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Mid term report



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  • 1. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok PAbstract: Virtual Networking is software mainly used for Virtualization of Networking system inESX, Testing of this Virtual Networking manually is a time consuming and tedious job hence weuse a automation framework called ―vdNet Framework‖ which is internally developed byVMware to automate testing of this Virtual Networking system. Driver Test Manager (DTM) is Microsoft’s test automation framework for Windowsdevice driver testing & certification tests. It provides automated scheduling and execution of thedriver test that hardware and device driver developers are required to pass for Certification and―Certified for Windows‖ logo use. Even though DTM is an automated test suite few initial steps (Setup part) are manual anddoing all those setup part manually is a time consuming and difficult job. Hence integratingDTM into vdNet Framework gradually reduces the time required for testing drivers in DTM.Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 1
  • 2. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok PContents:1. Introduction 32. Product Overview 63. Virtual Networking 94. vdNet Framework 115. Driver Test Manager 146. Contribution and Details of Proposed Work 207. Bibliography 21Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 2
  • 3. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P1. IntroductionVirtualization is an abstraction layer that decouples the physical hardware from the operatingsystem to deliver greater IT utilization and flexibility. It is a framework or methodology ofdividing the resources of a computer into multiple execution environments, by applying one ormore concepts or technologies such as hardware and software partitioning, time-sharing, partialor complete machine simulation, emulation, quality of service, and many others.Virtualization allows multiple virtual machines, with heterogeneous operating systems to run inisolation, side by side on the same physical machine. Each virtual machine has its own set ofvirtual hardware (e.g., RAM, CPU, NIC, etc.) upon which an operating system and applicationsare loaded. The operating system sees a consistent, normalized set of hardware regardless of theactual physical hardware components. Virtual machines are encapsulated into files, making itpossible to rapidly save copy and provision a virtual machine. Full systems (fully configuredapplications, operating systems, BIOS, and virtual hardware) can be moved, within seconds,from one physical server to another for zero-downtime maintenance and continuous workloadconsolidation.VMware virtualization solutions have enabled IT organizations of all sizes to deliver resourcesand applications when and where they’re needed, enabling business to respond to marketdynamics more quickly and more efficiently then ever.Virtualization is the catalyst that makes IT as a Service a reality. It is the enabling technology onwhich cloud computing architectures are and will be built. Our customer proven VMwarevSphere virtualization platform dramatically expands IT effectiveness and efficiency, goingbeyond basic virtualization to deliver critical management and quality-of-service capabilities thatprovide a complete cloud infrastructure solution. Working in concert with our partners, we’rehelping businesses of all sizes accelerate their transition to cloud computing, a flexible newapproach to delivering applications and services at the lowest cost and with the highestavailability.Only VMware provides an evolutionary approach to cloud computing—the fastest and mostpragmatic path— that extends existing applications and preserves IT skill sets. VMware offersthe most trusted solutions for transforming your current IT environment to deliver optimal agilityManipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 3
  • 4. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok Pand flexibility, while preserving and even enhancing security and control. Chosen by bothenterprises and public cloud providers as their preferred cloud infrastructure platform, VMwarevSphere provides compatibility and portability between a secure private cloud and VMwareenabled public clouds.We typically describe three key properties of virtual machines that are responsible for theirpowerful benefits. Let’s examine each one of those properties 1. The first key property is partitioning. Virtual machines allow a single computer to be divided into separated partitions that can each run an operating system and application stack concurrently. In fact, those virtual machines can be running completely different operating systems and software because they each have their own virtual storage locations, memory spaces and networking interfaces. A component of the VMware virtualization layer called the virtual machine monitor manages the concurrent execution of each virtual machine on the host system hardware. Typically we’d actually see a ratio of about 4 to 8 running virtual machines per physical CPU. The networking and storage features of virtual machines let you use them just as you would real machines in networked configurations or joined together in clusters for high-availability. 2. Our second critical feature is isolation which is critical for safe and reliable server consolidation. VMware Virtual machine monitors use the hardware protection features of the CPU to isolate the virtual machines from each other and monitor. By basing our isolation on the hardware protection we get very strong isolation. In other words, there is unlikely to be a hole. Each virtual machine is isolated from the host and other VMs, in the sense that it doesn’t share a kernel or processes. In a real environment, what this means is that applications in one virtual machine can encounter viruses or blue screen their operating system, and there is no effect on any other virtual machine. In fact, we had the U.S. National Security Agency try to hack from one virtual machine to another for over a year and they couldn’t find any weaknesses to exploit. That proven isolation strength has led the NSA to approve VMware technology for running insecure off-the-shelf software on their secure machines.Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 4
