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Intro to CG IIExtending the Momentby Drew LokerSome slides adapted from Roger Hein of Sam Houston HS, Arlington, Tx
Copyright Notice• Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC BY-NC-SA• This presentation is for educational purposes only. No money is beingmade and is provided with similar allowances for other educatorsto use for non-profit, educational purposes.• Images are from various sources, including many of my own. If youwould like to high res images I have shot, please visitwww.DrewLoker.com for various work online.• If you are the original author of any of the samples, pictures, text, etc.please let me know if you object to the usage and I willremove your material promptly.Photo by Drew Loker
Video & Photojournalism“We are products of other people”&“The Extended Moment”
Decisive toExtended Moment• In Photo 1, week 1, you learnedabout the DM (Henri CartierBresson a.k.a. The DecisiveMoment).– You have learned how to pullthe trigger such as basic cameraoperation and composition.• Many pictures may truly existfor only a fraction of a secondin time time, rarely, if ever, tobe repeated.• I may be able to recreate ascene, but it is usuallyimpossible to get the same shotagain.
Video is about the moment• Video is a series of moments• How are you going to find them• If you don’t feel something, how will youknow if some body else is feelingsomething.– Would you give your life to save 100 people?What about 1?
Everybody is Interesting• Photographing a still of an interestingperson is good. But a video can tell alot more.• It is easy to NOT be interested inother people…because was have somuch going on in our own lives. Butslow down and LISTEN– What can you learn about the people youcome in contact with.– What story do they have to tell?– What experiences have they had?– Think about a video interview with asenior citizen. What questions would youask? What could you document in a videoabout a person’s life?80-year-old woman helps BeaumontPolice catch burglary suspect
Video • Similar to photography, but even more so,you have to anticipate what is going tohappen• Video is about compressing time.• Assembly = editing the video, creating amontage– This is LIKE how you pieced together yourphotostory, yet MUCH different.• Consider Cameron Diaz in “The Holiday” whose jobwas to make movies look good.• We have all seen a GOOD Trailer, just to bedisappointed by the movie.– http://blog.moviefone.com/2010/05/20/good-trailers-for-bad-movies/ - Terminator Salvation: Thatsalways the danger of watching a trailer, though, because sometimes when its a little too good, thefilm is doomed to be a let-down -- and before you know it, youve been hoodwinked and yourelooking forward to a movie that never existed. [Re Twister] …prove yet again that quality filmmaking and box-office returns have nothing to do with one another, and thiscrappy flick was one of the highest grossing movies of that year.”
Extended Moment• We all know that there isthe 1 decisive moment• But there are slivers oftime around that onemoment, that become themoment.• A lot of decisivemoments around makean extended moment.– The kiss on the cheek becomesthe hug, and the smile after thekiss.
Video Projects• Video 1 – Individual– Edited in camera initial (shoot sequentially, ready to show withminimal assembly)– Edited AFTER the fact for a final project– Topics: Video Story or PSAs• Video 2 – work in Pairs..or individual– RAW footage in field– Edited in Adobe Premiere– Topics: Music Video or Video Story 2• Video 3 – Individual– Topics: Timelapse or Claymation (stop action)• DVD– All videos (including photostory) in a Movie StyleDVD with menus, scene selection
Timeline of Video Production• All three videos START in January. The due datesfor each video is different as the production timeframe is different. But all three videos PLANNINGbegins right away, concurrently.– Video 1 Filming should begin by the middle of Feb andcomplete by the end of the 4th6 weeks, edited in the 5th6weeks.– Video 2 filming should begin by the end of the 4th6 weeks,complete by the middle of the 5th6 weeks.
Concurrent• Notice how many filmsSam did in 2010. Thatis an AMAZING feat.• Also notice the film heacted in for Ten....dueto release in 2014 (itis Feb 2013 now).Post prodcution cantake a year afterfilming.• Thunder run has notstarted film.
