Fuel crisis in the world Conventional sources of energy - facing extinction Pollution from the fossil fuel products burnt everyday. Rise in the prices of diesel and petrol
ARTIFICIAL PETROL -Anshul Gupta Lokesh Pathrabe Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad.
Hydrogen: The present scenario Abundant in nature. Batteries powered by hydrogen can deliver higher power and longer lifetime. If used as a fuel, would reduce the carbon emissions to a great extent.
Properties that make it an efficient fuel Wide range of flammability Low ignition energy High auto ignition temperature High diffusivity
Problems with hydrogen Storage of hydrogen in high pressure low temperature condition could cause premature ignition. Hydrogen + air mixture is highly inflammable. Due to low ignition energy, the hot gases and the hot spots on the cylinder can serve as sources of ignition. lean operation can reduce the power output due to a reduction in the volumetric heating value of the air/fuel mixture.
The new technique Ammonium hydride is used as a source of hydrogen. Hydride is trapped in micro-beads that are manufactured by electrospinning. Hydrogen is released from hydride compound by Thermolysis. The consumed hydride can be sent for rehydrogenation for further use.
Role of Ammonia Borane H3NBH3 is more hydrogen dense than liquid hydrogen. Hydrogen can be easily disassociated from the remaining material. Exists in normal temperatures and pressures. As a solid it is easily transportable.Therefore, it has attracted attention as a source of hydrogen fuel.
Micro – beads Micro-beads are uniform polymer particles of size 0.5 micron to 500 micron in diameter. Micro-beads are used for isolation and handling of specific material or molecules. Here polystyrene is used as polymer to manufacture micro- beads.
Why micro-beads ? Nano-porous polymer speeds up the kinetics of hydrogen desorption.
•Reduces the temperature of desorption.•Filters out many of the damaging chemicals( Borazine and Ammonia).• It protects the hydrides from oxygen and water,making it possible to handle it in air.These micro-beads can be manufactured byco-axial electrospinning.
Changes in the gasoline enginedesign Engine material Avoiding Pre-ignition of hydrogen Improving the fuel injection system Thermal dilution system A disk-shaped combustion chamber Properly ventilation
Other Applications and Scope Batteries powered by hydrogen can deliver higher power and longer lifetime. For use as a fuel additive to reduce the carbon emissions from a hydrocarbon fuel such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8, jet-fuel or kerosene. Thousands of high pressure hydrogen fueling stations will not need to be built to accommodate hydrogen cars. Slight modifications of current fueling stations will be needed only.This solution could accelerate the introduction and acceptance of hydrogen cars on a wide scale very quickly.
References Adsorption of Methane and Hydrogen on Mesocarbon Microbeads by Experiment and Molecular SimulationXiaohong Shao and Wenchuan Wang. Core-Shell Nanofibers: Nano Channel and Capsule by Coaxial Electro spinningFengyu Li1, 2, Yong Zhao1 and Yanlin Song11Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. Thermally induced hydrogen release from ammonia-borane studied by coupled Calorimetric, volumetric, spectrometric and thermo kinetics analysis techniquesR. André, E. Wirth, P. Leparlouër
Fabrication of structured micro and nanofibers by coaxial Electro spinning.Juan Esteban Díaz1, Alberto Fernández-Nieves2, Antonio Barrero1, 3, ManuelMárquez4 and Ignacio G. Loscertales1. Ammonia-Borane and Related N-B-H Compounds and Materials: Safety Aspects, Properties and ApplicationsClinton F. Lane Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Northern Arizona University. Separation of Polystyrene Microbeads Using Dielectrophoretic/Gravitational Field-Flow-FractionationXiao-Bo Wang, Jody Vykoukal, Frederick F. Becker, and Peter R. C. Gascoyne. cella energy limited website.