Recircle - A Catalyst for Change


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A presentation summarising research conducted at TU Delft by Josh Astill in 2004-5. Looking at the EU uptake and use of sustainable design and what NZ can learn.

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Recircle - A Catalyst for Change

  1. 1. a catalyst for change Project: Delft Research Programme Project # 0119 MFE Presentation: 08/02/06
  2. 2. Agenda/Contents 1. Introduction to the Recircle project 4. The New Zealand context 2. Defining Sustainable product design 5. Sector orientated tool boxes 3. An over view of the European 6. Mechanisms for change context - Environmental agencies and 7. Discussion points policy affecting product design - Sustainable design in industry - Academia - Networks - Tools and methods - Case studies
  3. 3. Recircle Project Structure Government/Policy SPD contextual components in the EU Professional design Industry Industry Toolbox Mechanisms Academia NZ Pro designer for Toolbox EU Change Networks Academia Toolbox Tools & Methods NZ context relevant to the implementaion of SPD Case studies
  4. 4. Definition of SPD Sustain abl e D ev “The (re)design of products, eo l processes, services or systems to pm tackle imbalances or trade offs n between the demands of society, the Sustainable Design Productio ent environment and the economy and Eco-Design Consumptio requires the holistic Product Design consideration of the impact or economic, functional, aesthetic, safety products or services in these three areas, now and in the future” n
  5. 5. Changing Stereotypes From the hand made recycled To state of the art products where stereotype “green aesthetic” sustainability is addressed along the entire life cycle.
  6. 6. Life Cycle Thinking Extraction of x Disposal & Incineration Raw Materials ry ve co Re Recycling Recycling & Reuse Material/Components Design & Production Reuse Packaging & Use & Maintenance Distribution
  7. 7. 6/R Philosohpy • Re-think the product and its • Re-cycle. Select materials that functions. For example, the prod- can be recycled, and build the uct may be used more efficiently, product such that it is disassem- thereby reducing energy use and bled easier for recycling. other natural resources. • Re-use. Design the product so • Re-duce energy and material parts can be reused. consumption throughout a prod- uct’s life cycle. • Re-pair. Make the product easy to repair so that the product does • Re-place harmful substances not yet need to be replaced. with more environmentally friendly alternatives.
  8. 8. 4 Types of EcoDesign 20 Type 4 1. Product improvement Improvement fa ctor 2. Product redesign Eco - efficeintc y 3. Function innovation Type 3 10 4. System innovation Type 2 Type 1 5 5 10 20 50 Time (years)
  9. 9. SPD Criteria People (social/ethical) - Complies with corporate image - Conditions of work in the company and along the supply chain are acceptable Planet (environment) - Environmental impacts are reduced - Complies with environmental related legal requirements Profit (economic) - Promises success on the market - Technically feasable for the company - Satifies customer/user needs
  10. 10. European Context
  11. 11. Regional Differences Region Awareness Infrastructure Approaches Scandinavia High Very good (academia focused) LCA focused, alot of funded projects Ecodesign clusters: DK, SE undertaken U.K. High Very good (consultancy focused) Based on policy and legislation as Ecodesign clusters: England, Wales entry point (Rohs, Weee) Netherlands & High Very good (research focused) LCA focused, governmental support Belgium Ecodesign cluster: Flanders for projects Germany & High Very good Technology focussed, tool Austria (No dedicated clusters) development, backed by educational measures Ireland High Good Spain High Good, ecodesign sub clusters Catalonia, Basque country Portugal Moderate Good
  12. 12. EU Environmental Organisations EU commission - Environmental Director General - Funding programs (Leonardo, Life, Dantes etc) 5th 6th 7th framework. Associated agencies - UNEP - EEA, - EEB Key country government agencies - Netherlands (VROM) - Denmark (DEPA) - UK (DEFRA) - Sweden (MFE)
  13. 13. EU Policy & Legislation EOLV - End of life vehicles IPP - Intergrated product policy EUP - Ecodesign of energy using products Directive RoHS - Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances Directive WEEE - Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive Labelling - Eco, Energy
  14. 14. EU Policy & Legislation EU Policy & Legislation (EcoDesign ARC 2006) Focus: Product Focus: Enterprise Integrated Produc t Polic y Aspec t Spec ific Regulations Ec oDesign EcoDesign: EUP Framework Directive (Draft) Regulations Energy Labeling Energy Effic ienc y Aspec t Spec ific Eviro. Management Energy Labeling Several New Directives Ewaste: WEEE Directive Environmental Directive Planned Material Bans: RoHS Management EMAS Energy Efficiency (Automotive's: ELV) Directives EOLV - End of life vehicles WEEE - Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive IPP - Intergrated product policy Labelling - Eco, Energy UP - Ecodesign of energy using products Directive RoHS - Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances Directive
  15. 15. Designers & the Eco Design Process “Sustainable design is not a specialist area of design, but rather an attribute of good design” Most environmental impacts are environmental impact Cumulative lock-in of ‘locked-in” at the design stage. Early intergration of ecodesign into Cumulative 'lock-in' of the product development process environmental impact arising from decisions made along the product development cycle Strategic product Cleaner Consumer Waste management Ecodesign & re cycling & market research production education Concept design - Detail design - Manufacture - Use - Disposal or recovery Product development cycle
  16. 16. Internal & External Design External Consultants In-house Capacity - LCA consultants - The Design team work at - Environmantal consultants the front end - Policy consultants - Eco design is - Research consultants predominantly done by the - Ecodesign consultants engineering team - Sustainable product design - Consultants are used when consultants (Bottom up approach) necessary
  17. 17. Industrial Design & Eco Design • Eco design is a relativey new subject for industrial design • Designers involvement in sustainable design tends to be more conceptual and strategic. • Eco design has come from an engineering/Scientific background • There is a language gap between tools and designers • The key is to focus on strategies rather than technicalities.
