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Corporate Identity


I've used this presentation across a range of audiences, and it works pretty well all the time. I've tried to cover here the entire CI process, particularly with its linkages to business strategy.

I've used this presentation across a range of audiences, and it works pretty well all the time. I've tried to cover here the entire CI process, particularly with its linkages to business strategy.

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  • I am teaching Corp Image Management, and find this very useful. Can you please email me the piece and present it 'as it is' complete with your identity and all ? Thank you
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  • 1. Corporate Identity and Reputation Live the Image.
  • 2.
    • What do Wipro, Tata Group, Modi Group, Videocon, Britannia Industries, Aditya Birla Group, Dr. Reddy’s and ICICI have in common with Accenture, Citigroup, Computer Associates, Novartis, GlaxoSimthKline, “Monday” and Pepsico?
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 3. Format
    • This presentation is intended as an interactive session.
    • It will frequently posit a number of ‘truisms’ that are not necessarily true.
    • You are expected to be alert to these, engage with them, and challenge them whenever & however you like.
    • The format of engagement is:
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002 Agree Disagree Discuss
  • 4. Image
    • After years of denial, virtually every organisation today is keenly aware of the tremendous impact of image on its immediate and long-term success.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 5.
    • However, most companies regard image as frontage & not having any connection with the rest of the organisation.
    • This may give them short-term gains, but these are rarely sustainable in & of themselves.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 6.
    • Today, we know that neglecting the backend can severely jeopardize the front end, and even sets up the chance of backlash.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 7.
    • Hence, Image is not like make-up: it needs to be ‘true’ through and through.
    • To achieve a desired image (and accrue its benefits), organisations must “live” it.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 8. Positioning
    • For years, companies were happy to fashion themselves after someone else, usually a leading company in their own field.
    • They were happy to follow. Which is fine, because there were many customers for follower goods, few companies altogether, and no pressure to grow.
    • Not any more.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 9.
    • Rising competition and picky customers are forcing them to differentiate themselves from competition in meaningful ways.
    • We now know that finding and building on one’s own & unique strengths is a faster and easier route to sustainable competitiveness: “Find yourself. Then be yourself.”
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 10. Analyzing Image
    • Image exists in the minds of an organisation’s stakeholders.
    • It is best understood by the “Five Blind Men and the Elephant” story, where random parts define the whole for each ‘audience’.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 11.
    • Image is formed from some or many out of the following:
      • Intended communication (“claims, propaganda”)
      • Unintended communication (“revealed between the lines”)
      • Word-of-mouth reputation (“buzz, media reports”)
      • Transaction and post-transaction experience (“expectation versus delivery”)
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 12.
    • The sources of image are many and diverse—not all can be tracked down.
    • Many of these occur outside our sphere of control.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 13.
    • The only way to ensure a degree of consistency and predictability is to minimize contradictions between claims, performance and people’s perceptions or experiences.
    • And yet, retain a value that is unique, special and meaningful to the customer.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 14.
    • The starting point of this could well be to downsize intents &/or claims so as to match on-the-ground capabilities & performance.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 15. © Arvind Lodaya, 2002 Find & build your own strengths, but don’t make claims you can’t deliver on. Let customers perceive your strengths in a memorable & meaningful manner. Perform / Deliver better than what your customers expect from you.
  • 16. Corporate Identity
    • Corporate Identity is an enterprise-wide control process to define, attain & maintain a desired positioning & image in the minds of its internal & external stakeholders.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 17.
    • Historically, Corporate Identity originates from flags, ensigns, emblems, uniforms and heraldry – visual systems (Olins: “traditions”) that signified a specific group of people, their values, beliefs and purpose.
    • It identified “us” and, by implication, “them.”
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 18.
    • Today, it still performs essentially the same function.
    • However, it has moved beyond the purely visual in its scope & influence.
    • It is slowly expanding into every area & aspect of an organisation, auditing and aligning it with the stated purpose and positioning.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 19.
    • In its early days, CI was an extension of advertising – and addressed customers, shareholders & the media – i.e. external stakeholders.
    • Today, CI is a strategic consulting discipline and addresses internal stakeholders as equally critical audiences for & players in the production of positioning & image.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 20.
