Yetthis one willbe a bit differentfromthat – in a way. Indeed, itisless about sharing ourownexperiences, but ratherthink about great changes that have been happening in HigherEducation, and to talk about these challenges thatalsoappear as entirely new business models.
Most MOOCs package their lessons in short segments, with embedded quiz questions to keep the viewer engaged, and provide instant feedback.
Some universities argue that while the mooc model remains imperfect, it doesn't make sense to take the reputational risk of getting involved.Lower-tier colleges, already facing resistance over high tuition, may have trouble convincing students that their courses are worth the price. And some experts voice reservations about how online learning can be assessed and warn of the potential for cheating.The risks are greater for lesser colleges, which may be tempted to drop some of their own introductory courses — and some professors who teach them — and substitute cheaper online instruction from big-name professors.
cComputer science professors - desire to keep courses freely available to poor students worldwide
videography + teaching assistants to monitor the forum
Build the audience first, monetizelater
Certification: the student pays a fee to the school, which issues certification of completion or adequate performance in the course which Coursera makes accessible in a verifiable formatSecure assessment: Coursera, for a fee, provides testing and verification of identity at physical locationsSale of information to potential employers: for a fee, and with student permission, access to a database containing information about students and courses they have taken is sold to enterprisesAssessment of competency: for a fee paid by a potential employer or educational institution Coursera would evaluate the competency of a studentTutoring or evaluation of progress: for a fee an employee or contractor of Coursera provides personal attention, tutoring, or evaluation of a student's workLicensing or sale of the learning platform and courses to employers or schools for continuing education or course work, for example, at a community college. Educational institutions that want to use the Coursera classes, either as a ready-made “course in a box” or as video lectures students can watch before going to class to work with a faculty member.Sponsorship: for a fee, firms or foundations would sponsor courses, only "non-intrusive" advisement of the sponsorship is contemplatedTuition: after a free trial period, tuition would be charged for full access to a course and materials; another possibility is use of the platform and materials by on-campus, or on-line, students enrolled in the course at the sponsoring institution, who already are paying full tuition; in which case a small fee would be paid to Coursera by or on behalf of each student
Antioch University’s Los Angeles campus offers its students credits for successfully completing 2 Coursera courses taught by professors from the University of Pennsylvania. Antioch pays a fee to offer the course to its students at a tuition lower than any 4-year public campus in the state.
Partner institutions will be responsible for their own content while the OU, which has been providing distance learning courses since 1971, will assist with course delivery and infrastructure.
MOOC, presentation and challenges for higher education
Pedagogical Café N 2CETI – Center for Educational andTe c h n o l o g i c a l I n n o v a t i o nNew Challenges and BusinessModels in Higher Education 10 January 2013
Pedagogical Café Blended learningLearn Online courses iTunes U Role of the professorOnline sharing In-class sharing New ways of Teaching Societal issues in teachingFlipped learningManaging students/professors SHARE The future of teachinginteractions Students’ learning behaviors YouTube.edu Smartphones in educationTablets in education Teaching with social networks
Pedagogical Café A moment and place to share our pedagogical experiences in a reflective manner so that itbenefits to all the school’s stakeholders (professors,students, administrative staff, companies, etc.) and participates in the development of the school and its values
2011… Online course in artificial Sebastian Thrun intelligence Peter Norvig 160,000 registered - 190 countries + 200 on campus – dwindled to 30 23,000 completed (online transfer) “Peter and I taught more students AI than all AI professors in the world combined”…“Having done this, I can’t teach at Stanford again, I feel like there’s a red pill and a blue pill,and you can take the blue pill and go back to your classroom and lecture your 20 students. But I’ve taken the red pill, and I’ve seen Wonderland.”
