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Linuxseminar os

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Open Source Software Awareness

Open Source Software Awareness

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  • 1. Kamala Institute of Technology & Science Seminar On Open Source Software's Awareness DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY By The Students (08-batch) Of Information Technology Under AITP
  • 2. Operating systems  What is operating system(o.s) ?  Types of operating systems  Microsoft Windows  Macintosh  Linux
  • 3. Windows operating system  Microsoft Windows is a series of operating systems produced by Microsoft.  Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS.  Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984.
  • 4. Versions Of Windows  Early versions: Windows 1.0, Windows 2.0, and Windows 2.1x  Windows 1.0, the first version, released in 1985  Windows 3.0 and 3.1  Windows 3.0, released in 1990  Windows 95, 98, and Me  Windows 95, released in August 1995
  • 5. Versions Of Windows(cont..)  Windows NT family  64-bit operating systems  Windows CE  Bootable Windows To Go USB flash drive Screenshot of Windows 8 start screen
  • 6. Fig: The Windows family tree.
  • 7. Usage share  Click to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level − Fifth level
  • 8. Emulation software  Emulation allows the use of some Windows applications without using Microsoft Windows.  Wine – a free and open source software implementation of the Windows API, allowing one to run many Windows applications on x86-based platforms, including Linux and Mac OS X.
  • 9. Emulation software(cont..)  ReactOS – An open-source OS that is intended to run the same software as Windows, originally designed to simulate Windows NT 4.0, now aiming at Windows XP and Vista/7 compatibility.
  • 10. Versions of windows  Early versions:  Windows NT 3.1 · Windows NT 3.5 · Windows NT 3.51 · Windows NT 4.0 · Windows 2000  Client releases  Windows XP (editions [x64 · Media Center] · development) · Windows Vista (editions · development) · Windows 7 (editions · development) · Windows 8  Windows Server  Server 2003 · Server 2008 (Server 2008 R2 · HPC Server 2008 · EBS 2008) · Home Server (Home Server 2011) · MultiPoint Server  Specialized  Windows Embedded (Automotive · POSReady) · Windows Preinstallation Environment · Windows To Go · Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs  Windows CE :Windows CE 3.0 · Windows CE 5.0 · Windows CE 6.0 · Windows Embedded Compact 7  Mobile :Windows Mobile · Windows Phone
  • 11. Macintosh  The Macintosh or Mac, is a series of personal computers designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. The first Macintosh was introduced by Apple's then- chairman Steve Jobs on January 24, 1984  It was the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than a command-line interface.
  • 12.  Click to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level − Fifth level The original Macintosh, the first commercially successful personal computer to use a graphical user interface, rather than a command line. An iMac computer from August 2007, a modern all-in-one Macintosh.
  • 13. Apple Inc.  Founders : Steve Jobs†, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne  Hardware products : Apple TV · iPad (Original, 2) · iPhone (Original, 3G, 3GS, 4, 4S) · iPod (Classic, Nano, Shuffle, Touch) · Mac (iMac, MacBook, MacBook Air, MacBook Pro, Mini, Pro) · Discontinued products  Software products : Aperture · Bento · FileMaker Pro · Final Cut Studio · GarageBand · iLife · iOS · iTunes · iWork · Logic Studio · Mac OS X (Server) · QuickTime · Safari · Xsan
  • 14. Linux  Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution  Linux runs on a wide variety of computer hardware, including mobile phones, tablet computers, network routers, televisions , video game consoles, desktop computers, mainframes and supercomputers.
  • 15. Linux (cont..)  Linux is a leading server operating system, and runs the 10 fastest supercomputers in the world.  In addition, more than 90% of today's supercomputers run some variant of Linux.  Typically Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use. Some popular mainstream Linux distributions include Debian (and its derivatives such as Ubuntu), Fedora and openSUSE.
  • 16. Linux (cont..)  Commonly used applications with desktop Linux systems include the Mozilla Firefox web browser, the OpenOffice.org or LibreOffice office application suites, and the GIMP image editor.
  • 17. History:  Unix  The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&T's Bell Laboratories  Unix was re-written in the programming language C by Dennis Ritchie  Unix quickly grew and became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses.
  • 18.  GNU  The GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of free software.  By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system (such as libraries, compilers, text editors, a Unix shell,and a windowing system) were completed . Richard Stallman, founder of the GNU project
  • 19.  MINIX  MINIX is an inexpensive minimal Unix-like operating system, designed for education in computer science, written by Andrew S. Tanenbaum. Starting with version 3, MINIX was free and redesigned for “serious” use. Andrew S. Tanenbaum (left), author of the MINIX operating system, and Linus Torvalds (right), principal author of the Linux kernel
  • 20. Commercial and popular uptake  Today, Linux distributions are used in every domain, from embedded systems to supercomputers , and have secured a place in server installations often using the popular LAMP application stack  Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been growing.