  18. 18. Benefits of Eco-Design Short term Long term • Reduces environmental impact of • Increased innovation products/processes. • Greater ability to compete, • Optimizes raw material add value, attract customers consumption and energy use. • Become more cost-effective • Improves waste management / • Reduce environmental im- pollution prevention systems. pacts and liability • Encourages good design and • Gain a systems perspective drives innovation. • Improved supply chain rela- • Cuts costs. tionships • Increases product marketability
  19. 19. Eco-Design in SME’s Drivers • Legislation compliance (surviving RoHS) • Perceived economic benefits Barriers • Lack of incentives form all stake holders • Perceived extra costs in time and money Lack of available information Whats happening? 1. Pilot projects rarely lead to ecodesign implemantaion 2. Ecodesign is not a management issue 3. The focus is on product redesign rather than new product concepts.
  20. 20. EU & Country Specific Initiatives • Eco design arc Awareness raising campaign for SME’s in the electronics in- dustry • Ecosmes Web based guide for SME’s with relevant information and simplified ecodesign tools • Web based information with case stud- ies. • Eco smart design Ireland Program run in Northern Ireland to aid SME’s with ecodesign implementation
  21. 21. Multi-National/Large Enterprise • Environmental policy and directives have had a huge impact. • Lead by the automotive and electronics industry • The Dow Jones sustainability index has put sustainability out there. • B2B and B2C relationships • Tailor made solutions for individual company needs
  22. 22. Life-Cycle-Based Environmental Policy & Product Strategy Life Cycle Management me e on or Th en nt D is E n ig n F trib v ir uti s De on Life-Cycle Management t en m u re M a re ro c rk e e n G P tin en g e Gr Cleaner Production
  23. 23. The reality of ecodesign application in the EU • Environmental policy has had a huge • Incentives for ecodesign impact implementation in industry are still relatively low • No universal language of SPD • Most focus is on incrementally • General focus on end of life issues improving existing products. • Getting past the pilot project • Sectors are at different stages of development and maturity • Alignment of ecodesign with business operations is still poor • Teaching and training does not automatically result in implementatio • Few examples of real sustainable design
  24. 24. Teaching vs. Implementation Enterp rise Training ecodesign to a select few does not guarantee further dissemination of information throughout an organization.
  25. 25. • Established on 8th January 1842 • Largest university of engineering sciences in the Netherlands • Approximately 13,000 students and 2,100 scientists (including 200 professors) • Each year an average of 185 PhD dis sertations • And over 4,000 publications in scien tific journals.