  • 5. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P Resource controls & isolation features give application owners full protection from the stability and performance problems of other applications. A virtual machine with an application leaking memory or a runaway process consuming CPU can only use as much of the host resources as you’ve allocated to that virtual machine. The neighboring virtual machines will retain their allocations of CPU, memory, disk I/O and network I/O. 3. Our third primary feature of virtual machines is encapsulation. The complete state of a virtual machine – memory, disk storage, I/O device and CPU state, and virtual hardware configuration – is stored in a small set of files. These files are hardware independent so you can move a virtual machine from one x86 system – say a Dell server– to another – say an IBM server – and that virtual machine will run with no changes necessary as long as the VMware virtualization layer is present. An encapsulated virtual machine is at a minimum just the virtual machine configuration file (a small text file defining the virtual machine’s properties) and the virtual disk file that contains its installed operating system. A snapshot of a running virtual machine would add files encapsulating the memory and processor state of the virtual machine so that a point-in-time image of a running virtual machine can be saved and reverted to at any time. Encapsulation means that your ability to copy, save, and move virtual machines wherever and whenever you need them is as simple as copying a directory of files. Fig .1.1 Without virtualization Fig.1.2 With virtualizationManipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 5
  • 6. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P2. Product Overview VMware provides variety of products to IT industry. VMware build an agile, efficientand self-service infrastructure with virtualization and deliver IT as a service. Deploy highlyavailable applications with VMware, the leader in virtualization, from the desktop to the datacenter to the cloud. VMware products can be mainly grouped into two major lines. They areServer and Datacenter Virtualization Products and Desktop Virtualization products.2.1 Server and Datacenter Virtualization ProductsTurn your datacenter into a flexible cloud infrastructure with the performance and reliabilityneeded to run enterprise applications on the platform trusted by the most demanding datacentersaround the world. Leverage existing assets and applications while offering self-servicedeployment and provisioning through virtualization. Create a private cloud and deliver ITinfrastructure as an easily accessible service.Deliver IT as a service, when and where needed, while reducing capital and operating costs.Reduce power needs while freeing your IT staff from administrative tasks so they can focus oninnovative solutions to your changing business needs. The available products in this categoryare:2.1.1 VMware vSphere VMware vSphere is VMwares first cloud operating system, able to manage large poolsof virtualized computing infrastructure, including software and hardware. Offer the highestlevels of availability and responsiveness for all applications and services with VMware vSphere,the industry’s most complete and robust platform for virtualization in the most demandingdatacenters around the world. Create resource pools so you can deliver the highest levels ofapplication service agreements with the lowest total cost per application workload. Virtualizesyour business-critical applications for unprecedented flexibility and reliability.2.1.2 VMware vCenter ServerVMware vCenter Server provides a scalable and extensible platform that forms the foundationfor virtualization management. VMware vCenter Server, formerly VMware Virtual Center,Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 6
  • 7. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok Pcentrally manages VMware environments allowing IT administrators dramatically improvedcontrol over the virtual environment compared to other management platforms. VMware vCenterServer: Provides centralized control and visibility at every level of virtual infrastructure Unlocks the power of vSphere through proactive management Is a scalable and extensible management platform with a broad partner ecosystem Fig.2.1. VMware vCenter Server2.1.3 VMware vSphere HypervisorVMware vSphere Hypervisor is based on VMware ESXi, the hypervisor architecture that sets theindustry standard for reliability, performance and ecosystem support. VMware vSphereHypervisor is the easiest way to get started with virtualization—and it’s free. Consolidate yourapplications onto fewer servers and start saving money through reduced hardware, power,cooling and administration costs. With VMware vSphere Hypervisor, you can: Run multiple applications on a single server Run a greener datacenter and reduce energy costs Back up and recover applications more easily Virtualizes even business-critical applicationsManipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 7
