Enlarger and Darkroom Printing


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Enlarger and Darkroom Printing Presentation for West Brook Photography Students.

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Enlarger and Darkroom Printing

  1. 1. Enlarger and Darkroom Film Printing
  2. 2. Copyright Notice • • Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC BY-NC-SA • This presentation is for educational purposes only. • No money is being made and is provided with similar allowances for other educators to use for non-profit, educational purposes. • Images are from various sources, including many of my own. If you would like the high res images I have shot, please visit www.DrewLoker.com for various work online. If you are the original author of any of the samples, pictures, text, etc. please let me know if you object to the usage and I will remove your material promptly. Photo by Drew Loker
  3. 3. Why a Darkroom? • Special paper will be used • Think of it like your paper is a little vampire. • If light hits the paper, it will die! • So, we will construct a “coffin” for your photo charged paper. Do NOT let it “die”!
  4. 4. Silver • The other thing we learn from vampires is the significance of silver. We all know what happens when a vamp comes in contact with silver, right? *see side note • Well, in photography, that silver is what is reacting to the light on the photo paper. Mythology: Why does silver hurt vampires? It doesn’t really. It came from confusion over werewolves and vampires. It has become vogue lately that silver will kill a vampire. The best explanation I found was because vampires represent pure evil. Jesus was betrayed for 30 pieces of silver and so silver is a 'blessed metal.' That is the reasoning behind the legend.
  5. 5. Remember: If you did NOT complete your Lab Safety last week, you MUST complete it before you work in the darkroom.
  6. 6. IMGP0265
  7. 7. • The enlarger is used to project light onto light sensitive photo paper. – 1st Project, we use the enlarger simply as a light source for Photograms. – 2nd Project: We use the darkroom for the Pinhole Photos, but not the enlarger. – 3rd time in the darkroom you will place Negatives directly onto the paper to make little prints called a “contact print”. – Finally, when a negative is placed INSIDE the enlarger, the images are enlarged onto the paper in the form of prints.
  8. 8. The parts of… Be sure to turn off the enlarger when not in use. Power Cord – Use caution when adjusting the height of the enlarger so you do not CUT the cord. Lamp House Lamp House Knob – aka Negative Stage Knob Contrast Level Indicator White Light Lever – aka Filter Lever (On/Off). Pull TOWARD you to turn off. Enlarger Timer – Turn to a larger time, then down to your desired time. Contrast Control Knob Paper Selector – Leave on ilford Enlarger Height Knob – Outermost knob Negative Carrier – Opens with Lamp House Knob Bellows – Focus Lens – aka Lens Board Lens includes the aperture which controls the quantity of light. Enlarger Lock – Should usually be left loose. Focus Knob – Inner Lower
  9. 9. The parts of… Lamp House
  10. 10. The Light House Holds the bulb and lens that in which light is projected through
  11. 11. The parts of… Be sure to turn off the enlarger when not in use. Even if you walk away for a few seconds…turn it OFF! Power Cord – Use caution when adjusting the height of the enlarger so you do not CUT the cord.
  12. 12. Caution: Be very careful of the cord dangling over the top of the enlarger getting tangled up in the gears when using the hand crank to raise the enlarger.
  13. 13. The parts of… Lamp House Knob – aka Negative Stage Knob
  14. 14. Lamp House allows access to pull out the negative carrier Be sure the lamp house is LOWERED before turning on the light.
  15. 15. The parts of… White Light Lever – aka Filter Lever (On/Off). Pull TOWARD you to turn off.
  16. 16. White Light Lever Pull Forward to cancel (disengage) the Filter Push AWAY to ENGAGE the Filter
  17. 17. The parts of… Enlarger Height Knob – Outermost knob
  18. 18. The parts of… Enlarger Lock – Should usually be left loose.
  19. 19. Lock
  20. 20. Caution: Be careful to not try to change the enlarger height with out Unlocking it first.
  21. 21. The parts of… Focus Knob – Inner Lower
  22. 22. Focus Knob located on the side and below the bellows
  23. 23. Focus Bellows
  24. 24. The parts of… Lens – aka Lens Board Lens includes the aperture which controls the quantity of light.
  25. 25. Lens Board • Has a little translucent red peg that glows when the enlarger is turned on to illuminate the aperture ring of the enlarger lens.
  26. 26. Lens Board
  27. 27. Aperture Video • Small number = Large Opening = shallow Depth Of Field • Large # = Small Opening = Deep Depth of Field
  28. 28. Bellows – Focus
  29. 29. Focus Knob located on the side of the bellows
  30. 30. Focus Bellows
  31. 31. The parts of… Negative Carrier – Open Lamp House to remove.