What does concurrent mean?• All THREE of your videos should start inthe 4th6 weeks.– 4th6, Week 1-3: Brainstorm, Plan,Treatment Video 1
General Concepts• Video Production – (as compared to Film and Movie) introduced late 60s toearly 70s– 1 hour of editing for each 1 minute of shooting• 3 projects– 1. Silent Story, about 1.5 - 3 minutes., edit in camera/field as much as possible. Post edit afterinitual due date with sound, effects, transitions, and credits.– 2. Story or Music– 3. Animation (Time-lapse or Claymation)• All stories have:– Beginning• Introduce 1. People or subject & 2. Set the atmosphere or mood/tone. 3. Conflict• In most stories except perhaps soaps: between 1st commercial, the credits and the second commercial the problem is presented. It is solvedby the end of the show.– Middle• Testing sequence (action - trying to solve a problem)– End• Resolve (success, opinion, failure)
Planning Your Video• Brainstorming – Determine Theme• Treatment – Where, how, tone, script– Should have about 3 paragraphs of what is happening in thestoryboard– Include an necessary materials, resources (props and equipment),actors• Story Board – create several boxes for each major scene– Indicate camera action, movement, composition, etc.• Audio Script (if talking) or Shooting Script– Audio – script out everything that needs to be said and give to talentin advance– Shooting script – list of shots, in order (different from a storyboard…this is just a check list)
Treatment for a video about the “Comm Graphics Department”:This video’s primary purpose is to introduce the class topotentially interested students, as an introductory video to be shown atthe beginning of the year, and as an example for video productionclasses.The video should have the following main areas of content:Computer Graphic Design, Photography, and Video Production. Thevideo should highlight the emphasis on competitions and displayingquality work to the public, as well as some information about the 2ndyear program.Resources for material can come from the CommunicationGraphics printed brochure. The video will include a variety of creativecameras angles, editing techniques, etc.Sample Treatment
Three Production Phases• The production process is commonly broken down into preproduction, production, andpostproduction.• 1. The Preproduction Phase– In preproduction the basic ideas and approaches of the production are developedand set into motion. It is in this phase that the production can be set on a propercourse, or misdirected to such an extent that no amount of time, talent, or editingexpertise can save it.– In order for the program to be successful, the needs, interests, and generalbackground of the target audience (the audience your production is designed toreach) must be studied and kept in mind throughout each production phase.– During preproduction not only are key talent and production members decided, butall of the major elements are also planned. Since things such as scenic design,lighting, and audio are interrelated, they must be carefully coordinated in a series ofproduction meetings.
Three Production Phases, Cont– Once all the basic elements are in place, rehearsals can start.– A complex production may require many days of rehearsals. These generally start with a table reading or dryrehearsal where the talent, along with key production personnel, sit around a table and read through the script.Often, script changes take place at this point.– Finally, theres a dress rehearsal. Here the talent is "dressed" in the appropriate wardrobe and all productionelements are in place. This is the final opportunity for production personnel to solve whatever productionproblems remain.• 2. The Production Phase– The production phase is where everything comes together in a kind of final performance.– Productions can either be broadcast live or recorded. With the exception of news shows, sports remotes, andsome special-event broadcasts, productions are typically recorded for later broadcast or distribution.– Recording the show or segment provides an opportunity to fix problems by either stopping the recording andredoing the segment or making changes during the postproduction editing phase.• 3. The Postproduction Phase– Tasks, such as striking sets, dismantling and packing equipment, handling final financial obligations, andevaluating the effect of the program, are part of the postproduction phase.– As computer-controlled editing techniques and postproduction special effects have become more sophisticated,editing has gone far beyond simply joining together segments in a desired order. Editing is now a major focus ofproduction creativity.
