As streams and rivers move across the land they form a flowing network called RIVER SYSTEM
Some reasons rivers are important to civilization:
River water is diverted for agricultural irrigation, industry, hygiene, and related uses.
Carrying mineral and organic matter
Transportation / Territorial boundaries.
WHAT IS A WATERSHED?
The area of land drained by a river is known as a WATERSHED.
A watershed is a precipitation collector.
Not all precipitation that falls in a watershed flows out
What is Groundwater?
Water stored beneath the Earth’s surface in sediments and rock formations is called GROUNDWATER.
There are about 50 millions cubic Km of groundwater on Earth.
There’s about 20 times more water underground than in all of the rivers and lakes on Earth.
A level where the rocks and soil are saturated with water underground is known as WATERTABLE.
What is an Aquifer?
An aquifer is an underground formation that contains water.
Pororsity and Permeability
Pororsity .- is the amount of space between the particles that make up a rock.
Permeability.- Is the ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow through it.
What is an Aquifer?
What do most of Aquifers consist?
What is Porosity?
What is Permeability?
The more porous a rock is ___________
What are materials that stop the flow of water?
Where do the most productive aquifers usually form?
What is the Recharge Zone?
What is a Watershed?
What factors affect the level of the Watertable?
WATER USE AND MANAGEMENT
Identify the patterns of global water use.
Explain how water is treated so it can be safe for drinking.
Describe how dams and water diversion projects are used to manage fresh water resources.
Identify five ways that water can be conserved.
Global Water Use
WATER TREATMENT PROCESS
Agricultural Water Use
One of themost effective methods
Drip Irrigation: In drip irrigation water is sent through plastic pipes with holes in them. Then water slowly drips onto the crop’s roots and stems. Advantages are it is more efficient, loses less water to evaporation, and can irrigate sloping, irregularly-shaped land areas that can't be flood irrigated. It is also a positive way to water fields because it increases the amount of grain and veggies you get from the crops, and less people have to work on the fields. This is the most efficient irrigation method of the three.
Solutions for the future
What are the three major uses for water in the world?
Why is water aerated in the drinking water treatment process?
Define the term “Potable”.
What are pathogens? Identify three examples of pathogens.
How much water is used to manufacture a car? (on the average)
Water is used in industry mainly to…..
Write the 3 steps that show how a power plant’s cooling system works.
Define the term irrigation.
What is one of the most effective irrigation methods. Describe it.
What is a dam ? What is a reservoir?
Identify some far-reaching consequences of interrupting a river’s flow
Mention some purposes for dams and reservoirs to exist.
What is XERISCAPING and what is it for?
Explain what does the desalination process consist on?
Compare point source of pollution and non-point source of pollution.
Classify water pollutants by five types.
Explain why groundwater pollution is difficult to clean.
Describe the major sources of ocean pollution, and explain the effects of pollution on ecosystems.
Water pollution (definition)
Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water. When it is unfit for its intended use, water is considered polluted.
It is also the introduction of chemical, physical or biological agents into water that degrade water quality and adversely affect the organisms that depend on the water.
Two underlying causes
Human population explosion
SOURCES OF POLLUTION
Point Source of Pollution
Point pollution is pollution that is discharged
from a single source, such as a factory or waste water treatment plant. (you can point to it)
Non-Point source of Pollution
Nonpoint pollution is pollution that
comes from many sources rather
than a single specific site
Sources of point pollution
Septic tank systems
Storage lagoons for polluted waste
Underground storage tanks
containing pollutants such as
Public and industrial wastewater
Sources of nonpoint
Highway construction and maintenance:
eroding soil and toxic chemicals.
Storm-water runoff from city and
suburban streets: oil gasoline, dog feces,
Pesticides from croplands.
Fertilizers from croplands.
Salt on roads for snow and ice control.
Kinds of Pollutants
Disease-causing organisms such as
Occurs when human sewage is untreated or enters water through storm sewers, and when animal feces wash off land into water.
Biodegradable remains of animals and plants, including feces.
Generally comes from nonpoint sources.
Pesticides, fertilizers, plastics,detergents, gasoline and oil, and other materials made from fossil fuels such as petroleum.
Acids, salts, toxic metals.
Comes from point and nonpoint sources.
Chemicals that are poisonous to living things, including heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium), and many industrial, and some household, chemicals.
Heat and suspended solids such as soil.
From power plants or nuclear processing and defense facilities