  • 21. Commercial and popular uptake(cont..)  They have also gained popularity with various local and national governments.  The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for Linux.  News of the Russian military creating its own Linux distribution has also surfaced, and has come to fruition as the G.H.ost Project.  The Indian state of Kerala has gone to the extent of mandating that all state high schools run Linux on their computers.
  • 22. Commercial and popular uptake(cont..)  Linux distributions have also become popular in the netbook market. Ubuntu, a popular distribution of Linux
  • 23. Design  A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system. It derives much of its basic design from principles established in Unix during the 1970s and 1980s.  User interface  command line interface (CLI) − terminal emulator  graphical user interface (GUI)
  • 24. desktop environments  Click to edit Mast er text styles  Sec ond GNOME Shell KDE Plasma Desktop Unity Xfce LXDE
  • 25. Programming on Linux  Most Linux distributions support dozens of programming languages.  GCC provides compilers for Ada, C, C++, Java, and Fortran.  Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler, Sun Studio, and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler. − Most distributions also include support for PHP, Perl, Ruby, Python and other dynamic languages. − A number of Java Virtual Machines and development kits run on Linux, including the original Sun Microsystems JVM
  • 26. Programming on Linux(cont..)  There are a number of Integrated development environments available including Anjuta, Code::Blocks, CodeLite, Eclipse, Geany, ActiveState Komodo, KDevelop, Lazarus, MonoDevelop, NetBeans, Qt Creator and Omnis Studio, while the long-established editors Vim and Emacs remain popular.
  • 27. Uses  Regular desktops  Servers  Mainframes  Embedded systems  Mobile phones (android)
  • 28. Desktop  popularity of Linux on standard desktop computers and laptops has been increasing over the years.  popular environments being GNOME (which can utilize additional shells such as the default GNOME Shell and Ubuntu Unity), and the KDE Plasma Desktop.
  • 29. Desktop (cont..)  Many popular applications are available for a wide variety of operating systems. − Mozilla Firefox, − OpenOffice.org/LibreOffice and − Blender  have downloadable versions for all major operating systems. − Wine project provides a Windows compatibility layer to run unmodified Windows applications on Linux.
  • 30. Desktop (cont..)  Installing, updating and removing software in Linux is typically done through the use of package managers such as the Synaptic Package Manager , PackageKit.
  • 31. Servers, mainframes and supercomputers  Linux distributions have long been used as server operating systems, and have risen to prominence in that area.  Linux distributions are the cornerstone of the LAMP server-software combination (Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python) .  mainframes in the last decade partly due to pricing and the open-source model.
  • 32.  Click to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level − Fifth level The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Jaguar supercomputer, until recently the world's fastest supercomputer. It uses the Cray Linux Environment as its operating system.
  • 33. Servers designed for Linux
  • 34. Embedded devices  Due to its low cost and ease of customization, Linux is often used in embedded systems.  Android—based on a modified version of the Linux kernel—has become a major competitor of Nokia's older Symbian OS, found in many smartphones. Home screen displayed on Android 4.0 "Ice Cream Sandwich"
  • 35. Linux in Multimedia  For years Linux has been the platform of choice in the film industry. The first major film produced on Linux servers was 1997's Titanic .[99][100] Since then major studios including Dreamworks Animation, Pixar, Weta Digital, and Industrial Light & Magic have migrated to Linux.[101][102][103] According to the Linux Movies Group, more than 95% of the servers and desktops at large animation and visual effects companies use Linux.