    • Its contemporary end objective remains exactly the same as in medieval times: winning, retaining & propagating.
    • That is, “achieving the organisation’s fundamental objectives” and “persuading the world about its value.”
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 21. Identity in business
    • Globalization: conveying value across cultures
    • Market shifts: keeping up to speed with the consumer (if not actually ahead of her)
    • Technological transformations: challenges of new media & new work paradigms
    • Competition/Differentiation/Positioning shifts: retaining relevance and distinction
    • Organisational Restructuring & change: reflecting new values, unifying & motivating teams
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 22.
    • Consolidation & Diversification: strengthening equity, providing flexibility for growth
    • Mergers & Acquisitions, Divestments: avoiding depletion of perceived value
    • Joint ventures & Strategic alliances: creating synergy between two strong entities
    • Privatization & Deregulation: redefining role & purpose in changed rules
    • Increasing costs of communication: getting more from less
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 23. Some top CI players*…
    • Worldwide:
      • Landor
      • Wolff Olins
      • Lippincott & Marguelies
      • Enterprise IG (WPP group)
      • Interbrand
    • Indian:
      • NID
      • R+K
      • Preeti Vyas Gianetti
      • Shining Strategic Design
    • … not a definitive list!
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 24. CI in India
    • In the last decade, a number of Indian organisations have undergone a change in their corporate identities.
    • This coincided with:
      • globalisation of the Indian economy; and
      • arrival of foreign advertising agencies via tie-ups with their Indian counterparts.
    • The impact of these remains unclear.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 25. The case of Air-India
    • In the ’80s, the top management of Air-India decided to go in for a more international and modern identity.
    • They appointed Landor for the task.
    • Landor recommended dropping the Maharaja and adopting a ‘Sun’ emblem.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 26. © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 27.
    • However, this was widely resented by both employees and passengers, and eventually revoked totally.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 28. The case of BA
    • British Airways was facing a barrier to growth because it was perceived as being too ‘British’
    • It adopted a new global & multicultural CI hoping to redress this perception
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 29. © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 30.
    • This however led to severe alienation of its core customers – British businesses
    • They have since settled for a dual mix
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 31. Branding India initiative
    • Early in 2002, the Ministry of Tourism announced a competition to brand India using a logo and a descriptor of not more than 4 words
    • They cited ‘Malaysia: Truly Asia’ and ‘Amazing Thailand’ as examples of what they hoped to achieve
    • The ‘Incredible India’ campaign was launched around 2004
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 32. © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 33. Identity & culture: du Guy, Hall et al. © Arvind Lodaya, 2002 identity/difference: identification production representation regulation consumption
  • 34. The Identity Process
    • Visionary/Leadership brief
    • Market/Competition audit
    • Communications audit
    • Stakeholder perceptions audit
    • Define corporate purpose, values & positioning
    • Design visual structure, elements & system
    • Enterprise-wide CI application, systems alignment & ownership-building
    • Internal & external launch
    • Feedback, fine-tuning and SOP/manual
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 35. © Arvind Lodaya, 2002 Audit & benchmark actual performance & value delivered; identify unique competitive attributes & strengths Compile positioning, intents, strategy Is posi- tioning within scope of delivery? Audit perceptions Does posi- tioning exploit unique strengths? Does positioning reflect strategy? Do percep- tions reflect posi- tioning? Do percep- tions reflect actual quality? Do perceptions reflect value-add? Audit communications for efficacy in conveying claims & intents to intended audiences Redefine positioning to reflect performance, unique strengths and intents in the competitive context Audit organisation for its capability and preparedness to deliver against positioning Restructure organisation & communications for maximum efficacy in delivery & conveyance of positioning in competitive context END
  • 36. Identity tools: EFH’s ORD © Arvind Lodaya, 2002 External Layer: Visible to everyone “ SYMBOLS” 1 st -Level Inner Layer: Visible to everyone who interacts with it “ RITUALS” 2 nd -Level Inner Layer: Visible only to people who deal closely with it “ ROLE MODELS” “ CORE VALUES”
  • 37.