• Raised $15 million• Free for the students• Sells leads results to companies (when permitted)• Helps the students to get a job• More than 1 million students• Students in one Udacity class can get credit through the Global Campus of Colorado State University• “Udacity in partnership with Pearson VUE announces testing centers”
MOOC Common characteristics• Online courses (video lectures + written materials + forums / communities (= social)+ self-scoring tests)• Free for the students• Can reach thousands of students at the same time• Top-rated universities (usually)• Great researchers and teachers• « Shop windows » for other courses offered by the institutions• No diplomas, but certificates or badges• Less personal support to the students• High percentages of students who give up
Badges vs diplomas?• Badges represent the acquired skills – Store all the information about the validated training as metadata (institution, skills, grades, type of the exam, etc.)• Good way to attract students towards learning – Getting the badge = quest – Intermediary badges with each new competence, all the badges = quest completed• Studies by Mc Arthur foundation with Mozilla, with such organizations as NASA, Intel, Disney-Pixar, Motoral, US Ministry of Education• Skilled-based rather than diploma-based jobs
An answer to the students’ loan bubble?• http://edition.cnn.com/2012/12/06/opinion/b ennett-student-debt/index.html• http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2012-09- 28/student-loan-bubble-19-simple-charts• http://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/econ omic-intelligence/2012/06/12/the- government-shouldnt-subsidize-higher- education
Implications• New challenges and new business models• New pedagogical / educational models• Less expensive – both for institutions and students• How is Higher Education delivered?• What can / should we become? (as institutions)• What is quality education?• Who is Higher Education for?• Will there be an increased segmentation and low-cost vs high-quality education? (+ accreditations?)• How to reach new markets?• What is / will be / should be our job as professors?• Etc. (larger social, economic, etc. Implications)
Disruptive innovation Incremental innovation“Introduce a very different package of attributes fromthe one mainstream customers historically value, and “Give customers something more or better inthey often perform far worse along one or two the attributes they already value” (Bowerdimensions that are particularly important to those and Christensen, 1995: 45) - “Innovationscustomers” (Bower and Christensen, 1995: 45) – that make a product or service perform“Create an entirely new market through the better in ways that customers in theintroduction of a new kind of product or service, one mainstream market already value”that’s actually worse, initially, as judged by the (Christensen & Overdorf, 2000: 72)performance metrics that mainstream customersvalue” (Christensen & Overdorf, 2000: 72)Customers are unable to grasp the value in use of the Customers can value the nature of theinnovation (they “are unwilling to use a disruptive They already do…product in applications they know and understand”, innovation and understand what it brings themBower and Christensen, 1995: 45)Make possible the emergence of a new market and can Does not create a new marketinvade established markets over time
“Its been interesting watching this unfold in music, books, newspapers, TV, butnothing has ever been as interesting to me as watching it happen in my own backyard. Higher education is now being disrupted; our MP3 is the massive open onlinecourse (or mooc), and our Napster is Udacity, the education startup.We have several advantages over the recording industry, of course. We aredecentralised and mostly non-profit. We employ lots of smart people. We haveprevious examples to learn from, and our core competence is learning from the past.And armed with these advantages, were probably going to screw this up as badly asthe music people did.” Clay Shirky, Associate professor at New York University and a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society (2012 12 17)
• Created in 2006• Flipped learning• Non-profit organization – donations• Supported by the Gates Foundation, Reed Hastings (CEO of Netflix), Google and the O’Sullivan Foundation (among others)• More than $16.5M in funding• Videos on YouTube
Andrew Ng Daphne Koller “Education should be a right, not a privilege”April 2012
Number of students signing for the site’s 5 courses in its first 24h $ Million raisedmillion users 4 months after its creation • 2M+ in December 2012 • +70,000 users/week Courses in 12/2012
• “Monetization is not the most important objective for this business at this point. What is important is that Coursera is rapidly accumulating a body of high-quality content that could be very attractive to universities that want to license it for their own use. We invest with a very long mind-set, and the gestation period of the very best companies is at least 10 years.” (Scott Sandell, a Coursera financier )• “We’ll make money when Coursera makes money. I don’t think it will be too long down the road. We don’t want to make the mistake the newspaper industry did, of giving our product away free online for too long.” (Peter Lange, the provost of Duke University)
• Certification • Secure assessment • Sale of information to potential employers • Assessment of competency • Tutoring or evaluation of progress • Licensing or sale of the learning platform and courses • Sponsorship • Tuition • Amazon AffiliateSource: contract between Coursera and participating universities
Transfer Coursera courses evaluations into credits? Would enable students to take an identity-verified proctored exam, pay a fee and get and ACE credittranscript (accepted in 2,000 universities for credits)
Revenues• 85 to 94% • 6 to 15%• 80% of gross profit • 20% of gross profit Coursera Partner Universities Questions remain about sharing the revenues with the professors…
Fall 2012 $30M eachNot just teaching and learning. Stated intent = to “research how studentslearn and how technologies can facilitate effective teaching both on-campus and online. The EdX platform will enable the study of whichteaching methods and tools are most successful.” (press release)
• University of Texas will use edX courses for credit.• 400,000+ students enrolled• Modest fees to get certificates of successful completion
• Context – UK: distance learning = a niche concern – High increase in registration fees = decrease in the number of students – Traditional campus-based experience “boring” in the eyes of international students (Martin Bean, Vice- Chancellor of the OU)• Directed by Simon Nelson, key architect of BBC Online.• No diploma, but charged option to take tests in centers to get a skills certificate