Astronomy mars section 2 student copy

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Astronomy mars section 2 student copy

  1. 1. Martian Rovers and Landers • • • • • • • Viking 1 Viking 2 Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner Rover Spirit Rover Opportunity Rover Phoenix Lander Curiosity Rover
  2. 2. Viking 1 & 2 • Performed chemical analysis • The reaction between the iron rich soil and atmospheric Oxygen make iron oxide which gives Mars its color
  3. 3. Martian Landers • Viking 1 Orbiter • Viking 1 Lander-1976
  4. 4. View from Viking 1-Chryse Planitia
  5. 5. Viking Mission Viking 1 • Launch Date: Aug 20, 1975 • Orbital insertion: June 19, 1976 • Lander reached surface July 20, 1976-Chryse Planitia • Mission Duration Aug 20, 1975 thru Nov 11, 1982 • Imaged in 2006 on the surface of Mars by MRO Lander Scientific Equipment • 2 cameras • Analysis tools – Metabolic – Photosynthetic – *Gas-chromatograph mass spectrometer- identifies substances in a soil sample – X-ray fluorescence spectrometer – Pressure, temperature, wind velocity sensor – A 3 axis seismometer – Various engineering sensors
  6. 6. Viking 1 Soil Analysis Results • Soil contained – – – – – – – – – – Silicon Iron Magnesium Aluminum Sulfur Chlorine Calcium Titanium Potassium Trace amounts of • Strontium • yttrium • The sulfur and chlorine are likely the result of evaporating sea water • All soil samples heated in the GCMS gave off water vapor • Search for life – One experiment gave a positive result for life – DEBATED to this day!! – Antarctica’s dry areas have no detectable organic compounds-but there are organisms living in the rocks
  7. 7. Viking 2-Utopia Planitia-1976
  8. 8. Viking Mission Viking 2 • Launched Sept 9, 1975 • Orbital insertion August 7, 1976 • Lander reached surface Sept 3, 1976 • Mission duration Sept 9,1975 thru April 11, 1980 Lander Scientific Equipment • 2 cameras • Sampler arm with collector • Temperature sensor, wind velocity sensor • Magnet • Seismometer • *High gain antenna-sends info from the lander/rover to the orbiter and then back to Earth • X-ray fluorescence spectrometer • Pressure sensor
  9. 9. Mars Pathfinder & Sojourner Rover Testing and Packing up Airbag testing
  10. 10. Mars Pathfinder-1997
  11. 11. Pathfinder Panorama-Ares Vallis
  12. 12. Pathfinder-Sojourner Rover Landed near an outflow channel Two craft landed on the surface • Pathfinder – Long life-planned for 1 month, lasted 3 months – Measured the atmosphere and atmospheric dust • Sojourner Rover – Chemical analysis of soil and rocks-consistent w/flood waters – Round pebbles – Travelled 50 m
  13. 13. Mars Pathfinder (lander) • Launch date Dec 4, 1996 • Landed July 4, 1997 • Used the airbag touchdown • Consisted of a Lander and a Rover • Mission ended Sept 27, 1997 • MRO photographed the Pathfinder from orbit • Scientific instruments – Camera – Meteorology package – X-ray Spectrometer • These instruments measured: – Geology – Geochemistry – Magnetic and mechanical properties – Atmosphere and rotational dynamics
  14. 14. More Pathfinder results • Atmospheric particle size= 1 μm (1 millionth of a meter) • Soil test indicated a warmer and wetter past • Magnets determined soil contained maghemite (not pure magnetite) • Using Doppler it was determined the core is solid
  15. 15. Scientific equipment Findings • 3 cameras • Confirmed previous volcanic activity • Laser striper hazard detection • Found basaltic rock system • Found elements: • X-ray spectrometer – Silicon • Sojourner Rover (climbed off – Examines chemical – Magnesium iron silicate composition of soil Pathfinder) ***First rover to be – Aluminum silicates of Accelerometers deployed on another planet*** – Measures proper acceleration • Potentiometers – Controls and measures electrical devices • Potassium • Sodium • Calcium – – – – Quartz (silicon dioxide) Magnetite Iron sulfide Calcium phosphates
  16. 16. Magnetite on the Surface of Mars • Magnetite was an important find on the surface of Mars because: – Magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) • can be broken down into FeO. Fe2O3 • one part wustite and one part hematite • hematite is only formed in the presence of water – Magnetite is known to be (on Earth) in bacteria, brains of bees, termites, fish, mollusc teeth, some birds, and humans • Used to detect polarity or the inclination of the Earth’s magnetic field
  17. 17. Delta II Heavy Lifter-Spirit and Opportunity Launch Vehicle Launch Patch
  18. 18. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tm a2pt0k6UQ
  19. 19. • Mars Exploration Rover Mission-twin rovers-Managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spirit and Opportunity Rovers
  20. 20. Earth from Mars-pic taken by Spirit
  21. 21. Spirit Rover maps Landing site Traverse Map
  22. 22. Spirit Rover Remnants Spirit Tracks