  • 36. Usage share of web client operating systems  Click to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level − Fifth level Windows XP (35.21%) Windows 7 (31.21%) Windows Vista (11.27%) Mac OS X (7.31%) iOS (3.38%) Android Linux (1.30%) GNU/Linux (1.11%)
  • 37. List of Linux distributions  Debian-based  Knoppix-based  Knoppix, itself, is based on Debian.  Ubuntu-based  Ubuntu is a distribution based on Debian.  Official distributions  Ubuntu Mobile  RPM-based  Red Hat Linux and SUSE Linux were the original major distributions that used the RPM file format
  • 38. List of Linux distributions (cont..)  Fedora-based  Red Hat Enterprise Linux-based  Mandriva Linux-based  Slackware-based  Slax-based  Others…
  • 39. Comparison of Linux distributions 1 General 2 Cost 3 Technical 4 Architecture support 5 Package management and installation 6 Live media 7 Security features
  • 40. General Distribution Creator First public release Base distribution Latest release date Purpose Mageia Mageia Community 2010 Mandriva Linux 2011 general Linux Mint Clement Lefebvre 2006 Ubuntu, Debian 2011 desktop Fedora Fedora Project 2003 Red Hat Linux 2011 general BackTrack Max Moser, Mati Aharoni, and Martin J. Muench 2006 Debian 2011 auditing Bharat Operating System Solutions C-DAC (Centre for Development of Advanced Computing) 2007 Debian 2011 general, server, education Network Security Toolkit Ronald W. Henderson, Paul Blankenbaker 2003 Fedora 2011 network, security
  • 41. Cost  The following distributions are available for free (without cost):  Debian  Fedora  Knoppix  Linux Mint  Network Security Toolkit  Ubuntu & many more…
  • 42. Technical  Many Linux distributions support some or all of ext2, ext3, ext4, ReiserFS, Reiser4, JFS, XFS, GFS, GFS2, OCFS, OCFS2, and NILFS.  The ext file systems, namely ext2, ext3, and ext4 are based on the original Linux file system.
  • 43. Distribution Default file system Install-time desktop environment or window manager selection BackTrack ext3 KDE Plasma Workspaces Debian ext4 GNOME, KDE, Xfce, LXDE Fedora ext4 GNOME Linux Mint ext4 GNOME Mandriva Linux ext4 KDE Plasma Workspaces openSUSE ext4 KDE Plasma Workspaces, GNOME, Xfce Ubuntu/Edubuntu ext4 Unity on top of GNOME, Unity 2D for fallback
  • 44. Package management and installation Distribution Approximate number of pre-compiled packages Approximate number of source packages Default package management tools Package Format Default installer Graphical installation procedure Debian 29,050[42] 14,975 APT .deb Debian-Installer Yes Fedora 22,000 yum, PackageKit RPM Anaconda Yes Linux Mint 30,000 APT .deb Ubiquity Yes Mandriva Linux 22,600 urpmi, rpmdrake[50] RPM DrakX Yes Network Security Toolkit8,280 8,280 yum RPM Anaconda Yes openSUSE 14,650[52] 15,260 YaST, Zypper RPM YaST Yes Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Xubuntu 37,000[51] APT .deb Ubiquity Yes
  • 45. Live media Distribution Size in MB RAM Use in MB Boots from CDBoots from DVD Installable Live CD/DVD Installable from USB BackTrack 1,910 No Yes Yes Yes Debian Live 50 to 5,120 Yes Yes Yes Yes Fedora Live CD 683 256 to 1,024 Yes Yes Yes Yes Linux Mint 700 256 to 768 Yes Yes Yes Yes Mandriva Linux One 700 128 to 768 Yes Yes Yes Yes Network Security Toolkit Live CD/DVD 483 to 1,300 256 to 1,024 Yes Yes Yes Yes Ubuntu 700 384 Yes Yes Yes Yes
  • 46. Security features Distribution Compile Time Buffer Checks Mandatory access control Software executable space protection grsecurity RSBAC Debian/Ubuntu Yes Yes (AppArmor) Optional (PaX) Optional Optional Fedora Yes Yes (SELinux[61]) Yes (Exec Shield [62]) No No Mandriva Unknown Yes (AppArmor [64]) Unknown Unknown Yes SUSE Linux Yes Yes (AppArmor [65]) Yes ( Hardware NX and other methods in mainline kernel and toolchain [66]) No No Gentoo[63] Optional Optional (SELinux ) Optional (PaX) Optional Optional
  • 47. DistroWatch  DistroWatch is a website which provides news, popularity rankings, and other general information about various Linux distributions as well as other free software/open source Unix-like operating systems such as OpenSolaris, MINIX and BSD.  It now contains information on several hundred distributions.  It was originally published on May 31, 2001, and is maintained by Ladislav Bodnar.
  • 48. DistroWatch (cont..)  Distrowatch has a monthly donations programme, a joint initiative between DistroWatch and two online shops selling low- cost CDs and DVDs with Linux, BSD and other open source software  Since the launch of the Donations Programme in March 2004, DistroWatch has donated a total of $24,478 USD to various open source software projects.  DistroWatch one of "Top 101 web sites" ranked by PC Magazine
  • 49. Debian  Debian is a computer operating system composed of software packages released as free and open source software primarily under the GNU General Public License along with other free software licenses.  Debian GNU/Linux, which includes the GNU OS tools and Linux kernel, is a popular and influential Linux distribution.  Debian can be used on a variety of hardware, from NAS devices to phones, laptops, desktops and servers.
