There are many kinds of cameras.
We will learn about some of them.
Any of them could be a digital camera.
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• One guys
some 50+ film
Mainly, for many types of uses.
But also because of technological
improvements over time resulting in
similar models, but new features.
Several Options with each Brand
• Similar offerings around 2012…all price
points have new models each year.
– Models range in size, features…and price.
$500 $850 $1650 $3000 $5000
D40 D90 D300 D700 D3
One of the biggest
reasons is the size of
or digital sensor.
Left to right:
4”x5” film holder for view camera
120mm Twin Lens
• The biggest differences between various camera is the sensor
Film vs. Sensor
Main Camera Types
(there are others)
• Single Lens Reflex • Twin Lens Reflex
• Viewfinder • View Camera
• Any of the above can be a Digital camera.
A digital camera is simply the medium that
an image is recorded on.
Lens Based Camera Obscura, 1568
Usages of Pinhole Cameras
• Learn how light works
• Learn how cameras work
• Artsy photos
Advantages of Pinhole Camera
• Very inexpensive
• Easy to make one…materials can be found
from existing household items: oatmeal
container (or similar item), aluminum foil
• Artistic impression
• Maximum depth of field (area in focus)
Disadvantages of Pinhole
• No controls
• Long exposures
• Can NOT view what the camera sees
Be sure you can:
• Determine which of the 15 features apply to
• List the usages of each camera
• List the advantages of each camera
• List the disadvantages of each camera
• this is like the Camera Obscura…just a light
tight box with a hole and cover as a shutter.
Matchbox Pinhole Camera
• a. Advantages: Easy to use, inexpensive…
can make from home materials, Artsy view of
• b. Disadvantages: No controls, low pictures
Types of Cameras
–5 Main Types (there are others)
•Single Lens Reflex
•Twin Lens Reflex
*All of the above can be a digital camera
Viewfinder Digital Cameras
* Includes CELL PHONE cameras
Viewfinder - Details
• Small & compact, easy to use and usually quiet.
• Uses a separate window for viewing as the lens for taking the
picture. IOW, you are not really looking at a real live image. This
applies to most P&S Digital Cameras.
• Generally does not allow you to override the focus, with
relatively view controls. Nor does the camera have a removable
lens. Except with software, there is no distortion correction.
• Most all cameras have a tripod mount. The exception is a cell
phone, which requires an accessory to hold the camera steady.
• Use to have a view finder window, but now relies on a Electronic
View Finder (EVF). This eliminates parallax error, but results in
a slight shutter lag, even in modern day digital cameras. The
shutter lag used to be so bad, that digital cameras were not very
popular because of the delay between pressing the button, and the
picture being taken.
Parallax Error – A
Advantages & Disadvantages
a. Advantages: Easy to use, “point and shoot”
cameras, easy to focus…or even focus free, small
b. Disadvantages: Few controls…no creative picture
control, low picture quality with the cheaper cameras
(especially disposable cameras with plastic parts). In
the case of cell phones, low quality because of small
SLR – Single Lens Reflex
• The Pentax K1000 and ZX-M are two SLRs we have
• Viewing & exposure is done through the same lens (TTL).
• Photo 1 – K100d – Digital SLR
• Photo 2+ – K1000 & ZX-M
SLR – Details
• Generally a medium sized camera to fit
in a camera bag. Still portable, but not a
pocket camera. Some SLRs can be good
bit larger with vertical grips. The larger
sizes helps with stability, and supports
interchangeable large lenses as well as
external flash and tripods.
• Larger area than a viewfinder camera
for quality enlargements.
• High end meters and electronics helps
with exposure, focusing, white balance
and even scene and face recognition.
• Precision controls for focus, shutter and
aperture, but not for distortion or
• Uses a pentaprisim to reverse the image
for proper view of the subject with no
• The mirror lifts up during exposure
blocking your view of the subject for a
moment. Despite the momentary black
out, the SLR is one of the best systems
to take pictures of events, sports and
SLR – Single Lens Reflex
a. Advantages: TTL is best way to acquire images
spontaneously, with no parallax error, TTL light
metering, usually have a wide variety of interchangeable
lenses, a variety of controlled adjustments with a wide
range of shutter speeds, exposure assisted by a CPU
b. Disadvantages: Frequently have complicated
controls, larger camera size, bulky when carrying extra
lenses, shutter and mirror reflex system tends to be
Nikons last Film SLR – F6
• The Nikon F, introduced in 1959, was Nikon’s
first SLR and was the most advance camera of
its day. This tradition of releasing an F series as
a state of the art camera continued every few
years continued until their instruction of the
digital series, the D1.