Storyboard Development• A storyboard is a Road Map, a Plan for how the video will go– When a movie story/idea is presented to a potential producer/investors, a storyboard is used to help them seethe big picture, of how scenes may actually play out.– Draw out details of each major scene change. Include details such as camera movement• No matter how basic, it is very important to sketch something out.– Do NOT just plan to start filming one afternoon. Even if a stick figure drawing is difficult for you, do it anyway.– A story board is as much of a list of scenes and shot list as it is a plan for how the scenes will look– A story board helps to work out location challenges in advance• Proper Planning Prepares your Project for Prosperity– If your talent shows up, even it is your best friend or parent, they are going to get frustrated with you if you havenot planned ahead how scenes are going to go.– A story board can be rearranged in a different order. I have seen some schools use index cards for thestoryboard so the scenes can be easily rearranged.• An entire industry exists around the creation of storyboarding
Storyboard Aids• http://karenjlloyd.com/blog/free-storyboard-template-downloads/• http://www.wacom.com/en/Products/Cintiq.aspx• Resources are readily available online• Special equipment, like the Cintiq Tablet or even apps forthe iPad are making Storyboard creations even easier.
CharacterDevelopment• Diagram howcharacters fitwith the storyand therelationshipbetween thecharacters.
Filming Basics• Types of Shots– Establish or wide shot - usually as wide as your camera will see. EWS– Medium shot - about knees up or 2 shot (2 people) MS– Close up - a head shot. CU– Ext. Close up - ECU• Manual focus - zoom in all the way, focus, and then pull out to frame.• Camera angle - psychological pt. of view. You are directing the viewers eye.• 5 Cs– Camera angle– Composition– Continuity– Close-up– Cutting• Continuity = consistency. If there is a cigar in the ash tray in one scene. It mustbe in all scenes.• Close-ups - variety of shots.• Cut up to set mood. - just a mouth - ECU
F.W.E.F.A.• Fweefuh! So what is FWEFA? Goodquestion!• F = Framing• W = White balance• E = Exposure• F = Focus• A = Audio
The first F• Framing (see end of Pres for Framingreview)• Make sure you have framed the shotthe way you want. Try different anglesor frames from different points of viewto get a variety of shots to help yourselfedit a better production later. You cannever have TOO many good angles.• Try the basic framing guidelines first.
Framing Terms• Video/Film is shot with a viewfinder.• What you see in the viewfinderdetermines the frame composition.• There are 6 basic terms used todescribe what is seen in the viewfinder.
Terms in order of viewfinder angle• Establishing shot or master shot.• This shot is usually taken with a wideangle lens and show an entire scene.Think of a western movie and the shotof the plains at the beginning of amovie.
Pan• Panning is moving the camera on itshorizontal axis• Left to right or right to left• Whip pan - panning very quickly
Tilt• Tilt is done by moving the camera onit’s vertical axis• Whip - tilt is the rapid movement of thecamera on it’s vertical axis• Use to follow action from a high positionto a lower one or from a lower positionto a higher one
Dolly• Moving the camera forward orbackward to or from your subject• Don’t confuse this with a truck
Truck• Moving your camera in the samedirection as your subject in a parallelmanner
W = White balance• White Balance is needed to get the best colorrecording for your video project.• Most cameras do a pretty good job selectingthe best white balance for the situation.• Difficult lighting can make for some strangecolors, especially on flesh tones.• Manual white balance is a good thing to knowhow to do.
White Card• To manually set the white balance youneed a white card. A white t-shirt willwork in a pinch as will a piece of whitecomputer paper.• Take a white card with you on shoots toset the white balance if necessary.• Mixed lighting requires balancemanually.
Camera Types at WB• Used to spend a lot of time trying to learn onTHESE exact school cameras. Not going to dothat this year. Bring YOUR camera for the VideoPractice Next Week. If you don’t have a V-DSLR,then you can use one of these.• We have 5 DV Camera Types, 2 Brands– Canon ZR 10, 40, 60– Canon Optura 50 – Excellent Focus control, ourbest camera– Panasonic DV120D – Webcam, NO audio input,Light– All are Firewire for very HQ
Know your camera• Most cameras have a manual whitebalance.• Read your manuals to find and usemanual or custom white balance.• We have two brands and 5 models…makes teaching difficult– Canon Optura 50 is our best and most modern camera, but now6 years old– Canon Zr-10, 40, 60– Panasonic – last choice, but an ok camera• Has built in video light
Exposure• Most camera will do a pretty good jobwith automatic exposure setting.Difficult situations include:• Stage Lighting• Back Lighting• Dark complexions in low light
Changing Exposure• Know how to change your exposure manually.• Get and read the manual to know how toachieve manual exposure settings.– RTFM – That is Read The Freaking Manual…get it?• Exposure can be changed with shutter speedand aperture, just like still camera• Some simpler cameras will just let you makean exposure compensation. + or – 3 stops.
