Acheivements Of The Indian Empires


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  • Kandita L.;figure 1
  • Acheivements Of The Indian Empires

    1. 1. ANCIENT INDIA Figure 1
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>In ancient India, the land and population was controlled by emperors. These emperors belonged to either the Mauryan or the Gupta Empire. In both of these empires, many great things were achieved including advancements in sciences, math, literature and religion. Also more land was conquered. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Before The Great Before India’s culture evolved into two great empires, there was a simpler and less developed India.
    4. 4. Geography <ul><li>-located on the Indian Subcontinent </li></ul><ul><li>-landmass that includes India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. </li></ul><ul><li>-separated from Asia by the Himalayan mountains. </li></ul>Figure 2
    5. 5. Harrappan Civilization <ul><li>-larger area than Egypt or Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>-7000 B.C. domesticated animals and had agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>-2500 B.C. cities laid out into grids made of brick </li></ul><ul><li>-plumbing and sewage systems </li></ul>
    6. 6. Culture <ul><li>Language -writing systems of 400 now indecipherable symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Social Factors </li></ul><ul><li>-no great social classes </li></ul><ul><li>-importance on animals </li></ul><ul><li>-evidence of children’s toys </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>-priests and rulers and closely linked </li></ul><ul><li>-links to modern Hindu culture </li></ul><ul><li>Trade- thriving trade with other peoples, including Mesopotamia </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Government of the Mauryan Empire The Mauryan empire was imperialistic, which led to a bureaucratic government.
    8. 8. Chandragupta Maurya 321–301 BC <ul><li>He was a militaristic leader. He put together an army around 326 BC and conquered all of northern India between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. This was the first time northern India was united. </li></ul><ul><li>He raised a large army consisting of 600,000 foot soldiers, 30,000 soldiers on horseback and 9,000 elephants. To pay for these soldiers, he taxed the people heavily. </li></ul>Figure 3 Figure 4
    9. 9. The Government Under Chandragupta <ul><li>Chandragupta listened to his advisers, especially Kautilya, a member of the priestly caste and the author of a rulers handbook. </li></ul><ul><li>Kautilya advised Chandragupta to create a bureaucratic system. </li></ul><ul><li>Chandragupta split the empire into provinces, and had royal princes rule them. The provinces were then split into districts where carefully chosen officials collected taxes and enforced the law. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Asoka, Chandragupta’s grandson 268—232BC <ul><li>Asoka conquered new lands until the Mauryan empire reached out to most of the subcontinent of Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>After Asoka saw that he was causing people to suffer, he renounced warfare and converted from Brahmanism to Buddhism. He had Buddhism become the official religion of the empire. </li></ul>Figure 5
    11. 11. Asoka’s Reign as a Buddhist Emperor <ul><li>As emperor, Asoka applied Buddhist principals to his leadership. He made less harsh laws than his predecessors. </li></ul><ul><li>He also had trees planted, rest houses and medical centers built and wells dug. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to these, he also built shrines and monasteries and inscribed Siddhartha’s teachings on rocks and pillars. He sent out Buddhist missionaries to places as far as Egypt and Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>Asoka was also tolerant of other religions, which led India to a prosperous age. </li></ul>
    12. 12. The Golden Age of the Gupta Empire An expansion of trade in India led to an advance in math, science and literature.
    13. 13. Scientific Discoveries Under Chandra Gupta II <ul><li>Sailors and traders began to understand astronomy. This enabled them to locate their positions when they were at sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian astronomers also discovered that the earth was round by observing the Earth’s shadow during a lunar eclipse. </li></ul><ul><li>In medicine, Indians found over a thousand diseases, including smallpox, and over five hundred herbs used for medical purposes. They also knew how to perform surgeries such as plastic surgery. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Mathematical Discoveries <ul><li>Mathematics in India was one of most advanced math systems in the world during the Gupta Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>The modern number system, zero and the decimal system were all developed in India at his time. </li></ul><ul><li>A great Indian mathematician named Aryabhata calculated Pi to four decimal places. He also calculated a solar year to be 365.3586805 days, which is close to modern calculations made by an atomic clock. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Advances in Literature <ul><li>India had a number of writers, including Kalidasa, the author of Shakuntala, the story of a girl and a king who marry. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing academies were developed in the city of Madurai in 100AD, and there are still over 2,000 poems from there today. </li></ul><ul><li>In India, there was also acting troupes in which both genders took part in. Classical Indian dances are based on dance techniques from this time. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Buddhist and Hindu libraries and schools were made as well. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Hinduism The religion of Hinduism is one of peaceful tenets and moral values. For most leaders, in the Mauryan and Gupta Empires, it was the dominant religion. The religion still has many followers in India.
