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Camera Operation• Focusing• Understanding andSetting Exposure
Copyright Notice• Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC BY-NC-SA• This presentation is for educational purposes only. No money is being madeand is provided with similar allowances for other educatorsto use for non-profit, educational purposes.• Images are from various sources, including many of my own.If you would like to high res images I have shot, please visitwww.DrewLoker.com for various work online.• If you are the original author of any of the samples, pictures, text, etc.please let me know if you object to the usage and I willremove your material promptly.Photo by Drew Loker
Getting the RightExposure• Sometimes the lightingis so hard to deal with,you have to useextreme measures, likean umbrella to diffusethe lighting.• Each of the picturespresented in this slideshow are examples ofdifficult lighting.
3 Types of Meters• Matrix – uses 5 or more zonesand averages. Good for offcenter subjects.• Center Weighted – uses thesame pattern as the Matrix, butputs more wieght in the center• Spot Meter – usually uses asmaller center than the centerof the matrix or center area.
Not to be confused with Different Focusing GridsSplit Field: HorizontalClear Matte Fresnal: Get the center area sharp.Split Field: Diagonal• Cameras # 8,10, 12, 13, 15,19 have a SplitField Focusing
5 Types of Meter Conditionsof thePentax k10001. Good2. Bad3. Dead4. Dumb5. Broken* While some of the details in this presentation apply mainly to oldercameras, like the k1000, the concepts of proper meter reading apply tothe most advanced cameras on the market.
Good ExposurePut the needle in the middle.• As you move the camera, the needle will react to thebrightness of the various light and dark images.• The scene should be evenly lit for the best exposure reading.
Silhouettes• Any time you have the sun in your picture, youare going to have a tough exposure.
K1000 Meter• Picture of an actualmeter INSIDE, onthe right, of a k1000• Other models willvary greatly onthis…but work onthe same principal.
Good Exposure, MaybeThe Pentax k1000 is easily tricked:• 60% of the exposure is from the small centerarea of the screen.• 40% is from the rest of the viewfinder.
Good Exposure vs. Dead BatteryThe meter reading will be the same for both a GOODreading and a DEAD battery.• A properly working meter MAY move up and down asit is pointed at different lighting.• A DEAD battery will have a needle stuck in the center.
Bad Meter Reading, Maybe• If the needle is DOWN…there may be TOOLITTLE light.• If the needle is UP…there may be TOOMUCH light.
Shutter Speed + Aperture =Exposure• Just because the METER reads correctly doesNOT mean that you have a useful exposure– The meter MAY be in the middle with• 1/2 @ f/22 - WAY too slow of a shutter. This is the mostcommon source of errors (too slow of shutter).• 1/1000 @ f/2 - lens would be at extreme edge of opening…resulting in soft corners and other lens challenges.• Ideal exposure is 1/250 @ f/8.
Sunny f/16 Rule• Assuming a sunny day, @ ISO 100, yourexposure should be:– 1/125 @ f/16• The Equivalent Exposures (EE) are– f/22 @1/60– f/16 @1/125– f/11 @ 1/250– f/8 @ 1/500– f/5.6 @ 1/1000– f/4 @ 1/2000As you increase thelight by opening theaperture, you haveto decrease thelight by speedingup the shutter.MorelightLesslight
Common Base Exposures• Your exposure should be (average):Location Exposure ISO– Sunny day 1/125 @ f/16 100– Indoors in V61 1/60 @ f/2 400– Indoors in V61 1/15 @ f/2 100– F Hall (near doors) 1/125 @ f2 400– G Hall (dark halls) 1/30 @ f/2 400– G Hall 1/8 @ f/2 100For the last 30 years, ISO 400 was pretty much the “fastest” (most sensitive) ISOrating you would want to use. In the last year, technology improvements allow foruseful ISO ratings of 800, 1600…and even 3200 and 6400 on advanced cameras.The maximum sensor sensitivity will surely increase in the future.