Focus• Auto focus is great, but can mess you up in acomplex shot or if you want to use selectivefocus for emphasis.– Know how to manually focus your camera.• Our Optura 50 has very nice manual focus• Most inexpensive video cameras have very crudemanual focus controllers.– The DSLR’s make this very easy. Just move theswitch to manual focus.• Very elaborate systems to smooth dslr focus knob– Check your manual for your camera’s manualfocus setting.
Focus Technique• If you have a higher end camera and want to makea long zoom shot there is a technique that will helpyou keep focus.– Start with the zoom at it’s longest focal length (zoomedin).– Focus on your subject.– Now change your FOCAL length, not your FOCUS to theshortest setting (wide angle).– As you zoom, the subject should stay in focus.• Some cheaper zoom lenses will change focus asyou zoom. You know you have a true zoom lens ifit keeps focus throughout the focal length change.This is called parafocal and is NOT common evenon expensive lenses.
Audio• Audio is a whole different animal!• Things to remember about audio:– Keep it as clean and understandable aspossible– Bad audio will ruin Great video– Great audio might save bad video!• Mainly because you can put stills in place of thevideo while the audio is maintained.• Be sure to monitor your audio with a pair ofheadphones.
External Audio• Use external audio wheneverpossible• Cordless lavalier (lapel) mics are agood way to improve audio quality.• Boom mics are a good way to improveaudio quality if you need to show morethan one person in a shot.• Use stereo mics if possible (we havesome). Current DSLRs have mono
Royalty Free Audio• Incompetech.com– Credit source,– YouTube friendly– Lots of different themed selections(mysterious, suspense, action, beat)– I have already dled most of thiscollection…see server• Jamendo.com
Acting• “With any part you play, there is a certainamount of yourself in it. There has to be,otherwise it’s just not acting. It’s lying.”Johnny Depp• Prepare your people a script ahead oftime.– Record scene several times.– Be a director…don’t be afraid to tell them whatto do– Reward your talent, food, gifts, coupons,services, tokens
10 Tips For Improving Your Home Videos• If you shoot a two-hour video of your child’s birthday party or six hours of your last vacation with theintention of editing them later into a good 15 to 30 minute video to show your friends, you will soonrealize that you are looking at hours of work. If you don’t edit the videos, then plan on using the fastforward button on the remote early and often when viewing with friends.• There is a way to avoid editing or the fast forward button, and that’s with a simple technique called "in-camera" editing. With enough practice you can make an original video look like an edited master. Hereare 10 tips for improving your home videos.• Tip #1 - Keep your shots short– A twenty-second shot of a mountain scene will seem like an eternity. Try to hold your shots to between 5 and 10seconds. On average, Im usually closer to 5 seconds. Try looking at TV shows and news broadcasts, and counthow many seconds each shot is held. This will give you a good idea of pacing. TV news is edited very tightbecause of the time constraints. You will see that many shots are only 2-3 seconds long. What ties those shotstogether is the narration. (see tip #7). The bottom line is, if you think you would be fast-forwarding a scene at homewhen you watch it, then its time to hit the stop button.• Tip #2 - Watch the panning and zooming– Dont move that camera around like youre waving a flag." Pan slow (unless youre going for a special effect) ordont pan at all. Remember, there is a stop button you can use when you want to go "from here to there". Also, becareful not to zoom in and out too much. Your audience may get seasick. Again, remember there is a stop button.You can stop recording, zoom in or out to compose the next shot, and start recording again. Try a wide angle shotfirst to establish the scene, stop, zoom to your subject, and then start recording again.• Tip #3 - Use close-ups where appropriate– Dont be afraid to use close-ups, not the up the nostril type like you see on the TV news, but nice head andshoulder shots, especially in interview situations.