  • 8. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P2.2 Desktop Virtualization product Deploy desktops faster and improve business continuity and disaster recovery whilereducing capital and operating system costs through desktop and application virtualization.Migrate and upgrade operating systems and applications with less downtime, eliminate the needto recode, retest and recertify applications, and get more out of your existing desktop assets. Reduce the need for IT admin staff at remote and branch offices by delivering virtualdesktops to remote and temporary users while protecting corporate data. Centralize desktopmanagement and speed up desktop deployments while reducing both operating and supportcosts.2.2.1 VMware Workstation VMware Workstation 7 is optimized for maximum performance when running on 32-bitand 64-bit Windows 7 PCs. Supports Flip 3D and Aero Peek to show live thumbnails of yourvirtual machines. Run legacy application with 3D graphics, faster performance, and tighterdesktop integration better than Windows XP Mode. Get shared folders and drag and dropconvenience. Automate and streamline tasks to save time and improve productivity. Run applicationsin Linux, Windows, and more at the same time on the same PC with no rebooting. Evaluate andtest new operating systems, applications and patches in an isolated environment. Demonstratecomplex software applications on a single laptop in a repeatable, reliable manner. Richintegration with Visual Studio, Eclipse, and the Spring Source Tool Suite make it incredibly easyto debug applications on multiple platforms.Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 8
  • 9. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P3. Virtual Networking3.1 VMware Virtual Networking Concepts VMware Infrastructure provides a rich set of networking capabilities that integrate well withsophisticated enterprise networks. These networking capabilities are provided by VMware ESX Serverand managed by VMware Virtual Center. With virtual networking, you can network virtual machines inthe same way that you do physical machines and can build complex networks within a single ESX Serverhost or across multiple ESX Server hosts, for production deployments or development and testingpurposes. Virtual switches allow virtual machines on the same ESX Server host to communicate with eachother using the same protocols that would be used over physical switches, without the need for additionalnetworking hardware. ESX Server virtual switches also support VLANs that are compatible with standardVLAN implementations from other vendors. A virtual machine can be configured with one or more virtual Ethernet adapters, each of whicheach has its own IP address and MAC address. As a result, virtual machines have the same properties asphysical machines from a networking standpoint. In addition, virtual networks enable functionality notpossible with physical networks today. This guide is for VMware Infrastructure 3 users who want a clearer understanding of thebasic design of the networking capabilities in VMware Infrastructure 3 and how that designaffects deployment in the datacenter.Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 9
  • 10. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P Fig 3.4 virtual switches and virtual NICs3.2 VMware Virtual Networking ComponentsIn discussions of VMware Infrastructure 3, you may see references to as many as five differentvirtual network adapters. Three of those are virtual Ethernet adapters used by virtual machines.In most cases, a virtual machine uses only one of the three types of virtual adapters. The threetypes of adapters available for virtual machines are: vmxnet — a paravirtualized device that works only if VMware Tools is installed in the guest operating system. A paravirtualized device is one designed with specific awareness that it is running in a virtualized environment. The vmxnet adapter is designed for high performance. In most cases, when you select the flexible network adapter, this is the adapter used after VMware Tools is installed in the guest operating system. vlance — a virtual device that provides strict emulation of the AMD Lance PCNet32Ethernet adapter. It is compatible with most 32-bit guest operating systems. This adapter is used when you select the flexible network adapter but VMware Tools is not installed in the guest operating system. e1000 — a virtual device that provides strict emulation of the Intel E1000 Ethernet adapter. This is the virtual Ethernet adapter used in 64-bit virtual machines. It is also available in 32-bit virtual machines.The other virtual network adapters are: vswif — a paravirtualized device similar to vmxnet that is used only by the ESX Server service console. vmknic — a virtual device in the VMkernel, the software layer that manages most of the physical resources on the ESX Server hosts. The vmknic is used by the TCP/IP stack that services VMotion, NFS and software iSCSI clients that run at the VMkernel level, and remote console traffic.All five of the virtual network devices share the following characteristics: They have their own MAC addresses and unicast/multicast/broadcast filters. They are strictly Layer 2 Ethernet adapter devices.Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 10
  • 11. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P4. vdNet Framework vdNet framework is developed to verify all the networking features (vmkernel + virtualdevices). Automation setup includes a launcher machine, which is also called as MasterController (MC), ESX hosts and multiple test VMs among which one VM is called System underTest (SUT) and other VMs are called "helpers". Selected tests are executed on the SUT. HelperVMs are used to send/receive/verify networking traffic as part of executing the tests. The MCmachine has to be a Linux VM (specifically RHEL 5.2 32-bit VM or the pre-configured MC) ora physical Linux host that is connected to the same corporate network as Host and Test VMs.4.1 Network Setup vdNet framework is designed and implemented based on the following assumption on thenetwork setup. Framework is not guaranteed to work if the network setup is not done asmentioned here.Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 11
