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Eukaryotic Cells
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Eukaryotic Cells

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  • 1. EUKARYOTIC CELLS Cell Wall
  • 2. Cell Wall
    • A cell wall is a rigid structure that gives support to a cell.
    • Plants and algae have cell walls made of complex sugar called cellulose.
    • Fungi including yeasts and mushrooms. Also have cell walls. Fungi have cell walls made of a complex sugar called chitin.
    • Prokaryotic cells such as bacteria and archaea have cell walls, but are different from plants.
  • 3. Cell Wall
  • 4. Cell Membrane
    • All cells have cell membrane. The cell membrane is a protective barrier that encloses a cell.
    • The cell membrane contains proteins, lipids and phospholipids.
    • Lipids (fats and cholesterol), do not dissolve in water.
  • 5. Cell Membrane
    • The cell membrane has two layers of phospholipids.
    • Phospholipid is a lipid that contains phosphorus.
    • Some of the proteins and lipids control the movement of materials into and out of the cell.
    • Nutrients and water move into the cell, and wastes move out of the cell, through these protein passageways.
  • 6. Cell Membrane
  • 7. Cytoskeleton
    • The cytoskeleton is a web of proteins in the cytoplasm.
    • Acts as both a muscle and a skeleton.
    • It keeps the cell´s membranes from collapsing, also helps some cells move.
    • Is made of three types of proteins.
    • One protein is a hollow tube, the other two are long, stringy fibers.
  • 8. Cytoskeleton
  • 9. Nucleus
    • The nucleus is a large organelle in a eukaryotic cell.
    • It contains cell´s DNA, or genetic material.
    • DNA contains the information how to make a cell’s proteins. Proteins control the chemical reactions in a cell, also support for cells and tissues.
  • 10. Nucleus
    • The nucleus is covered by two membranes .
    • The nucleus of many cells has a dark area called the nucleolus.
    • The nucleolus is where a cell begins to make its ribosomes.
  • 11. Nucleus
  • 12. Ribosomes
    • Organelles that make proteins are ribosomes.
    • Ribosomes are the smallest of all organelles.
    • Some ribosomes float freely in the cytoplasm.
    • Ribosomes are not covered by a membrane.
  • 13. Ribosomes
  • 14. Ribosomes
    • Proteins are made of AMINO ACIDS.
    • An AMINO ACID is any one of about 20 different organic molecules that are used to make proteins.
    • All cells need proteins to live.
    • All cells have RIBOSOMES.
  • 15. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • The ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, or ER, is a system of folded membranes in which proteins, lipids, and other materials are made.
    • Its folded membrane contains many tubes and passageways.
  • 16. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum is either rough ER or smooth ER.
    • The part of the ER covered in ribosomes is rough ER, it is usually found near the nucleus.
    • Ribosomes on rough ER make many of the cell’s proteins. The ER delivers these proteins throughout the cell.
  • 17. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • ER that lacks ribosomes is smooth ER.
    • The functions of smooth ER include making lipids and breaking down toxic materials that could damage the cell.
  • 18. Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • 19. Mitochondria
    • Is the main power source of a cell.
    • It is the organelle in which sugar is broken down to produce energy.
    • Mitochondria is covered by two membranes (outer membrane, inner membrane).
  • 20. Mitochondria
  • 21. Mitochondria
    • Energy released by mitochondria is stored in a substance called ATP
    • (adenosine triphosphate).
    • Most eukaryotic cells have mitochondria.
    • Mitochondria are the size of some bacteria.
    • Mitochondria have their own DNA, and can divide within a cell.

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