10 Tips For Improving Your Home Videos• Tip #4 - Switch between "animate" and "inanimate" objects– In other words people are the animate objects and mountains are inanimate. Break it up a little. Dont spend toomuch time on people or too much time on the scenery. Remember, it just takes some short shots to break it up.This also gives you a chance to change position and angle.• Tip #5 - Change your position and angles– Dont be nailed to one spot on the floor (or grass). Move around. Change your camera height. One effective anglefor street scenes or large rooms is to put the camera on the floor and set the lens at wide angle. When shootingchildren, get down at eye level with them. Don’t make every shot from a standing shoulder height position.• Tip #6 - Remember your last shot– This is a key to in-camera editing. Try and create a storyboard in your head as you shoot, so you know whereyouve been and where youre going. Most cameras have a feature where you can back up while in record modeand see your previous scene. If your camera doesn’t have that feature, or you can’t remember your last shot, usea scenery transition (something you know for sure that you didnt use last) or the "fade" if some time has elapsed.• Tip #7 - Use narration to tell the story– This is a key to interesting videos. It takes some practice. The narration ties the story together, but you have toknow where youre headed in the first place. The trick with narration and in-camera editing is to stop talking in midsentence, change angle or position, shoot and start talking again. The result looks like an edited cut with a voiceover. You may have to delay a silent count of one between talking and stopping the video and a count of one whenstarting and talking or you could lose part of a word. It depends on your camera. You have to know yourequipment. Add humor to your narration. Interview your subjects and get them to open up. You dont have to askthe questions while you are shooting. You can ask them a question off camera and their response will look like aspontaneous comment. You can even tell them what to say if they cant think of anything.
10 Tips For Improving Your Home Videos• Tip #8 - Use the "rule of thirds"– This tip could be a story in itself. For now just remember--when composing your shots dont centereverything.• Tip #9 - Turn off the date/clock– This is a sure sign of an amateur video. Unless youre doing a police investigation or insurancevideo, you dont need that date and clock on all the time. You can always mention the date andtime in the narration. Use the date over a black lead in and/or exit out (plus titles if you have thatcapability as necessary) for documentation and fast searching.• Tip #10 - Dont over use the "fade" control– The fade button used to be the only way to signal a break in time. Today’s digital cameras haveeffects such as mosaic or dissolves, which can also be used as transitions between scenes. Ifyour camera doesn’t have those features try a "poor mans dissolve", or half-fade by using thecamera’s manual fade before your next shot.
Video Practice• Practice Camera handling– Various camera motions– Learn how to control the camera– Learn about camera Mics• Video Scavenger Hunt
Camera Operation,Practice ExercisePractice Video ExercisePractice the following shots.Pick a simple topic…and record as many of thefollowing as possible.For example: A person looking for a flower to pick.Composition:Each of your clips should exhibit good compositiono Rule of Thirdso Lead roomo Depth of Fieldo Aspect ratioCamera Shotso LS Long shoto ELS Extreme long shoto ES Establishing shoto MS Medium shoto MCU Medium close-upo CUClose-upo ECU Extreme close-upCamera movements Pan left, Pan right Tilt up, down Dollying & Trucking TrackingCamera angles Eye-level shot Subjective angle Objective angle High-angle shot Low-angle shot Oblique-angle shotTransitions: ZI Zoom in, ZO zoom out FO Fade out, FI Fade in Dissolve Cut Special effect
Module 4,Focus 41• View clips ofcasting• Discuss Periodpiece…what is anexample?• Discuss whyshows getcanceled, what isan example of ashow they likethat got canceled• Watch remakingof star warsmovie.• Watch AmazingSpecial Effects –staging, props,etc.