  • 12. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok PThe Master controller is connected to the corporate network (VM Network) which should be ableto access any hosts/VMs under test.2 isolated networks (broadcast domains) are created. One is control network which is undercorporate network and other one is non-routable test network.VM Network port group in ESX is by default connected to corporate network.Only one adapter in each VM/host should be under control network. All the other virtual andphysical adapters should be connected to the test network.4.2 STAF Automation STAF is an Open Source automation framework designed around the idea of reusablecomponents. It is intended to make it easier to create automated test cases and workloads. STAF canhelp you increase the efficiency, productivity, and quality of your testing by improving your level ofautomation and reuse in your individual test cases as well as your overall test environment.. STAF runs as a daemon process (called STAFProc) on each system. So, for example, if youwanted to run STAF on your office machine and 5 test machines in a lab, you would install STAF onall 6 systems. Then, to use STAF in this environment, you would start STAFProc on all 6 machines.The collection of machines on which you have installed STAF is referred to as the STAFEnvironment. Fig 3.7 STAF Working environmentManipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 12
  • 13. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P STAF operates in a peer-to-peer environment; in other words, there is no client-serverhierarchy among machines running STAF. Fig 3.7 illustrates that the STAFProc daemons serve asthe communication mechanism over the network. Hence VMware uses the STAF in order toautomate the testing process and also to run the tests in the remote machines also.4.3 Perl Scripting Language Perl is an acronym, short for Practical Extraction and Report Language. It was designedby Larry Wall as a tool for writing programs in the UNIX environment and is continually beingupdated and maintained by him. Like shell script languages, Perl does not require a special compiler and linker to turn theprograms you write into working code. Instead, all you have to do is write the program and tellPerl to run it. This means that Perl is ideal for producing quick solutions to small programmingproblems, or for creating prototypes to test potential solutions to larger problems. In VMware, we use Perl scripting language in order to write Perl scripts, by using thesescripts we can automate the testing process.Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 13
  • 14. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P5. Driver Test Manager5.1 Microsoft Driver testing Driver Test Manager (DTM) is Microsoft’s test automation framework for Windows device drivertesting & certification tests. It provides automated scheduling and execution of the driver test thathardware and device driver developers are required to pass forCertification and “Certified for Windows” logo use. For device drivers after successfully passing the certification test,Microsoft creates a digitally signed certificate file that when included inthe driver installation package prevents Windows from displaying awarning message stating the driver has not been certified by Microsoft.(See WinXP version of pop-up on the right) Figure 1 – Example Pop-up warning5.2 VMware and DTMThe goal is to use Microsoft’s DTM test kit at VMware for two main purposes: Third party QA test suite to insure VMware’s Windows drivers are being developed and tested to Microsoft’s standards throughout the driver and driver environment development cycles. Certification test kit to obtain digital signatures avoiding pop-ups which provide customers increased confidence that VMware has performed all certification tasks required for a Microsoft compliant certified driver.5.3 Microsoft Test Kit History HCT: Released during NT 4.0 days (1996), used until late 2006 when Windows Vista was released. This was a single machine, single instance test kit. DTM/WLK: Released in late 2006 along side with the Vista release. At that time, DTM was part of Windows Driver Kit (WDK). Later DTM was separated from WDK and changed to its current name, Windows Logo Kit (WLK); this is why it has 2 commonly used names. This is the first standalone test kit for Windows certification that requires multiple machines and a database to run tests.Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 14
  • 15. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P VMware started certifying drivers since WS 4.0 and has continued since. ESX products starting requiring certified drivers since ESX 3.0. Certified drivers allows for silent installs, and also acts as proof to our customers that we are delivering quality products that are tested and certified to meet MSFT Windows OS requirements and guidelines.5.4 Architecture How DTM Works DTM Clients DTM Studio DTM Controller … Up to 150 DTM Clients Copyright © 2005 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved.5.5 Driver Test Tracks Unclassified: Also called DRS (Driver Reliability Signature). This is the program most of our drivers are tested and certified under. These are tests that generically stress a driver but do not run any feature specific tests (unless it’s a USB device on Win7/Win2k8 R2 or later OS, then some basic USB tests will be enumerated). Setup for this program is simple. Takes ~1-2 days to setup and run all tests for one driver. LAN -> Networking: Includes all of the ―Unclassified‖ tests, as well as a handful NDIS tests. Setup for this program is complex, requiring an additional VM to support each system under test and modifications to the ESX kernel and networking settings for server testing. Takes ~3-4 days to setup and run all tests for one driver. Storage -> Adapter (SAS): ): Includes all of the ―Unclassified tests, as well as a handful of Storage specific stress and functionality tests. Setup for this program is complex, requiring additional software and disk management/setup. Takes ~6-7 days to setup and run all tests for one driver.Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 15