  32. 32. Negative Carrier – The Tongue
  33. 33. The parts of… Paper Selector – Leave on ilford…we don’t use this.
  34. 34. Paper Selector Lever • Leave on Ilford (center option) - NOT used
  35. 35. The parts of… Contrast Control Knob
  36. 36. Contrast Control Knob • Please don’t put your finger IN the little window…it is NOT a button. Only the KNOB in the center can be changed.
  37. 37. The parts of… Contrast Level Indicator
  38. 38. Contrast Level Indicator • Please don’t put your finger IN the little window…it is NOT a button. Only the KNOB in the center can be changed.
  39. 39. The parts of… Enlarger Timer – Turn to a greater time, then down to your desired time.
  40. 40. Enlarger Timer Enlarger Timer – Turn to a greater time, then down to your desired time.
  41. 41. Old Timey Mechanical Timers • Ever wondered why your mom rotated the timer so far back past the time, then set it at the correct time? – Because there is slippage in the mechanism • To get the most accurate time, you have to turn past the number you want, then dial down to the desired setting. – So, if you want the timer to go off in 10 minutes, you would go to 20 minutes, then back to 10. • Even though most microwaves, alarm clocks, etc are digital, toaster ovens tend to still be mechanical. Instructions for the timer above from Walmart
  42. 42. Enlarger Timer T stands for Timing - Button is active F stands for Focus - Light Bulb is ON When on T…press start button to begin timer which will turn the light on. If you flip to F, WHILE the timer is going, it will reset the timer.
  43. 43. IMGP0327
  44. 44. Enlarger Timer Press button on right hand side to start the timer.
  45. 45. Remember the Vampire Story Resin = Plastic VC = Variable Contrast -3 5 Stop or Fixer Photo = Silver based, light sensitive
  46. 46. Darkroom Chemicals Will be pre-mixed for 1st year student darkroom use
  47. 47. Darkroom Printing Contact Sheet, Test Strips and Prints Begin Focus #20 Notes
  48. 48. Contact Prints
  49. 49. Making a contact sheet 1.Place the negatives in rows on top of the photo paper under the enlarger as straight as possible and in order of shooting 2.Lay the glass pane from one side to the other as shown. * EASILY lay down the glass pane over the negatives so as to not disturb the negatives. 3.Expose your paper and process 20.1
  50. 50. Put your negatives as close as possible. • • 24 exposure rolls will fit nicely. 36 exposure rolls will require that the negatives be placed so that the edges slightly over lap.
  51. 51. Place negatives with the arch UP Your paper will also be arch up. Emulsion to Emulsion
  52. 52. Glass pane for contact sheet print
  53. 53. Place Glass on Top of Negatives
  54. 54. Make Your Contact Sheet • Keep the Negative Sleeve in relative position in front of the negatives. • CS - 20” EL Height, 30 Seconds, f3.5 for Color Negatives (B&W negatives don’t take as long) NO FILTER!!!! • Remove the paper so as to leave the negatives in the correct order.
  55. 55. Begin Making your Print • Mark w/sharpie your contact sheet with your favorite/best images…2 for FF, 2 for UP • Select best for each topic and go to printing. • Carefully load first negative to Negative Carrier. • 8x10 Prints…set EL Height to 12.5” 20.2
  56. 56. As you insert the negative carrier, lift the lamp house high enough and 20.3 watch for a foam gasket under the light house.
  57. 57. Negative Carrier • The carrier is spring loaded. Once you have put your negative in place, you will need to hold it closed.
  58. 58. Negative Carrier • CAREFULLY slide the negative UNDER the tabs. Be VERY careful not to scratch the underside of your negative (the emulsion).
  59. 59. Place Negative Under Tabs • As you guide it under the tabs, only gently push along the sides.
  60. 60. Dust Blower/Brush 20.4
  61. 61. 4 in 1 Easel 8x10 on one side 20.5
  62. 62. 4 in 1 Easel 5x7, 3.5x5, Wallet on the other
  63. 63. Common Heights of the Enlarger For the normal lens (50mm, 35mm negative), the following heights are the minimum to make the indicated size: 1. 8x10 Horizontal or Vertical = 12.5" 2. 8x10 Vertical of a horizontal image (or vice versa) = 16" 3. 5x7 Horizontal = 9.5"
  64. 64. Minisight Grain Scope Magnifier 20.6
  65. 65. Minisight Grain Scope Magnifier • Place it on the side of the easel that you are going to make a print of. i.e. if you are going to make an 8x10, leave it on the 8x10 side (5x7 is pictured).