Show Cancelation?• Heroes - TV drama created by Tim Kring on NBC for 4 seasons from 9-25-2006 – 02-08-2010.• The critically acclaimed first garnered an average of 14.3 million viewers in the US, receiving thehighest rating for an NBC drama premiere in five years.• The second season of Heroes was criticized by commentators and fans for a much slower pace, lessengaging storyline and lack of focus compared to the first season. Milo Ventimiglia stated that "whentheres a little bit of a delay, theres not that instant, rewarding scene or moment or episode... peopleget impatient, so it has been extremely important for them to strike a balance between giving andgetting."In an interview with Entertainment Weekly, Heroes creator Tim Kring commented oncriticisms of season two, and the series 15% decline in ratings.Kring said that he felt he had mademistakes with the direction of season two. He had thought that the audience was looking for a "build-upof characters and the discovery of their powers", when viewers were instead looking for "adrenaline."Kring also outlined what he felt were problems with plot development, stating that the second season"took too long to get to the big-picture story"The season four premiere of Heroes was thelowest rated episode of the series to thatpoint, averaging 5.9 million viewers.Despite the seasons low ratings, executiveproducer Tim Kring was "fully expecting" afifth season.However, while creator Kringwas hopeful over the shows future manymedia insiders were not so confident. Therewas growing speculation on some newssites that NBC would cancel the series at theconclusion of its fourth season or that itmight renew the show for a fifth and finalseason by ordering either 6 or 13 episodesand possibly airing them as a backup or mid-season replacement.On May 14, 2010,NBC made it official that Heroes was indeedcancelled.
Some 2011 shows canceled…Charlies Angels: Canceled due to poor ratings. This series struggled right out of the gate and nevermanaged to pick up from there. Despite the intense ad campaign, ABC squashed this reboot after 3episodes. All in all, 8 episodes were produced, 7 have aired and 1 will never see the light of day.Desperate Housewives: After eight fantastic years, ABC and series creator Marc Cherry opted to end theshow before the ratings continued to plunge. Luckily for DH fans, the writers knew before writing hadcommenced for the last season that this would be the end, so the entire final season has been gearedtowards one important goal -- giving the fans the closure we all deserve. The final episode is scheduledto air in May, 2012.House: After eight seasons and sinking ratings, the producers of the show (which include series star HughLaurie) decided it was time to end the once-successful series. The finale is set to air in May.Chuck: After four seasons of less than stellar ratings (and several fan campaigns that helped save theshow each year), NBC decided to bring the show back for one last, shortened season. The entire fifthseason was one long goodbye with a very satisfying ending.Prime Suspect: NBC really wanted to get fans on board with this crime drama, even trying different timeslots, but viewers just never warmed up to this series -- in fact, they just simply didnt bother giving it ashot at all.The Nine Lives of Chloe King: Although ABC Family gave this series the benefit of a lead-in from theirtop-rated series Pretty Little Liars, viewer retention rate was alarmingly low and the network canceledthe show at the end of its summer run. Rumors are circulating that ABC Family may produce a two-hour movie to complete the series after fans flooded the network with complaints.Hawthorne: After three seasons, TNT opted to cancel the medical drama after it had continued to plunge inthe ratings and failed to reach new viewers.Men of a Certain Age: Despite its award-winning cast, viewership maintained alarmingly low levels andTPTB could no longer justify the expense of the show.The Closer: After seven amazing seasons, the producers and TNT decided to end the series while it wasstill on top. A spinoff titled Major Crimes, starring Mary McDonnell is expected to premiere this summer.
Module 5, #42• Your Video Hunt footage is considered B-Roll• New videographers are sent out to get B footage.• Not to be confused with the term “B Movie”…which refers to Budget Movie
Module 8, 45 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charge-Progressive or noninterlacedscanning is a method fordisplaying, storing ortransmitting moving images inwhich all the lines of eachframe are drawn in sequence.
