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Software engineering critical systems


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Critical Systems

Critical Systems

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  • 1. Critical Systems Loganathan R.Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 1
  • 2. Objectives• To explain what is meant by a critical system where system failure can have severe human or economic consequence.• To explain four dimensions of dependability - availability, reliability, safety and security.• To explain that, to achieve dependability, you need to avoid mistakes, detect and remove errors and limit damage caused by failure. Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 2
  • 3. Critical Systems• If the system failure results in significant economic losses, physical damages or threats to human life than the system is called critical systems. 3 types of it are:• Safety-critical systems – Failure results in loss of life, injury or damage to the environment; – Chemical plant protection system;• Mission-critical systems – Failure results in failure of some goal-directed activity; – Spacecraft navigation system;• Business-critical systems – Failure results in high economic losses; – Customer accounting system in a bank; Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 3
  • 4. System dependability• The most important emergent property of a critical system is its dependability. It covers the related system attributes of availability, reliability, safety & security.• Importance of dependability – Systems that are unreliable, unsafe or insecure are often rejected by their users(refuse to the product from the same company). – System failure costs may be very high.(reactor / aircraft navigation) – Untrustworthy systems may cause information loss with a high consequent recovery cost. Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 4
  • 5. Development methods for critical systems• Trusted methods and technique must be used.• These methods are not cost-effective for other types of system.• The older methods strengths & weaknesses are understood• Formal methods reduce the amount of testing required. Example : – Formal mathematical method Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 5
  • 6. Socio-technical critical systems Failures • Hardware failure – Hardware fails because of design and manufacturing errors or because components have reached the end of their natural life. • Software failure – Software fails due to errors in its specification, design or implementation. • Human Operator failure – Fail to operate correctly. – Now perhaps the largest single cause of system failures. Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 6
  • 7. A Simple safety Critical System• Example of software-controlled insulin pump.• Used by diabetics to simulate the function of insulin, an essential hormone that metabolises blood glucose.• Measures blood glucose (sugar) using a micro- sensor and computes the insulin dose required to metabolise the glucose. Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 7
  • 8. Insulin pump organisation Insulin reservoir Needle Clock assembly Pump Sensor Controller Alarm Display1 Display2 Power supply Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 8
  • 9. Insulin pump data-flow BloodBlood Blood sugar parameters Blood sugar sensor analysis Blood sugar level Insulin requirement computation Insulin Pump control Insulin commands Insulin requirement Insulin delivery pump controller Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 9
  • 10. Dependability requirements• The system shall be available to deliver insulin when required to do so.• The system shall perform reliably and deliver the correct amount of insulin to counteract the current level of blood sugar.• The essential safety requirement is that excessive doses of insulin should never be delivered as this is potentially life threatening. Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 10
  • 11. System Dependability• The dependability of a system equates to its trustworthiness.• A dependable system is a system that is trusted by its users.• Principal dimensions of dependability are: – Availability :- Probability that it will be up & running & able to deliver at any given time ; – Reliability :-Correct delivery of services as expected by user over a given period of time; – Safety :-A Judgment of how likely the system will cause damage to people or its environment; – Security :- A Judgment of how likely the system can resist accidental or deliberate intrusions; Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 11
  • 12. Dimensions of dependability Dependability Availability Reliability Safety SecurityThe ability of the system The ability of the The ability of the system The ability of the systemto deliver services when system to deliver to operate without to protect itself against requested services as specified catastrophic failure accidental or deliberate intrusion Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 12
  • 13. Other dependability properties• Repairability – Reflects the extent to which the system can be repaired in the event of a failure• Maintainability – Reflects the extent to which the system can be adapted to new requirements;• Survivability – Reflects the extent to which the system can deliver services while it is under hostile attack;• Error tolerance – Reflects the extent to which user input errors can be avoided and tolerated. Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 13
  • 14. Dependability vs performance• It is very difficult to tune systems to make them more dependable• High level dependability can be achieved by expense of performance. Because it include extra/ redundant code to perform necessary checking• It also increases the cost. Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 14
  • 15. Dependability costs• Dependability costs tend to increase exponentially as increasing levels of dependability are required• There are two reasons for this – The use of more expensive development techniques and hardware that are required to achieve the higher levels of dependability – The increased testing and system validation that is required to convince the system client that the required levels of dependability have been achieved Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 15
  • 16. Costs of increasing dependability Cost Low Medium High Very Ultra-high high Dependability Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 16
  • 17. Availability and reliability• Reliability – The probability of failure-free system operation over a specified time in a given environment for a specific purpose• Availability – The probability that a system, at a point in time, will be operational and able to deliver the requested services• Both of these attributes can be expressed quantitatively Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 17
  • 18. Availability and reliability• It is sometimes possible to include system availability under system reliability – Obviously if a system is unavailable it is not delivering the specified system services• However, it is possible to have systems with low reliability that must be available. So long as system failures can be repaired quickly and do not damage data, low reliability may not be a problem• Availability takes repair time into account Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 18
  • 19. Faults, Errors and failures• Failures are a usually a result of system errors that are derived from faults in the system• However, faults do not necessarily result in system errors – The faulty system state may be transient and ‘corrected’ before an error arises• Errors do not necessarily lead to system failures – The error can be corrected by built-in error detection and recovery – The failure can be protected against by built-in protection facilities. These may, for example, protect system resources from system errors Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 19
  • 20. Reliability terminologyTerm Description An event that occurs at some point in time when the systemSystem failure does not deliver a service as expected by its users An erroneous system state that can lead to system behaviourSystem error that is unexpected by system users. A characteristic of a software system that can lead to a system error. For example, failure to initialise a variableSystem fault could lead to that variable having the wrong value when it is used.Human error or Human behaviour that results in the introduction of faultsmistake into a system. Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 20