  23. 23. Spirit Rover What did Spirit do? • Gusev Crater • Named site “Columbia Memorial Stadium” • Landed Jan 4, 2004 • Planned mission 90 sols(Martian days) • Got stuck in soil on May 1, 2009 • Worked as a lander after that • Last communication March 2010 • Travelled 7,730.48 m or 4.8 mi • Histories first grinding of a rock on Mars-using the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) – Adirondack • Solar Panel efficiency jumped from 60% to 93% in March 2005dust devils cleared off the solar panels – http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gall ery/press/spirit/20050527a.html • In 2007, Spirit’s stuck wheel revealed a silica rich soil which is similar to hot spring environments on Earth – On Earth, bacteria thrive in hot springs
  24. 24. First color –Arm-RAT-Dusty Panels
  25. 25. Deimos-Phobos Sunset
  26. 26. Spirit Rover cont. Science Instruments Mission and Findings • Panoramic camera • Navigation camera • Mini Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) • Look for evidence of water • Mineral composition of soil and rocks – ID’s rocks for investigation • Mossbauer spectrometer – Determines mineral content • Alpha particle spectrometer – Determines abundance of elements • Magnets – Collects magnetic dust particles • Microscopic imager – Close-up images of rocks • Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) – Exposes rock surface – Including iron-containing minerals • Determine geologic processes and how they effect the chemistry of the planet • Assess habitability (life) • Spirit Rover found magnetite in the dust and soil on Mars • Evidence of past water
  27. 27. Opportunity Landing site Traverse map
  28. 28. Opportunity
  29. 29. Opportunity leaving Eagle Crater
  30. 30. Opportunity Panorama
  31. 31. Opportunity Rover What did Opportunity do? • Launched July 7, 2003 • Landed Jan 25, 2004 • Eagle Crater – Challenger Memorial Stadium • Planned mission 90 sols (Martian days) • Currently still operating on Mars • Longest Mars surface mission • First discovery of a meteor on another planet –named Heat Shield Rock • Studied Victoria Crater for 2 years • Studied many other craters – Endurance Crater – Erebus Crater • Studying Matijevic Hill overlooking Endeavor Crater • As of Aug 2012 she has travelled 21 miles
  32. 32. Opportunity Cont. Science Instruments • Panoramic camera • Navigation camera • Mini Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) – ID’s rocks for investigation • Mossbauer spectrometer – Determines mineral content • Alpha particle spectrometer – Determines abundance of elements • Magnets – Collects magnetic dust particles • Microscopic imager – Close-up images of rocks • Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) – Exposes rock surface Mission and Findings • Reinforced previous findings of the evidence of previous liquid water on Mars • Hematite-nicknamed blueberries • Has made astronomical observations • Has taken atmospheric data
  33. 33. Eagle Crater outcroppings
  34. 34. Martian Hematite
  35. 35. Eagle Crater Hematite Spectograph
  36. 36. Victoria Crater
  37. 37. Heat Shield & Heat Shield Rock
  38. 38. Endurance Crater
  39. 39. Phoenix On the Ground!
  40. 40. Phoenix Lander-Vastitas Borealis
  41. 41. Phoenix Lander Phoenix Mars Landing: Nerves and Joy • Video-youtube • http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=hH5pNFROlYU • Launched-Aug 4, 2007 • Landed- May 25, 2008 • Shutdown-November 10, 2008 • Planned for 90 sols, actual duration 125 sols
  42. 42. Phoenix instruments
  43. 43. Phoenix Landing site
  44. 44. Phoenix Lander Scientific instruments • Used MRO to relay info to Earth • Robotic arm • Wet Chemistry Lab – Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) – Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) • Soil heated to 1,000 C which causes the gases to be released and sent to the mass spectrometer for analysis – Microscopic imager Findings • Polygon shaped surface features – Ice expands and contracts with temperature change, soil falls into the cracks • Photographed ice sublimation • Water vapor detected by TEGA’s mass spectrometer • CONFIRMED WATER ICE ON MARS • Blobs on the struts of Phoenix that changed size – Were they salt water that absorbed more water from the atmosphere? – Grew for 44 sols and then evaporated
  45. 45. Phoenix landscape sublimation
  46. 46. Phoenix Panorama
  47. 47. Phoenix Findings cont. Lander (Last slide for Mars Spacecraft Test) • Soil pH is between 8 and9 (alkaline) • Magnesium • Sodium • Potassium • Chloride • Perchlorate – act as an antifreeze which lower the freezing point of water – This would allow the water to be liquid under the temperature and pressure conditions at the Phoenix landing site

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