Module 18• CCU = Camera Control Unit - The RCP-TX7 (full DSP controller) can beused from the CCU allowing 16 user preset scene files. Audio from thecamera and teleprompter functions when attached to the new CA-D50adapter is possible.• DSP - Digital Signal Processor. Used to covert speech to text and vice versa.From Wiki…Since the goal of DSP is usually to measure or filter continuousreal-world analog signals, the first step is usually to convert the signal froman analog to a digital form, by using an analog to digital converter . Mac wasone of the first companies to put a DSP in the computer. This was veryspecial because the Computer a 660av (1996) was labeled as a speechcapable computer that would talk and listen to your speech commands.http://applemuseum.bott.org/sections/computers/q660.html• SC Control – Hue Control - http://www.cybercollege.com/tvp018.htm• White level - The carrier signal level corresponding to maximum picturebrightness in television and facsimile.• Black level - The level of the television picture signal corresponding to themaximum limit of black peaks.
White Balance• Film cameras – must match film stock to the film rating, i.e.daylight vs. tungsten/incandescent– For florescent (FLd), you had to put a filter on the front of your lens.• Digital SLRs – Have a white balance setting.– AWB – Auto White Balance is too blue or too yellow…better to setthe actual color.• Video Cameras – also have white balance setting.– Older cameras had a white point setting…you pointed it atsomething white and pressed the button– Newer VIDEO and Digital Video Cameras have a setting similar toDigital SLRs allowing you to dial in the exact White Balance.
White Balance OptionsHere are some of the basic White Balance settings you’ll find on cameras:• Auto – this is where the camera makes a best guess on a shot by shot basis. You’ll find it works inmany situations but it’s worth venturing out of it for trickier lighting.• Tungsten – this mode is usually symbolized with a little bulb and is for shooting indoors, especiallyunder tungsten (incandescent) lighting (such as bulb lighting). It generally cools down the colors inphotos.• Fluorescent – this compensates for the ‘cool’ light of fluorescent light and will warm up your shots.• Daylight/Sunny – not all cameras have this setting because it sets things as fairly ‘normal’ whitebalance settings.• Cloudy – this setting generally warms things up a touch more than ‘daylight’ mode.• Flash – the flash of a camera can be quite a cool light so in Flash WB mode you’ll find it warms upyour shots a touch.• Shade – the light in shade is generally cooler (bluer) than shooting in direct sunlight so this modewill warm things up a little.•Read more: http://digital-photography-school.com/introduction-to-white-balance#ixzz0l4zBLqg0
RF - CoaxialCable coaxialRG-59 or 58 or6A: PlasticJacketB: MetallicC: DialetricInsulatorD: Center Core
RF - Coaxial• The RF Coaxial Cable connectionis used for transferring televisionsignals (audio and video)originating from an antenna orcable box to a Television. Inaddition, VCRs can also utlize thisconnection for both receiving andtransfer television signals and forwatch VHS tapes. The type of RFCoaxial Connection pictured hereis the Push-on type (right) andScrew-on type (bottom).
RCA or Composite• A CompositeVideoConnection isa connectionin which boththe Color andB/W portionsof the videosignal aretransferredtogether. Theactual physicalconnection isreferred to asan RCA videoconnectionand is usuallyYellow at thetips. Analog Stereos cables transfer Left and Right stereo signals from components, such as, aCD player, Cassette Deck, VCR, and other devices to a stereo or surround sound amplifieror receiver. Red is designated for the Right Channel and White is designated for the LeftChannel. These colors will correspond to the colors of the receiving end analog stereoconnectors on an amplifier or receiver.
S-VideoHot pluggableyesExternalyesVideo signalNTSC, PAL or SECAMvideoPins4 or 7 Connector Mini-DINconnectorPin 1 GNDGround (Y)Pin 2GNDGround (C)Pin 3YIntensity(Luminance)
S-Video• An S-Videoconnection is ananalog videoconnection in whichthe B/W and Colorportions of the signalare transferredseparately. The signalis then recombined bythe Television or videorecording device atthe receiving end. Theresult is less colorbleeding and moredefined edges thanwith a standard analogcomposite videoconnection.