    • In 1997, Hofstede published a controversial but important cross-cultural comparative study. He later added a fifth dimension to the above four: ‘Long- versus Short-Term Orientation’
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 38. Identity categories
    • Product
    • Concept/Technology
    • Ambience/Experience
    • Communication Media
    • Personalities
    • Behaviour
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 39. Identity structures
    • Monolithic (fully centralized)
      • “ ABC” universally
    • Endorsed
      • “ ABC” holding company
      • “ ABC” + “KLM,” “NOP,” etc. division/SBU titles
      • “ ABC” + “DEF,” “GHI,” etc. product/brand lines
    • Branded/Autonomous (fully decentralized)
      • “ ABC” holding company
      • “ EFG,” “HIJ,” etc. division/SBU titles
      • “ PQR,” “STU,” etc. product/brand lines
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 40. Identity core constituents
    • Organisational self-definitives:
      • Shared (global) vision, mission, objectives & values
      • Strategy & Positioning (internal & external stakeholders)
    • Name
    • Descriptor
    • Style, tone, demeanor, structure – manifested via the “gestalt” (configuration/arrangement & inter-relationships) of Logo/Symbol, Colours, Fonts, Graphic elements
    • Structure
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 41. Perceptions audit
    • Size/ Market Share
    • Performance/ Quality/ Reliability
    • Knowledge of own domain
    • Technology Leadership/ Pioneership
    • Innovativeness/ Creativity
    • Flexibility
    • Punctuality/ Speed
    • Commitment to Customer Success
    • Prestigious/ Exclusive
    • Knowledge (of customer’s business)
    • Global Capability
    • Bargain/ Best Price
    • Value (price:performance)
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
    • The perceptions audit uses benchmarks drawn from the intents & objectives, and category & generic positioning attributes, such as these:
  • 42. Communications Audit © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
    • Linear & lateral audit:
    • Visual Consistency
    • Narrative Consistency
    • Credibility
    Product A,B,C… Division A,B,C… Corporate Literature Promotions Advertising Direct Mail Retail/PoS Stationery Signage Vehicles …
  • 43. 5S+2 model: McKinsey © Arvind Lodaya, 2002 Shared Vision, Mission, Values Structure Skills Staff Strategy Systems Style
  • 44. Positioning guidelines
    • Representative of the organization’s strengths
    • Relevant to its consumers &/or essential function &/or value delivery
    • Conveyable & conveyed to all relevant audiences
    • Sustainable against competitive threats over time
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 45. Typical identity objectives
    • Improving external image
    • Improving internal communications
    • Raising corporate visibility
    • Strengthening share value
    • Communicating change/ new strategies
    • Providing flexibility for growth
    • Integrating two companies
    • Creating goodwill (during troubled times)
    • Resolving brand structures
    • Defining overall positioning
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 46. Ensuring effectiveness
    • Strategy is effective only if the organisation itself is managed effectively to support it.
    • This implies that all elements of the organisation must support and enhance the competitive advantage that the strategy seeks to achieve.
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 47. 10 effectiveness tips (Ind)
    • Take a long-term perspective
    • Set clear, preferably quantified objectives
    • Ensure CEO & senior management are committed to the programme
    • Ensure that the identity strategy complements the corporate strategy
    • Don’t change for the sake of change – leave well enough alone
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 48.
    • Involve employees
    • Pay attention to implementation & details
    • Put appropriate people & systems in place to ensure sustainability
    • Propose complementary recommendations for change
    • Set up evaluation norms
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 49. Cynicism
    • Brands have become the pre-dominant sponsors of all communication we see today, leading to fatigue
    • Consumers are becoming skeptical about brands, and about big business in general
    • This presents a challenge to big business, and an opportunity to small business
    • What will the future of brands be like?
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 50.
    • On the other hand, ‘identity’ has become an ever more complex phenomenon, and turned into a fundamental crisis for many individuals
    • The internet has dramatically reconfigured our ideas about community
    • My recommendation for the future of brands is: let brands become the hubs of future communities—in the real sense of the term
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 51. Brand Communities
    • “ a specialized, non-geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relations among admirers of a brand.” (Muniz & O’Guinn, 2001)
    © Arvind Lodaya, 2002
  • 52. Thank you. Arvind Lodaya