  • 50. Features  Debian is known for an abundance of options.  The current stable release includes over twenty nine thousand software packages for nine computer architectures using the Linux kernel.  The Debian standard install makes use of the GNOME desktop environment.  It contains only the bare essentials needed to start the installer and downloads the packages selected during installation via APT .
  • 51. Package management  The APT package management system, repositories with large numbers of packages, and strict policies regarding packages, promote high quality releases  easy upgrades between releases, and automated installation and removal of packages.  APT expands the functionality of dpkg by searching, fetching and installing packages from online repositories along with their dependencies, either from binary files or by compiling source code. It can also upgrade packages and upgrade the whole distribution to a new release.
  • 52. Graphical front-ends  Software Center, originally developed for Ubuntu, is a GNOME program to discover and install applications.  Synaptic is a GTK+ front-end for APT.  KPackage is KDE's front-end for APT.  Adept is a discontinued KDE front-end for APT.  Gnome Application Installer was a GNOME program to discover and install applications, now removed in favour of Software Center .
  • 53. Command-line front-ends  apt-get is the most basic package management tool and the preferred APT front-end for non-interactive package management. It offers a command line user interface and it is most suitable for upgrades between major releases.
  • 54. Debian Live  A Debian Live system is a version of Debian that can be booted directly from removable media (CDs, DVDs, USB keys) or via netboot without having to install it on the hard drive. A Debian 4.0 Box Cover
  • 55. Ubuntu (operating system)  Ubuntu is a computer operating system based on the Debian Linux distribution and distributed as free and open source software. It is named after the Southern African philosophy of Ubuntu ("humanity towards others").  Ubuntu is designed primarily for use on personal computers, although a server edition also exists.
  • 56. System requirements Current Minimum Requirements[33][34][35][36] Server Desktop Processor (x86) with the i686 instruction set[37] 300 MHz 700 MHz Memory (RAM) 128 MiB 384 MiB Hard Drive (free space) 1 GB 5 GB Monitor Resolution 640×480 1024×768 Ubuntu Server Edition  Ubuntu also offers its operating system in a server edition  The current version is Ubuntu 10.04 Long Term Support (LTS) release, which will receive continued updates until April 2015
  • 57. Ubuntu outlook  Click to edit Master text styles  Secon d level  Third level  Fourt h A screenshot of the Ubuntu Server installation boot menu Ubuntu running on the Nexus S smartphone
  • 58. Linux Mint  Linux Mint is a Linux-based computer operating system best known for its usability and ease of installation, particularly for users with no previous GNU/Linux experience.  It is available in several editions with different codebases, nearly all of which are based on Ubuntu, which is itself based on Debian.  Linux Mint is composed of many software packages, of which the vast majority are distributed under a free software license.
  • 59. Features  Linux Mint focuses on usability.  The Ubiquity installer allows Linux Mint to be installed to the hard disk from within the Live CD environment.  As a security feature, the sudo tool is used to assign temporary privileges for performing administrative tasks, allowing users to administer the system without using the root account.
  • 60. Features (cont..)  Linux Mint comes installed with a wide range of software that includes LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird, XChat, Pidgin, Transmission and GIMP.  Additional software that is not installed by default can be downloaded using the package manager.  Linux Mint allows networking ports to be closed using its firewall, with customized port selection available.  GNOME 3 (the current default desktop) offers support for more than 46 languages.  Linux Mint can also run many programs designed for Microsoft Windows (such as Microsoft Office), through Wine or using a Virtual Machine (such as VMware Workstation or VirtualBox).
  • 61. Installation  Installation of Linux Mint is generally performed with the Live CD.  The main edition of Linux Mint is available in 32-bit and 64-bit. Installation CD images can be downloaded, or installation CDs purchased from 3rd party vendors.  Linux Mint can be booted and run from a USB Flash drive.
  • 62. Installation inside windows  The Windows installer "Mint4Win", is included on the Live CD and allows Linux Mint to be installed from within Microsoft Windows.  The operating system can then be removed similar to any other Windows software using the Windows Control Panel.  This method requires no partitioning of the hard drive.
  • 63. System requirements Minimum Recommended Processor (x86) 600 MHz 1 GHz Memory 256 MB 512 MB Hard Drive (free space) 5 GB 10 GB Monitor Resolution 800×600 1024×768 Note: If visual effects are desired, a supported GPU is required.
