Conveyor Safety


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Conveyor Safety

  1. 1. Conveyor Safety 10-3-07 Frank J. Loeffler Jr. Loeffler Engineering Group
  2. 2. STANDARDS <ul><li>OSHA 29 CFR 1910 & 1926.555 </li></ul><ul><li>CEMA Belt Conveyor Handbook, Safety Labels 201 & Safety Poster </li></ul><ul><li>ASME B20.1-1957 </li></ul><ul><li>ASME B20.1-2006 </li></ul><ul><li>ASME B15.1 </li></ul><ul><li>National Safety Council – Data Sheet 1-569 </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 5045-1979 </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI B11-TR3 </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI Z535 </li></ul><ul><li>MSHA 30 CFR (For Mines) </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 654 Prevention of Fire & Dust Explosions </li></ul><ul><li>National Safety Council – Accident Prevention Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Factory Mutual Insurance </li></ul>
  3. 3. OSHA 29 CFR 1910 <ul><li>Guards </li></ul><ul><li>Walkways </li></ul><ul><li>Floor Openings </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Lockout – Tagout </li></ul><ul><li>Grain Elevators </li></ul><ul><li>Marine Terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Specifically references </li></ul><ul><li>B20.1 </li></ul><ul><li>1957 Edition </li></ul>OSHA 1926.555
  5. 5. CEMA
  6. 6. CEMA Safety Labels
  7. 7. CEMA Safety Labels
  8. 8. CEMA Safety Poster
  9. 9. Conveyor Crossovers
  10. 10. Free Literature (CEMA) <ul><li>Safety Posters for Bulk Conveyors, Unit Conveyors, Bucket Elevators & Screw Conveyors </li></ul><ul><li>Conveyor Crossovers </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Label Placement Guides </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  11. 11. Improper Design Loads
  12. 12. ASME B20.1-1957 & 2006
  13. 13. ASME B15.1
  14. 14. Improper Belt Splice & Unguarded In-Running Nip Point
  15. 15. National Safety Council
  16. 16. ISO 5045-1979
  17. 17. ISO Conveyor Nip Points
  18. 18. Nip Points
  19. 19. Nip Point Nip Point Short Slider Bed Opening to Nip Point
  20. 20. Tail Pulley Site of Fatal Cleaning Accident
  21. 21. ISO Distances
  22. 22. ANSI B11-TR3
  23. 23. ANSI Z535
  24. 24. Guard with Warning
  25. 25. MSHA 30 CFR <ul><li>Download from </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  26. 26. MSHA’s Guide to Guarding
  27. 28. Improper Guarding
  28. 29. Unguarded TU Bend Pulleys In running Nip Point
  29. 30. MSHA Safety Tips
  30. 31. NFPA 654
  31. 32. Conveyor Fire
  32. 33. Petroleum Coke Shiploader Fire
  33. 34. National Safety Council - Manual
  34. 35. Factory Mutual Conveyor Safety
  35. 36. Factory Mutual Job Hazard Analysis
  36. 37. Who Furnishes Safety Features <ul><li>Safety features must be reviewed by: </li></ul><ul><li>Client </li></ul><ul><li>Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Integrator </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>Installer </li></ul>
  37. 38. Injuries and Hazards that may be reduced by guards and Controls <ul><li>Pinch Points </li></ul><ul><li>Material Falling </li></ul><ul><li>Crushed Against Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Fall from Conveyors </li></ul><ul><li>Reach Around Guards </li></ul><ul><li>Servicing Moving Conveyors </li></ul><ul><li>Fall Crossing Belts </li></ul><ul><li>Fires </li></ul><ul><li>Dust Explosions </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Dusts </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Shock </li></ul>
  38. 39. Cross Under / Over for Conveyors
  39. 40. Pinch Points <ul><li>Belt & Drive, Tail, Take-up or Bend Pulleys </li></ul><ul><li>Idlers Under Skirtboards </li></ul><ul><li>Troughing Idlers at Convex Curves </li></ul><ul><li>Return Idlers (Accessible) </li></ul><ul><li>Power Transmission Parts – ASME B15.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Sweeps on Wheel / Rail </li></ul><ul><li>Guard Painting ANSI Z535 </li></ul><ul><li>Warning Labels CEMA 201 </li></ul>
  40. 41. Idler Guarded & Unguarded
  41. 42. Guards with Electrical Interlock
  42. 43. Common Causes of Accidents <ul><li>Loose Clothing and Long Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Applying Dressing to Pulley or Throwing Sand </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning Sticky Material from Belts or Pulleys on a Moving Conveyor </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning Around or Under Conveyors </li></ul><ul><li>Servicing Pulleys While Operating </li></ul><ul><li>Removing Spilled Material from Return Belt </li></ul><ul><li>Working Under Gravity Take-ups </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusting Screw Take-ups </li></ul>
  43. 44. Fatal Nip Point Worker Threw Sand to Increase Pulley Traction
  44. 45. Take-ups <ul><li>Screw – Extend Adjusting Screws beyond Guard </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity- Guard Nip Points and Around Counterweight Landing Area </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic- Secure Stored Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Take-ups Reduce Belt Slip </li></ul>
  45. 46. Take-Up Guard Take-Up Cage
  46. 47. Holdbacks & Backstops <ul><li>Use on Incline Conveyors </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Means to Secure Belt & Load </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection Under Load </li></ul><ul><li>Size Based on Motor HP </li></ul><ul><li>Brakes </li></ul>