Component• A Component Video Connection is a videoconnection in which the separate color andB/W elements of the signal are transfered viaseparate cables from a source, such as a DVDplayer, to a video display device, such as aTelevision or Video Projector. This connectionis represented by three RCA cables -- thathave Red, Green, and Blue connection tips.There are two types of component videoconnections in use for consumers: Y,Pb,Pr -Progressive Scan component videoinput/output connection, and Y,Cb,Cr -Interlaced scan only component videoinput/output connection.
HDMI – High Definition Multimedia Interface• HDMI stands for High Definition Multi-media Interface. To transfer the digitalvideo signal from a source to a TV, the source must convert the signal fromdigital to analog, this results in some information loss. However, an HDMIconnection, can transfer a digital video source signal (such as from a DVDplayer) digitally, without conversion to analog. This results in a pure transferof all of video information from the digital video source to a HDMI or DVI (viaa connection adapter) equipped TV. In addition, HDMI connectors cantransfer both video and audio signals.
DVI – Digital Visual Interface• DVI stands for Digital VisualInterface. A DVI interfaceconnection can transfer adigital video signal from asource component (such asfrom a DVI-equipped DVDplayer, cable, or satellitebox) directly to a videodisplay that also has a DVIconnection, withoutconversion to analog. Thiscan result in a better qualityimage from both standardand high definition videosignals.
• A digital opticalconnection is afiber-opticconnection that isused fortransferring digitalaudio signals (suchas PCM, DolbyDigital, and DTS)from a sourcedevice, such as CDor DVD player andan AV receiver orSurround SoundPreamp/Processor.This connection isalso referred to asa TOSLINKconnection.Fiber Optic - Toslink
VGA• Standard computerconnection.• Better to use muchhigher quality DVIconnection ifpossible.
Firewire• DV Connection, alsoknown as iLink, Firewire,and IEEE1394• For connecting miniDVand Digital8 camcordersto DVD recorders recordsto enable digital transferof audio and video fromminiDV or Digital8recordings to DVD.
• Here is a look at rear connection panel of a typical HDTV. On the top, from left to right, there areconnections for HDMI/DVI, including a set of analog stereo audio inputs, and a VGA monitor input for usewith a PC.• On the top right is the RF Coaxial Cable/Antenna Connection. Just below the RF connection are headphoneand analog stereo audio outputs.• On the bottom left there are two sets of HD-Component inputs, paired with analog stereo audio inputs.• On the bottom right side are a service port, plus two sets of analog stereo audio and composite videoinputs.• There is also an S-video input option just to the right of one of the composite video inputs.• As you can see, an HDTV has a variety of both standard and HD input options.Typical HDTV
New Project• Before starting create afolder for Video Projects• Location– Set location to P drive– Browse to your Videofolder, make a newfolder for Video # thatyou are working on– Name your video
Capture Video• Connect FireWire• File Menu– Capture (F5)• Cue up tape (you can use the computercontrols)– If you entered the time at the beginning ofyour tape, you can try “Scene Detection”• Press the record button.
Guidelines for Framing• Rule of Thirds Tic-Tack-Toe• Framing• Leading Lines• Balance• Simplicity• Mergers - Avoid these at all costs!
Rule of Thirds• Rule ofThirds• Place themain subjecton one of theintersectionsof theimaginarylines of a tic-tack-toeboard.
Rule of thirds• Rule of thirds is a good rule to rememberwhen shooting landscapes as well.
Rule of thirds• Place the horizon in the upper or lowerthird of your scene.
Framing• Use objects in the foreground toemphasis the main subject in thebackground of your image.
What NOT to do - Mergers• Mergers are a no no. This happenswhen the person behind the cameradoes not check the edges of the frameor does not look at the background ofthe scene.• Two kinds of mergers: Border and Near