  • 64. Popularity  As of the second half of 2011, Linux Mint's website has had the most hits among popular Linux distribution websites according to DistroWatch. Linux Mint 12 ("Lisa")Linux Mint 12 ("Lisa")Linux Mint 12 ("Lisa") Linux Mint 12 ("Lisa")
  • 65. LAMP (software bundle)  LAMP is an acronym for a solution stack of free, open source software, referring to the first letters of Linux (operating system), Apache HTTP Server, MySQL ( database software) and PHP (or sometimes Perl or Python), principal components to build a viable general purpose web server.
  • 66. Contents  1 Software components  1.1 Linux  1.2 Apache  1.3 MySQL  1.4 PHP, Perl, or Python
  • 67. Software components  Easy to code  Easy to deploy  Cheap and ubiquitous hosting deploy
  • 68.  Apache − Apache is an open source web server, the most popular in use.  MySQL − MySQL is a multithreaded, multi-user, SQL database management system (DBMS) now owned by Oracle Corporation with more than eleven million installations.  PHP, Perl, or Python − PHP is a reflective programming language originally designed for producing dynamic web pages. PHP is used mainly in server-side application software. Perl and Python can be used similarly.
  • 69. KDE Plasma Workspaces  Plasma Workspaces is the umbrella term for all graphical environments provided by KDE.  Three Plasma sub-projects are currently being developed:  Plasma Desktop for traditional desktop PCs and notebooks,  Plasma Netbook for netbooks, and  Plasma Active for Tablet PCs, Nokia N900 style smart phones and similar devices.
  • 70. KDE Plasma Workspaces  Click to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level − Fifth level KDE Plasma Workspaces
  • 71. Desktop  Click to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level − Fifth level KDE Plasma Desktop 4.7 Plasma Desktop is a workspace that was developed first and was declared mature with the release of KDE SC 4.2. It aims at desktop PCs and bigger laptops.
  • 72. Netbook  Click to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level − Fifth level KDE Plasma Netbook newspaper view Plasma Netbook is the second workspace. It aims at netbooks and may also be used on tablet PCs. The first stable release shipped with KDE SC 4.4.
  • 73. Plasma Active  Click to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level − Fifth level Contour 1.0 Activity Screen Plasma Active is not a workspace on its own. It is a service built on top of the Plasma frameworks that enables the creation of full-fledged workspaces using only QML files without the need to program in C++.
  • 74.  Installation procedure & steps  Configuring the suite  Basic software installation  Installing the packages that are useful  Using apt-get through command line interface  Using synaptic package manager
  • 75.  After logging in to root type these commands  Apt-get install gnome gdm3  -on the top left corner of the screen you will find “application places system”  Click system->administration->synaptic  Then search for packages…..
  • 76.  Xchat,apache2,blender,audacity,vlc,ked enlive,mysql-server,gimp,winzip,winrar etc…  Mark for install & mark for additional packages to install & then apply the changes.  To mount pen drive mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt
  • 77.  Apache web server  Terminal  $ su  Password  #cd /var/www <-  www# ls<-
  • 78.  how to restart apache web server?  $ Apache <-  $ Apache2ctl restart <-  /etc/init.d/apache2 stop  Start  restart
  • 79.  Software carpentry  Shell  Why command line  Typical shell: bash  Terminal programs: gnome- terminal,console,xtrem,putty….
  • 80.  File system  Ls -list the files in the directory  Ls-l –list files with extra information  Pwd –show the current directory  Cd<path> -switch to a directory  Cd –to home directory  / -top most directories. It’s also the path separator
  • 81.  . –current directory  .. –present directory  Ex: /home/user/work/..  Turns to /home/user  Chmod –change the permissions  Chown –change the ownership  Su –switches the current user by launching a new shell
  • 82. How to install Linux in windows parallel?  Configuring the environment  Bootable drive-bootable operating system  Use of tools (dtlite , iso images)
  • 83.  Redirection  Ls >out stores the output of ls into out file  Cat concatenates files and input given to it.  What are regular expressions?  A concise and flexible means for matching strings of text.
  • 84.  Like *.txt means all files with .txt extensions.  Parts of matches can be extracted  Matched text can be replaced  Smb for getting windows ssl connection to linux admin  Smb://ip
  • 85.  Use of open office in Linux similar to ms office in windows operating system  How to run .exe files in Linux operating system. Using (wine package)  Securing the operating system  Security measures  Use of ssh  Team viewer, virtual box, vm ware etc…
  • 86.  Making pendrive bootable..( unetbootin, wintoflash)  Drupal –content management system  Cluser computing- using piliconhpc  Android mobile computing- using software development kit & adt plugin using the software eclipse as working platform gui environment