  47. 48. Guards Against Falling Material <ul><li>Conveyor Inclines </li></ul><ul><li>Conveyors Passing Over Aisle, Passageway or Workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosed Bottom & Sides </li></ul><ul><li>Side Skirts </li></ul><ul><li>Nets </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosed Conveyors </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Hat Area Signs </li></ul>
  48. 49. Idler That Can Pop Out and Fall No Idler Retainer Clip
  49. 50. Falling Material Netting Nets
  50. 51. Spillage @ Load Point
  51. 52. Guards Around Openings <ul><li>OSHA Standards Define the Requirements for Floor and Wall Openings, Handrail, Platforms, Toe Boards, Confined Entry, and Escape Routes </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA 29 CFR 1910 </li></ul>
  52. 53. Four Requirements For A Dust Explosion <ul><li>A Combustible Dust </li></ul><ul><li>Dust Dispersion in Air or Other Oxidant At or Exceeding the Minimum Explosible Concentration (MEC) </li></ul><ul><li>An Ignition Source </li></ul><ul><li>Confinement </li></ul>
  53. 54. Fire & Explosion Prevention <ul><li>Common Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Belt Slipping on Drive Pulley </li></ul><ul><li>Belt or Pulley Rubbing Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen Rollers </li></ul><ul><li>Bad Bearings </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Failures </li></ul><ul><li>Static Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Tramp Iron in Conveyed Material </li></ul><ul><li>Careless Heating of Frozen Material </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate Housekeeping </li></ul>
  54. 55. Fire & Explosion Prevention <ul><li>Safeguards </li></ul><ul><li>MSHA Rated Conveyor Belt </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Take-ups, Special Lagging, Speed Switches </li></ul><ul><li>Belt and/or Pulley Alignment Switches </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect Bearings, Temperature & Vibration Detection </li></ul><ul><li>Overload Devices (Do Not Bypass Protection Devices) </li></ul><ul><li>Static Electricity Collectors & Grounding </li></ul><ul><li>Metal Detectors and Magnets </li></ul><ul><li>Collection or Suppression of Dust </li></ul><ul><li>Cleanup Spillage that can Spontaneously Combust or Create Dust Clouds </li></ul><ul><li>Do not Overload Conveyors </li></ul>
  55. 56. Mistrained Belts Belt Rubbing Belt Rubbing
  56. 57. Grain Elevator Fires
  57. 58. Conveyor Control Systems <ul><li>Nameplates on All Control Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Provisions for Lockout / Tagout (LOTO) </li></ul><ul><li>Conveyors not Visible from Control Point – Visible or Audible Warnings with Time Delay </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Stop Cables Must be Installed on Unguarded Conveyors </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical or Mechanical Interlocking </li></ul><ul><li>Overload or Plugged Chute Protection </li></ul>
  58. 59. Maintenance <ul><li>Maintenance & Service shall be performed by Qualified and Trained Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment Must be Maintained in a Condition That is not Hazardous to Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance and Service should be Performed With the Conveyor Locked Out and Tagged Out (OSHA 1910.147) </li></ul><ul><li>Only Trained and Qualified Personnel Who are Aware of Hazards of a Conveyor in Motion Shall be Allowed to Lubricate a Conveyor or Train a Belt While Equipment is in Operation. </li></ul>
  59. 60. Manuals <ul><li>Manufacturer or Owner Shall Provide a Comprehensive Manual for the Care of All Equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>The Owner Shall Prepare a JSA (Job Safety Analyses) for all Maintenance and Repair Procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Manuals Shall Include a Lockout / Tagout Procedure in Accordance with OSHA 1910.147 </li></ul><ul><li>Manuals Shall Include an Instruction to Replace All Guards Before Restarting Equipment </li></ul>
  60. 61. Conclusion <ul><li>It should be recognized that the application of the referenced standards listed herein may have divided responsibilities among the Owner, Management or Engineering Consultants, System Integrator, Manufacturer, Installer, Operator and User of the Conveyor or Conveyor System. </li></ul><ul><li>Some safety features are incorporated in the design of a conveyor, some will depend on the installation, some will depend on operation and some will be on the operator. Many safety features are a part of a building or structure and not an actual part of the conveyor or system itself. Yet other safety features are depending on rules and regulations set up by the operating company and/or local codes. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, safety measures are the responsibility of all the parties involved in the contract. The portions of the standards relating to maintenance and operation are fully as important as those relating to design and installation. </li></ul>
  61. 62. <ul><li>Remember – </li></ul><ul><li>The Best of Design Features May be Negated by Faulty Maintenance and Operating Practices </li></ul>
  62. 63. Small Potato Conveyor Switch to Reverse Conveyor Transfer Transfer
  63. 64. Think A Small Conveyor Cannot Cause Serious Injury ?
  64. 65. Think Again
  65. 66. And Large Conveyors can KILL
  66. 67. THE END