  • 21. Reliability Improvement• Three approaches to improve reliability• Fault avoidance – Development technique are used that either minimise the possibility of mistakes or trap mistakes before they result in the introduction of system faults• Fault detection and removal – Verification and validation techniques that increase the probability of detecting and correcting errors before the system goes into service are used• Fault tolerance – Run-time techniques are used to ensure that system faults do not result in system errors and/or that system errors do not lead to system failures Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 21
  • 22. Reliability modelling• You can model a system as an input-output mapping where some inputs will result in erroneous outputs• The reliability of the system is the probability that a particular input will lie in the set of inputs that cause erroneous outputs• Different people will use the system in different ways so this probability is not a static system attribute but depends on the system’s environment Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 22
  • 23. Input/output mapping Inputs causing erroneous outputsInput set Ie Program Erroneous outputsOutput set Oe Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 23
  • 24. Reliability perception Possible inputs User 1 Erroneous inputs User 3 User 2 Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 24
  • 25. Reliability improvement• Removing X% of the faults in a system will not necessarily improve the reliability by X%. A study at IBM showed that removing 60% of product defects resulted in a 3% improvement in reliability• Program defects may be in rarely executed sections of the code so may never be encountered by users. Removing these does not affect the perceived reliability• A program with known faults may therefore still be seen as reliable by its users Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 25
  • 26. Safety• Safety is a property of a system that reflects the system should never damage people or the system’s environment• For example control & monitoring systems in aircraft• It is increasingly important to consider software safety as more and more devices incorporate software-based control systems• Safety requirements are exclusive requirements i.e. they exclude undesirable situations rather than specify required system services• Safety critical software are 2 types Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 26
  • 27. Types of Safety-critical software• Primary safety-critical systems – Embedded software systems whose failure can cause hardware malfunction which results inhuman injury or environmental damage.• Secondary safety-critical systems – Systems whose failure indirectly results in injury. – Eg. Medical Database holding details of drugs• Discussion here focuses on primary safety-critical systems Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 27
  • 28. Safety and reliability• Safety and reliability are related but distinct – In general, reliability and availability are necessary but not sufficient conditions for system safety• Reliability is concerned with conformance to a given specification and delivery of service• Safety is concerned with ensuring system cannot cause damage irrespective of whether or not it conforms to its specification Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 28
  • 29. Unsafe reliable systems• Reasons why reliable system are not necessarily safe: • Specification errors • It does not describe the required behaviour in some critical situations • Hardware failures generating spurious inputs • Hard to anticipate in the specification • Operator error • Context-sensitive commands i.e. issuing the right command at the wrong time Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 29
  • 30. Safety terminologyTerm Definition An unplanned event or sequence of events which results in human death or injury,Accident (or damage to property or to the environment. A computer-controlled machine injuring itsmishap) operator is an example of an accident. A condition with the potential for causing or contributing to an accident. A failure of theHazard sensor that detects an obstacle in front of a machine is an example of a hazard. A measure of the loss resulting from a mishap. Damage can range from many peopleDamage killed as a result of an accident to minor injury or property damage. An assessment of the worst possible damage that could result from a particularHazard severity hazard. Hazard severity can range from catastrophic where many people are killed to minor where only minor damage results. The probability of the events occurring which create a hazard. Probability values tendHazard to be arbitrary but range from probable (say 1/100 chance of a hazard occurring) toprobability implausible (no conceivable situations are likely where the hazard could occur). This is a measure of the probability that the system will cause an accident. The risk isRisk assessed by considering the hazard probability, the hazard severity and the probability that a hazard will result in an accident. Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 30
  • 31. Ways to achieve Safety• Hazard avoidance – The system is designed so that hazard simply cannot arise. – Eg. Press 2 buttons at the same time in a cutting machine to start• Hazard detection and removal – The system is designed so that hazards are detected and removed before they result in an accident. – Eg. Open relief valve on detection over pressure in chemical plant.• Damage limitation – The system includes protection features that minimise the damage that may result from an accident – Automatic fire safety system in aircraft. Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 31
  • 32. Security• Security is a system property that reflects the ability to protect itself from accidental or deliberate external attack.• Security is becoming increasingly important as systems are networked so that external access to the system through the Internet is possible• Security is an essential pre-requisite for availability, reliability and safety• Example : Viruses, unauthorised use of service/data modification Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 32
  • 33. Security terminologyTerm Definition Possible loss or harm in a computing system. This can be loss orExposure damage to data or can be a loss of time and effort if recovery is necessary after a security breach. A weakness in a computer-based system that may be exploited toVulnerability cause loss or harm. An exploitation of a system vulnerability. Generally, this is fromAttack outside the system and is a deliberate attempt to cause some damage. Circumstances that have potential to cause loss or harm. You canThreats think of these as a system vulnerability that is subjected to an attack. A protective measure that reduces a system vulnerability.Control Encryption would be an example of a control that reduced a vulnerability of a weak access control system. Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 33
  • 34. Damage from insecurity• Denial of service – The system is forced into a state where normal services become unavailable.• Corruption of programs or data – The system components of the system may altered in an unauthorised way, which affect system behaviour & hence its reliability and safety• Disclosure of confidential information – Information that is managed by the system may be exposed to people who are not authorised to read or use that information Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 34
  • 35. Security assurance• Vulnerability avoidance – The system is designed so that vulnerabilities do not occur. For example, if there is no external network connection then external attack is impossible• Attack detection and elimination – The system is designed so that attacks on vulnerabilities are detected and remove them before they result in an exposure. For example, virus checkers find and remove viruses before they infect a system• Exposure limitation – The consequences of a successful attack are minimised. For example, a backup policy allows damaged information to be restored Prof. Loganathan R., CSE, HKBKCE 35