as 2600 BC from as early as 2600 BC describe gold,describe gold,  Gold artifacts found at the Gold artifacts found at the Nahal KanaNahal Kana cave cave cemetery dated during the 1980s, cemetery dated during the 1980s,   new methods for extracting gold on a large scalenew methods for extracting gold on a large scale were developed by introducing were developed by introducing hydraulic mininghydraulic mining  methods, methods,  especially inespecially inHispaniaHispania from 25 BC onwards and in  from 25 BC onwards and in  DaciaDacia from 106 AD onwards. One of their largest from 106 AD onwards. One of their largest mines was at mines was at Las MedulasLas Medulas in  in León (Spain)León (Spain),,
  • Gold miningGold mining in worldin world  The city of The city of JohannesburgJohannesburg  located in  located in South AfricaSouth Africa was was founded as a result of the founded as a result of the  Witwatersrand Gold RushWitwatersrand Gold Rush which which resulted in the discovery of someresulted in the discovery of some of the largest gold deposits theof the largest gold deposits the world has ever seenworld has ever seen  Other major producers are theOther major producers are the United States, Australia, Russia,United States, Australia, Russia, and and PeruPeru, as well as, , as well as, GhanaGhana, ,  Burkina FasoBurkina Faso, , MaliMali, Indonesia, Indonesia and Uzbekistan. Mines in and Uzbekistan. Mines in  South DakotaSouth Dakota and  and NevadaNevada  supply two-thirds of gold used supply two-thirds of gold used in the United States. In Southin the United States. In South America,America,
  • Gold miningGold mining in indiain india  Karnataka : Kolar, Raichur.  Andhra Pradesh : Chitoor.  Jharkhand : Singhbhum.
  • ConsumptionConsumption  The consumption of gold produced in the world is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry  India is the world's largest single consumer of gold, as Indians buy about 25% of the world's gold, purchasing approximately 800 tonnes of gold every year, mostly for jewelry. India is also the largest importer of gold; in 2008, India imported around 400 tonnes of gold. Indian households hold 18,000 tonnes of gold which represents 11% of the
  • PricePrice  Like other precious metals, gold is measured by troy weight andLike other precious metals, gold is measured by troy weight and by grams. When it is alloyed with other metals theby grams. When it is alloyed with other metals the termtermcaratcarat or  or karatkarat is used to indicate the purity of gold present, is used to indicate the purity of gold present,  The price of gold is determined through trading in the goldThe price of gold is determined through trading in the gold and derivatives markets,and derivatives markets,    the price of gold was left to find its free-market level. Centralthe price of gold was left to find its free-market level. Central banks still hold historical gold reserves as a store ofbanks still hold historical gold reserves as a store of value although the level has generally been declining. value although the level has generally been declining. 
  • THIS PROJECT PRODUCED BYTHIS PROJECT PRODUCED BY CrazykalakarCrazykalakar
  • THANK YOUTHANK YOU  Mr.K.J.LokeshMr.K.J.Lokesh  ParinithParinith UniversityUniversity  parinithkjl@gparinithkjl@g mail.commail.com  www.parinith.www.parinith. comcom