  66. 66. Focusing on the Grain • You are NOT looking for the image…but the GRAIN of the film. • You will probably only see what looks like sandpaper. However, you may see PART of the image.
  67. 67. Focusing on the Grain • Don’t avoid the light…the grain is IN the light. • Unless you just happen to see apart of an image, you will only see the grain.
  68. 68. Composing Your Image • NOT WYSIWYG…ASPECT Ratio Disagreement. • When you took the picture, you SAW an aspect ratio of 3:4…or 8x12. • When you PRINT, you will be making an 8x10…or a 4:5. This is the same as watching standard TV on a Wide Screen. 20.7
  69. 69. If you just laid a piece of paper down under the enlarger, this is what you would get
  70. 70. The Easel will CROP the image
  71. 71. Contrast • The difference in the black tones and white tones in your picture. The higher contrast, the greater the difference. 20.8
  72. 72. Contrast • The higher the number of the filter, the greater the contrast. • Black will be darker, and white will be brighter
  73. 73. IMGP0284
  74. 74. IMGP0338
  75. 75. Contrast Filter Low 0 Normal* 2.5-3.5 High 5 LOWERING # = REDUCE contrast. INCREASING # = INCREASE contrast. * Normal - B&W prints from B&W film = 2.5. Normal B&W prints from color film = 3.5
  76. 76. To Increase or Not • If you have a low contrast image (mostly gray), use a high # to get MORE contrast. • If you have a high contrast image (lots of white and black) use a low # to get LESS contrast. • Contrast is a very subjective factor to consider. • Contrast is NOT just if something is too dark or to bright.
  77. 77. White Light Lever Pull Forward to cancel (off) the Filter (to Focus and for Contact Sheets) Push AWAY to ENGAGE (ON) the Filter to Print (test strips and Prints)
  78. 78. “Engage”, he said, “Engage” Engage from Star Trek
  79. 79. IMGP0370
  80. 80. Making a Test Strip • There is NO EXACT method of making a test strip. • You could use an entire sheet of paper…or you could use strips of paper. • I like to be conservative…but you can be TOO conservative. • First, let’s look at how to cut a sheet into test strips. 20.9
  81. 81. If this was your test strip, what do you think about the time for this image?
  82. 82. Now what do you think about the test strip?
  83. 83. Make sure the test strip always goes across the most important part of the picture.
  84. 84. Making a Test Strip • But let’s spare no expense… and look at what an entire 8x10 would look like as a test “strip”.
  85. 85. Using an entire sheet of paper may seem excessive…but just remember the value of time, called, Time Value of Money. If it takes 1 hour to make 5 test strips, and you still don’t end up with a print, then your value for that hour was 50 cents. In contrast, if you can lay down ONE (1) sheet of paper, and in 5 minutes KNOW what the best exposure time is, then you have saved nearly an hour of time.
  86. 86. Final Print from ONE (1) test “strip” Most of you all wouldn’t hesitate 1 second to throw down a $1 for a sack of cookies that is “a moment on your lips…and forever on your hips”. How much is your time worth?
  87. 87. For color negatives to black and white prints, I recommend putting a time of 20 seconds, cover your paper with all but ¼ of the sheet with your card board. Progressively remove the card board with each push of the button adding 5 to 20 more seconds.
  88. 88. 5 (20) Seconds Cardboard
  89. 89. 10 or 40 Seconds 5 or 20 Seconds Cardboard
  90. 90. 15 or 60 Seconds 10 or 40 Seconds 5 or 20 Seconds Cardboard
  91. 91. 20 or 80 Seconds 15 or 60 Seconds 10 or 40 Seconds Always do another test strip (at a single time) after a split time test strip to nail down the exact time. 5 or 20 Seconds
  92. 92. Always do another test strip if you move the timer clock hands.
  93. 93. • Final Print from 1 large split time test strip, then 1 final large test strip. A small change in time was made… resulting in TOO dark of a print. • Processing was also flawed resulting in uneven development.