  • 16. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P5.6 DTM Automation Even though DTM is an automated test suite few initial steps are still manual and yet tobe automated. End to End DTM automation and integrating it to the vdNet framework reducesthe time required to setup the test environment.Following are the steps to initiate DTM tests and needs to be automated:Note: Assuming that VM repository contains a VM with a DTM controller and DTMstudio already installed in it. Clone (Linked clone) the DTM controller VM into your ESX box and power on the VM. Check whether DTM controller/DTM Studio VM is connected to Public vSwitch if not connect it to Public vSwitch. There are two types of submission Unclassified Test Procedure and Networking Test Procedure. For Unclassified Test we need only one DTM client VM. For Networking Test, two DTM clients must be used. One DTM client (NDIS Client VM) is needed to hold the ―Device under Test‖. Another DTM client (NDIS Server VM) is needed to receive and send data to the device under test while testing is in progress. Picking up the VM’s from the repository  For Unclassified Tests pick up one VM from the repository and install DTM client.  For Networking Tests pick up 2 VM’s (Win2k8 RTM/R2 or Win7) from the repository and install DTM client on both the VM’s (NDIS Client – Device under test, NDIS Server – Helper machine).  Disable all firewalls (if applicable).  Disable all virus scanning software (if applicable).  Disable all malware scanning software (if applicable).  Install all security updates and/or SP updates from Windows Update (if applicable). Depending upon whether it is Unclassified Test or Networking Test, clone (Linked clone) the VM’s into your ESX box. All the VM’s should be on same subnet. Install VMware debugging tools on ESX server and configure vsish parameter with following command  set config/Misc/intOpts/VmkStressEnable 0 Disable ESX firewall and configure security policy to ―Allow Promiscuous Mode‖. Configure VLAN ID to 4095(All). Make sure your VMs are setup with the following .vmx configuration file chipset.onlineStandby ="true" For Networking Tests configure the First VM (NDIS Client VM) with three vNICs (2 in public network, 1 in private network) and second VM (NDIS Server VM) with twoManipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 16
  • 17. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P vNICs (1 public, 1 private). These vNICs must be of the same device (i.e., vmxnet2 or vmxnet3) with same driver version installed on all of these vNICs. Check whether all VM’s (DTM controller, NDIS client and NDIS server) are communicating with each other. Launch the DTM studio in the DTM controller VM. Check whether both client and server machines are present in the default machine pool (One VM in case of unclassified test).  If any one VM in not present the test case fails. Create the machine pool of your own. Move the client and server VM’s from default machine pool into the newly created machine pool. Change the status of both the VM’s to reset mode if not able to change the status to reset mode then the test case fails. Go to device console and select New submission  Select OS type, category, logotype, qualification level.  Name the submission and select the machine pool.  Load the corresponding INF file.Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 17
  • 18. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P ESX Server DTM Controller pNIC 1 vNIC 1 pNIC 2 Public vSwitch pNIC… Test device Remote support NDIS Client NDIS Server vNIC 1 VM VM vNIC 2 vNIC 1 Local support vNIC 3 vNIC 2 Local message Remote Message Private vSwitch For Networking Tests start all the test cases and properly choose the following adapters appropriately as shown in the following diagram  Local Support: - This device (vNIC) communicates with the DTM controller. It also communicates test status information to the remote support device in the remote test machine via the support network and connected to public vSwitch to acquire IP address from DHCP server.  Local Message: - This vNIC is connected to Private vSwitch and need to assign manual IP address ( or similar).  Remote Support: - This device communicates with the DTM controller. It also communicates test status information to the local support device in the local test machine and connected to public vSwitch to acquire IP address from DHCP server.Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 18
  • 19. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P  Remote Message :- This vNIC is connected to Private vSwitch and need to assign manual IP address(( or similar). Save the settings and schedule the jobs. Once the testing is complete create a submission package (.cpk format) and save it and launch DTM log viewer (already installed) in DTM controller VM and pass the .cpk file to view the log file.·Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 19
  • 20. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P 6.Contribution Details 1) Initial ramp up  Understanding Networking Concepts  Running Sample test cases in vdNet Framework  DTM Setup  Training on vSphere 4.1 2) Understood Basics of Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS). 3) Wrote Perl Script to automate DTM (Standalone) for WIN2K3. 4) Running DTM test suits. Details of Proposed Work 1) Integrating standalone DTM automation into vdNet Framework. 2) Running WLK test suit for different GOS’s. 3) Getting more familiar with vdNet Framework and fixing PR’s.Manipal Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 20
  • 21. Enhancing vSphere Networking Automation Framework Ashok P7. Bibliography 1. 2. Centre for Information Science, Manipal Page 21