EE vs. Bracketing• EE is SAME exposure…with variation on theSS or Aperture:– 1/125 @ f/16– 1/250 @ f/11• Bracketing is a CHANGE in exposure…bychanging one of the variables.– f/16 @1/500 -2 Stops– f/11 @ 1/500 -1 Stop– f/8 @ 1/500 Metered Exposure– f/5.6 @ 1/500 + 1 Stop– f/4 @ 1/500 + 2 StopsAs you increase the light by openingthe aperture, you have to decreasethe light by speeding up the shutter.More lightLess light
Exposure Bracketing• Place the camera on a tripod.• Meter the scene and take apicture to get a good overallexposure.• Then, increase to +1 on theexposure compensation. Thiswill make for a brighter picture.• Then repeat for +2, -2 and -2.• If your camera has -/+3 ormore, shoot those as well.+ 2+ 10- 1- 2
• Taking 3 shots at different exposures (or5, 7, or9)- 1 stop Normal exposure + 1 stop• Bracket can be set in 1/3, ½ or1 stop increments• Exposure range can be set to –2 to +2 stops (oreven +5 or-5)Exposure Bracketing
Exposure Slider• Each number represents a FULL STOP• Moving left or right represents either 50% LESS light…or 100% MORE light.– IOW, you are either DOUBLING or HALVING your light.• Question: Moving from left to right on the Shutter does whatto the amount of light?
The Camera is only as Smartas the Photographer1/125 @ f/8 1/15 @ f/8Left: Good sky Exposure. Right: Good Skins Tones…shirt blown out.
Except for the new SMART cameras…then it is as smart asthe people in FRONT of the camera. 1/320 @ f/4.5 with fill flashHere the camera balanced the backgroundwith enough fill flash to expose for the foreground.Photo by Aimee Loker
Using Exposure CompensationProgram and Automatic Exposure Modes do a pretty good job whenthe subject is evenly lit. But when the subject is off center…or muchdarker/bright than the back ground, you have to use the Manual exposuremode…or dial +/- Exposure Compensation.
Using Exposure CompensationBut which is correct? Depends on what you are looking for? Maybe youwant a silhouette.Exposure Compensation is when you CHANGE the base exposureincreasing or decreasing the total amount of light.
Equivalent Exposure (EE) is different than Exposure Compensation.EE is when you keep the SAME total amount of light…but change thevariables to either stop or blur motion, or control your depth of field.Using Equivalent Exposure
Using Equivalent ExposureLong Exposures allow for creative control.Left: 4 sec exposure allowed for people to blur as the walked through theimage. Right: 2 sec exp. Allowed for zooming while exposing.4 sec @ f/10, 38mm 2.2 sec @ f/10, 112mm
Beach Ghost• A special effect filter was used to produce a LONG 15 sec exposure inbright sun for my wife to stand for 8 seconds…then walk out of thepicture.
EE and ISO100 200 400 800 1600 3200 6400 12k22 16”16 8”11 4”8 2”5.6 1”4 ½ ¼ 1/8 1/15 1/30 1/60 1/1252.81.4
EE and ISO100 200 400 800 1600 3200 6400 12k22 16” 8” 4” 2” 1” ½ ¼ 1/816 8” 4” 2” 1” ½ ¼ 1/8 1/1511 4” 2” 1” ½ ¼ 1/8 1/15 1/608 2” 1” ½ ¼ 1/8 1/15 1/30 1/605.6 1” ½ ¼ 1/8 1/15 1/30 1/60 1/1254 ½ ¼ 1/8 1/15 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/2502.81.4
Depth of Field - DOF3 Ways to Control1. Aperture1. F/2 - shallow DOF2. F/22 - deep DOF2. Subject to camera distance1. Close Up = Shallow DOF2. Far away = Deep DOF3. Focal Length1. Wide (18mm) = Deep DOF2. Tele (200mm) = Shallow DOF
Conclusion• Be smarter than your camera…know what lightyou are pointing your camera.– The meter is designed to read AVERAGE light.– If you have a bright object in your view finder, themeter is going to indicate that you have too muchlight…but you may be ok.– If there are a lot of shadows, the meter may read inthe negative end…but you may be ok.