• As a professional, hobbyist, or
something in between, the SLR system
allows a user to expand with a wide
variety of accessories, including lenses,
flashes, macro systems, alternative
viewfinders and eyepieces, etc.
Twin Lens Reflex
• Uses two lenses
synchronized for viewing
Size of Imager (film or sensor)
It’s all about the size! The bigger
the better, in film and digital.
More megapixels is NOT
necessarily better if they have
just crammed more pixels into a
small sensor, or same sensor as
the case with the iPhone 6 to 6s.
TLR – Details
• Generally a larger sized camera, with a large image area, 4x larger than an SLR for high quality
enlargements. Considered a professional camera because the size of the image allowed for
large prints, poster and billboard size for commercial work.
• Uses two lenses, one for view the subject, one for taking the picture.
• Light meters assist with exposure control with shutter speed and aperture control, but
not for distortion or perspective. Tripod and flash connections also available on all models.
• Unique waist level viewing system through the top lens from above the film lens does
introduce parallax error, but does not block your view of the subject for a moment like the
black out of the SLR. The waistelevel view finder allows for photographers to keep the camera
on subject level while standing. Most also offered an action viewfinder to traditional viewing.
• Although not a twin lens, a very popular120mm, medium format camera, the Hasselblad, was
THE camera of choice for professionals. (the right image below has a digital back in place of
the film holder).
TLR – Twin Lens Reflex
a. Advantages: Larger film size for high quality
enlargements, TTL focusing due to the viewing and taking
lenses being tied together, critical focus magnifier to give
extra image detail, image always visible in viewfinder, even
when the shutter is activated, convenience of both waist-
level and eye level “shooting”.
b. Disadvantages: Lots of controls, large sized camera,
many models do not have interchangeable lenses, image
laterally reversed from left-to-right in the waist level
viewfinder, some parallax error.
Digital backs can be purchased for a medium
or large format camera.
You can expect to spend:
$10,000 or more for even higher resolution!
• Large format
control of the
• Not a small camera with an image area
of at least 4x5”…or even 8x10”. View
cameras are for very large images or
full size contact prints with no
enlargement to 8x10 producing
extremely high detail.
• Used on a tripod, the bellows allows
for distortion and perspective control
when shooting landscapes, like tall
buildings that converge (narrow, get
closer) as the subject gets farther from
the camera. Other controls include
normal advanced controls, like shutter
speed and aperture with flash and
tripod attachments. It does lack a
cartridge system for taking lots of
• Viewing is a little awkward, because
like the film holder has to go in front
of the ground glass. So, once the film
is put into the camera, you can’t see
the subject as the camera sees it. You
generally also need to view the subject
from under a black cloth.
• Popular among landscape photographers
like Ansel Adams as he documented the
National Parks like Yosemite (above) and
Gregory Crewdson (below) with his
magnificent conception landscapes.
• This photo of a
captured using a
Camera and a
equivalent of a
28mm lens in
sharpness is a
result of tilting
placing the focus
to the film plane.
a. Advantages: Allows for perspective and distortion control of
landscapes and architecture, large film size allows for very large
prints (poster sized), variety of special-use attachments, directly
viewing of the image TTL, wide selection of lenses
b. Disadvantages: Lots of controls, VERY large sized and heavy
camera, most models require the use of a tripod, image difficult to
see on viewing glass, takes considerable time to set up and use,
image lost on viewing glass after film holder is inserted,
photographer needs to know when and how to use the four
Speed Graphic 4x5
• This camera was
the press with a
and action view
Shooter in Brazos Bend State Park,
South Houston, 10/31/09
He has adapted a Digital SLR to the back of a large format, view camera.
Digital Back Alternative - This shows how Keith Cooper
camera.html) adapted his Canon 1Ds as a digital back for a MPP monorail