Introduction Basketball (commonly nicknamed "B-ball" or "hoops") is a teamsport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwingor "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while followinga set of rules. Basketball is one of the worlds most popular and widelyviewed sports. A regulation basketball hoop consists of a rim 18 inches indiameter and 10 feet high mounted to a backboard. A team can score afield goal by shooting the ball through the hoop during regular play. Afield goal scores two points for the shooting team if a player is touchingor closer to the hoop than the three-point line, and three points (a "3pointer") if the player is "outside" the three-point line. The team withmore points at the end of the game wins, but additional time (overtime)may be issued when the game ends with a tie. The ball can be advancedon the court by bouncing it while walking or running (dribbling) orpassing it to a teammate. It is a violation (traveling) to walk with theball, carry it, or to double dribble (to hold the ball and then resumedribbling). Basketball is one of the most popular team based sports played andwatched throughout the world. It is played by both males and females ofall ages and fitness levels. It is a game played by two opposing teams ona court measuring 29 x 15 metres. The aim of the game is for each teamto defend a goal area while trying to score goals at the opposing end ofthe court. Each team consists of ten players of which only five may takethe court at any one time during play. For optimal performance during play at an elite level a variety ofareas must be addressed. These include the high skill level, flexibility,muscular strength, endurance and importantly the specific use of boththe aerobic and anaerobic energy systems.
History 1. CreationIn early December 1891, Dr. James Naismith, a physical educationprofessor and instructor at the International Young Mens ChristianAssociation Training School (YMCA) (today, Springfield College) inSpringfield, Massachusetts, USA), was trying to keep his gym classactive on a rainy day. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep hisstudents occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long NewEngland winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorlysuited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed apeach basket onto a 10-foot (3.05 m) elevated track. In contrast withmodern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, and ballshad to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored; thisproved inefficient, however, so the bottom of the basket was removed,allowing the balls to be poked out with a long dowel each time.
Basketball was originally played with an association football. The firstballs made specifically for basketball were brown, and it was only in thelate 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be morevisible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that isnow in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game exceptfor the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primarymeans of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced butlimited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling only became amajor part of the game around the 1950s, as manufacturing improved theball shape 2. High school basketballBefore widespread school district consolidation, most American highschools were far smaller than their present-day counterparts. During thefirst decades of the 20th century, basketball quickly became the idealinterscholastic sport due to its modest equipment and personnelrequirements. In the days before widespread television coverage ofprofessional and college sports, the popularity of high school basketballwas unrivaled in many parts of America. Perhaps the most legendary ofhigh school teams was Indianas Franklin Wonder Five, which took thenation by storm during the 1920s, dominating Indiana basketball andearning national recognition.Today virtually every high school in the United States fields a basketballteam in varsity competition. Basketballs popularity remains high,both in rural areas where they carry the identification of the entirecommunity, as well as at some larger schools known for their basketballteams where many players go on to participate at higher levels ofcompetition after graduation. In the 2003–04 season, 1,002,797 boys andgirls represented their schools in interscholastic basketball competition,according to the National Federation of State High School Associations.
Rules and regulationsMeasurements and time limits discussed in this section often varyamong tournaments and organizations; international and NBA rules areused in this section.The object of the game is to outscore ones opponents by throwing theball through the opponents basket from above while preventing theopponents from doing so on their own. An attempt to score in this way iscalled a shot. A successful shot is worth two points, or three points if itis taken from beyond the three-point arc which is 6.25 metres (20 ft 6 in)from the basket in international games and 23 feet 9 inches (7.24 m) inNBA games. A one-point shot can be earned when shooting from thefoul line after a foul is made.Playing regulationsGames are played in four quarters of 10 (FIBA) or 12 minutes (NBA). College games use two 20-minute halves, while high school varsitygames use 8 minute quarters. 15 minutes are allowed for a half-timebreak under FIBA, NBA, and NCAA rules and 10 minutes inhigh school. Overtime periods are five minutes in lengthexcept for high school which is four minutes in length. Teamsexchange baskets for the second half. The time allowed is actual playingtime; the clock is stopped while the play is not active. Therefore, gamesgenerally take much longer to complete than the allotted game time,typically about two hours.Five players from each team may be on the court at one time.Substitutions are unlimited but can only be done when play is stopped.Teams also have a coach, who oversees the development and strategiesof the team, and other team personnel such as assistant coaches,managers, statisticians, doctors and trainers.
For both mens and womens teams, a standard uniform consists of a pairof shorts and a jersey with a clearly visible number, unique within theteam, printed on both the front and back. Players wear high-top sneakersthat provide extra ankle support. Typically, team names, players namesand, outside of North America, sponsors are printed on the uniforms.Equipment • Basketball (ball) • Basketball court • Backboard (basketball)FoulsThe referee signals that a foul has been committed.Personal foul (basketball) and Technical foulAn attempt to unfairly disadvantage an opponent through physicalcontact is illegal and is called a foul. These are most commonlycommitted by defensive players; however, they can be committed byoffensive players as well. Players who are fouled either receive the ballto pass inbounds again, or receive one or more free throws if they arefouled in the act of shooting, depending on whether the shot was
successful. One point is awarded for making a free throw, which isattempted from a line 15 feet (4.6 m) from the basket.The referee may use discretion in calling fouls (for example, byconsidering whether an unfair advantage was gained), sometimesmaking fouls controversial calls or no-calls. The calling of fouls canvary between games, leagues and even among referees. PositionsBasketball positions in the offensive zoneAlthough the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they haveevolved as part of basketball. During the first five decades ofbasketballs evolution, one guard, two forwards, and two centers or twoguards, two forwards, and one center were used. Since the 1980s, morespecific positions have evolved, namely: 1. point guard: usually the fastest player on the team, organizes the teams offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time 2. shooting guard: creates a high volume of shots on offense; guards the opponents best perimeter player on defense 3. small forward: often primarily responsible for scoring points via cuts to the basket and dribble penetration; on defense seeks rebounds and steals, but sometimes plays more actively
4. power forward: plays offensively often with their back to the basket; on defense, plays under the basket (in a zone defense) or against the opposing power forward (in man-to-man defense) 5. center: uses height and size to score (on offense), to protect the basket closely (on defense), or to rebound.The above descriptions are flexible. On some occasions, teams willchoose to use a three guard offense, replacing one of the forwards or thecenter with a third guard. The most commonly interchanged positionsare point guard and shooting guard, especially if both players have goodleadership and ball handling skills.