    17. 17. Caste System <ul><li>-4 basic social classes determined by birth. </li></ul><ul><li>-cannot be changed in the current life. </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmins-priests and nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Kshatriyas-warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Vaisyas-merchants and farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Shudras-laborers </li></ul><ul><li>-One is placed into one of these catagories by how you behaved in your prior life </li></ul><ul><li>-The belief that you are born into another body after death is Samsara or reincarnation. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Karma and Moksha <ul><li>Karma </li></ul><ul><li>-the idea that everything one does will affect him in a later life. </li></ul><ul><li>-this places one into their caste </li></ul><ul><li>Moksha </li></ul><ul><li>-liberation in the fullest form </li></ul><ul><li>-ultimate state of happiness after you have been moral in every life </li></ul><ul><li>-“Nirvana” </li></ul>
    19. 19. Buddhism Buddhism is more of a philosophy, or way of life, rather than a religion. Figure 6
    20. 20. Buddhism’s Start <ul><li>Siddhartha Gautama credited founder of Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Born into a noble family near the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>It was prophesized when he was a baby that if he stayed home, he would become a world ruler. If he left, he would become a universal spiritual leader. </li></ul><ul><li>He was isolated in the palace by his father, to ensure his becoming a great king </li></ul>
    21. 21. Buddhism’s Start Continued <ul><li>At age 29, Siddhartha left his palace four times </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the images he saw were of suffering, except for a holy man who did not seem to be suffering </li></ul><ul><li>He concluded that the only way to deal with suffering was to lead a religious life </li></ul><ul><li>He went on a journey of enlightenment (wisdom) in the forests of India for six years </li></ul><ul><li>He tried many ways of reaching enlightenment, including fasting, and talking with others searching for religion </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation proved to be the answer, for after 49 days of meditating under a fig tree, he reach enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>He became know as the Buddha, which means one who is enlightened </li></ul>
    22. 22. Buddhist Beliefs <ul><li>Four Noble Truths: </li></ul><ul><li>Dukkha: All things in life are unsatisfactory and filled with suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>Trsna: The cause of suffering is a desire for the wrong things; searching to find stability in a shifting world is the wrong way. </li></ul><ul><li>Nirvana: The end to all desires is the end to suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>The Noble Eightfold Path is the way to end suffering </li></ul><ul><li>The Noble Eightfold Path is right views, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, riht livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration; otherwise known as the Middle Way </li></ul>
    23. 23. Conclusion <ul><ul><li>Before India became a modernized country, it was run by vast empires and kingdoms. The two empires were the Mauryan and the Gupta. They made India a booming center of mathematics and literature. The religions of the region influenced it and its people greatly. Centered around a great river, India’s ancient times were prosperous and pivotal. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Bibliography <ul><li>Beck, B. Roger, Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor and Dahia Ibo Shabaka. World History: Patterns Of Interaction. Illinios: McDougal Littell Inc., 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Chandragupta” Funk & Wagnalls® New Encyclopedia . © 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Asoka” Funk & Wagnalls® New Encyclopedia . © 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Religion and Ethics-Buddhism” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Jeffery Watkins “Gupta Empire” © 1999-2003 Oswego City School District Regents Exam Prep Center </li></ul>
    25. 25. Image Bibliography <ul><li>Fig.1- Jonathan Mark Kenoyer; The Great bath and granary at Mohenjo-Daro University of Wisconsin - Madison. 11/24/08 </li></ul><ul><li>Fig.2- Map of India 11/24/08 </li></ul><ul><li>Fig. 3- Tanmoy Sinha Kautilya’s Arthashastra -blog/category/biography/ 11/24/08 </li></ul><ul><li>Fig 4- Map of the Mauryan Empire /.../ 11/24/08 </li></ul><ul><li>Fig. 5- Asoka 11/24/08 </li></ul><ul><li>Fig 6. Wheel of Dharma 11/24/08 </li></ul><ul><li>Fig.7 Reclining Buddha 11/24/08 </li></ul>
    26. 26. The End Figure 7