  94. 94. darkroom printing, 8x10 test strip 3 final
  95. 95. Darkroom log • Be sure to record your name • And at least the exposure time so you can start from where you left off the next day. 20.10a
  96. 96. My Darkroom Log from almost 20 years ago, including “Live Bait” (Mounted print of dog chasing cat…North East Wall above the Comm I white board.) 20.10b
  97. 97. Theoretically, I should be able to walk in the darkroom, use the settings from the original print and get pretty close to the same print. 20.10c
  98. 98. Always do another test at the beginning of each new day. 20.10d
  99. 99. 20.10e
  100. 100. Easel Placement • Should Open AWAY from you…so that it is a like a big mouth about to bite you. • • Notice 4 black tabs Don’t be confused by the backside of the tabs for the other side of the 4in1 easel. Don’t leave negatives not in use laying out at your station. • 20.11
  101. 101. Paper Placement • Place paper against all 4 black tabs • Slide the paper back and forth to make sure you are up against all 4 tabs.
  102. 102. Paper Placement • Gently lower the easel lid so as to not shift the paper.
  103. 103. Dodging and Burning • Most pictures will require SOME tweaking with the printing… called custom printing…or dodging and burning. 20.12
  104. 104. Dodging and Burning • Digital Dodging and Burning is one of the best features of both a FILM dakroom or DIGITAL darkroom. No photoshop at home? Pixlr.com offers it for free.
  105. 105. Dodging and Burning • Most pictures will require SOME tweaking with the printing…called custom printing…or dodging and burning.
  106. 106. Limited Dynamic Range • Even TODAY, digital cameras LACK the exposure range of Film which is the ability to bring out detail in either the shadows or highlights.
  107. 107. State of the Art iPhone 4s, Apps help
  108. 108. Ansel Adams called this stage the “Performance part of Printing”
  109. 109. Keep the Dodge or Burn tool moving while you are exposing your image
  110. 110. Print Errors • Let’s look at some ways to avoid wasting your time and money.
  111. 111. darkroom printing, challenges negative edge, Finger prints
  112. 112. darkroom printing, challenges 4 base fog, probably heat (Rita or Ike)
  113. 113. darkroom printing, challenges 5 base fog, probably from Heat (Rita or IKE)
  114. 114. darkroom printing, challenges 6 base fog, probably from heat (Rita or IKE)
  115. 115. picture sample, darkroom, fogged even upside down in the developer
  116. 116. Entire image with negative edge showing. Dotted line simulates an 8x10 crop.
  117. 117. Picture is back lit, needs dodging and burning.
  118. 118. picture sample, back lit, now too dark
  119. 119. Printing 5x7s • When you are done printing the class requirements, print some of your other pictures. • If you want, you can print other pictures as 5x7s. You can cut 1-8x10 to 25x7s. This will give you 2 small test strips that are 1”x5”. • The time for a 5x7 is about HALF that of an 8x10. Be sure to do a new test strip.
  120. 120. • Both of these prints suffered from paper fog OUTSIDE of the darkroom (opening the black bag in the light).
  121. 121. Test Strips • Save your final test strips, especially eyes, for our Front Door. • Be sure they are properly Fixed and Washed.
  122. 122. Darkroom Reminders • Darkroom tips – – – – – – Do NOT loose your negatives Put your initials on the back of your paper You MUST leave your prints in the fixer for the correct TOTAL amount of time. The “1 minute” time is for inspection only. You must put it back in the fixer. Not fixing long will cause the print to turn yellow in a few hours, days or months. Move your prints around in the wash to keep prints separate form each other, use both wash baths to ensure a good washing. Get the print right on a test strip. If your initial test strips are small, do a final test strip that is significantly larger. Always do a new test strip at the beginning of a new day…even with the info from your log sheet, you still need to do a test strip. • Learn the “CLICKS” of the f/stops on the enlarger lens…the numbers are identical to the camera after the first one, on most of the enlargers. – – – – – • 3.5, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16 However, this is a non-click position WIDE OPEN and CLOSED down, that are not really positions, but they are different than the NUMBERED position. Rinse and dispose of test strips as you go…do not let them pile up in the developer, stop, etc. Do NOT allow any wet strips, not even paper you think is reasonably dry ones, to be at your EL station. When trimming your 5x7s, be sure your paper is straight. Clean up Duties – – “Clean Up Duties” is a class duty. The clean up captain is there to make sure it gets done. Their job will be to notate what stations/areas are not taken care of, and points will be deducted from the entire class…1 pt per day off the entire classes focus. Each class period is a little different…please be sure to put your name on the form, and complete the correct period. Refer to the clean up captain rotation sheet to determine who is next, etc.
  123. 123. Make sure negative stage stays level with your images. The image above would probably result in an uneven focus.