  26. 26. D4S Programme Aerospace Engineering Product Innovation Institute for Design Industrial Design Design Engineering Management Education Applied Earth Sciences Reliability & Durability Computer Aided Design Design for Sustainability Product Engineering People - Various backgrounds Applied Mathematics (R&D) Engineering (CADE) (DfS) (PE) and tasks with the department Applied Physics People Architecture Beella, Satish Kumar M.Des Kan, Sioe-Yao M.Sc Courses - Sustainability in all the (Bio) Chemical Berchicci, Luca M.Sc Boks, Casper PhD.M.Sc Brezet, Han Prof.PhD.M.Sc Pascual Moya-Angeler, Oriol M.Sc. Remmerswaal, Han PhD.M.Sc Roos, Linda Engineering Crul, Marcel PhD.M.Sc Silvester, Sacha PhD.M.Sc departments Civil Diehl, Jan Carel M.Sc Hellman, Hanna M.Sc Huisman, Jaco PhD.M.Sc Stevels, Ab Prof.PhD.M.Sc Wever, Renee M.Sc Engineering Courses Computer Research - Holistic approach at Science ID 2431 Milieukunde (Dutch) Bachelor program. ID 4140 Internationalization Master program. ID 5151 Technical Environmental Analysis Elective, Master program ID 5351 Applied Environmental Design Elective, Master program all levels Electrical Engineering ID 3051 Design 5 (Dutch) ID 4125 Life Cycle Engineering and Design ID 5561 Product Service Systems Bachelor program. Master program. Elective, Master program. Industrial Design Engineering Research Networks - Involved with most Life Science & Technology Sustainability & Design Business aspects major SPD projects worldwide Marine Technology Tools for sustainable design Innovation and Entrepreneurship Mechanical Engineering Networks Sustainable Molecular Satellites Universities Municipalities Science & Technology Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis & SME’s & Multinationals International Government & EU comission Management
  27. 27. D4S Development 1990 -2006 • Product redesign • Manual approach • Pilot projects • Business intergration phase • Ecodesign in non industrial contexts • Social / system innovation
  28. 28. Sustainability in the Curriculum • Integration of Sustainability into the Curriculum • Integration is not a spontaneous process • A top down approach to training lecturers is not productive
  29. 29. Sustainability in The Curriculum Sustainability as Design as Context Context Sustainability Design 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year Design for sustainability course development
  30. 30. Key Universities & Research Centres in the EU Universities Research institutes - Chalmers Sweden - TNO - TU Denmark - Vito - TU Vienna - SETAC - Surrey University - Wuppertal institute - Milan Polytechnic - Fraunhofer - TU Berlin - INETI
  31. 31. After 15 years or Research where are the Eco products? Alignment between industry needs and academic research need to be substantially improved Research is predominantly funding driven not industry driven An excessive focus on complex tool and methods development Little follow up after the pilot projects Lack of research into ecodesign solutions for further integration in the company structure
  32. 32. SPD Networks Specific SPD Networks - O2 Sector orientated Networks - Academic/research – IEPP Multi stakeholder Networks - Ecolife
  33. 33. 1970 Approaches End of pipe Cleaner production Cradle to grave Cradle to cradle Sustainable product design Product service systems 2006
  34. 34. Strategies 1. New concept development 2. Selection of low impact materials 3. Reduction of materials 4. Optimization of production techniques 5. Efficient distribution system 6. Reduction of users impact 7. Optimize initial lifetime 8. Optimize end of life system
  35. 35. Relation between Ecodesign Strategies & Product Life Cycle (Brezet & Hemel 1997) Strategy & Life Cycle Strategies Stage In Product Life Cycle Affected Aspects Relationships Strategy at new concept development New Produc t Strategy 1. Produc tion Selection of low impact materials & Supply Of Raw materials Materials & Proc ess energy Components Strategy 2. Reduction of materials usage In-House Produc tion Auxiliary materials Proc ess energy Strategy 3. Optimization of production techniques Distribution Strategy 4. To Pac kaging Optimization of distribution Customers Energy for t ransport system Strategy 5. Reduction of impact during use Utilization Materials for utilization Energy during use Strategy 6. Optimization of initial lifetime Rec over & Strategy 7. Disposal Auxiliary substanc es Optimization of end of life Proc ess energy systems
  36. 36. 8 1 2 Tools 7 3 Tool categories (Analysing, prioritizing, prescribing, coordinating) 6 4 5 - Reduced environmental impact Hands on tools - Area of environmental concern Ecodesign checklists, MET matrix, Lids wheel 1 2 8 Internet based tools Ecodesign pilot 7 3 Software tools 6 4 5 Idemat - Existing product LCA – Abridged (Eco indicator 99) - New product (redesign) - Full (Gabi, simapro, Umberto)
  37. 37. New Tool Development LCA tool development (I report at Unilever) Simplified tools for SME’s (Everdee and Tespi) CAD based LCA tools (Ecologicad And ecodesign work- bench) Communication tools for ecodesign through out the company
  38. 38. Problems with Eco Design Tools Full LCA is expensive and time The language of current consuming ecodesign tools is still very technical. Tools are too complex especially for SME’s Customization of tools for company needs Developed by academia with insufficient industry commitment The eco-design tools need to be adapted to the established Tool selection versus tool design Workflows, not the development design workflows to the tools
  39. 39. Guides & Manuals Manuals UNEP promise, Canadian ,Spanish, PIT method Guides ECO redesign, Eco innovation, Eco-life guide, A Designer’s Guide to Eco-Con- scious design Online information Demi, Inspiration/innovation, Ecosmes
  40. 40. Where are we now and where are we going? Where we are now? Where we are going? Most product related environmental There will be a growing interest in low improvements are incremental carbon technologies The focus is on Ecodesign compliance A focus on design for energy reduction in use. Design engineers tend to being doing Development of simple but not simplistic the ecodesign tools An EMS allows ecodesign to work as an Greater awareness raising systems integral part of the companies function. Environmental policy and legislation going beyond the electronics industry.
  41. 41. Case Study 1 Eco chair by Voxia • Use of sustainable material • Form and functional elements are pro- duced in on continuous process • Reduction in energy use during man- ufacture • Material waste is a minimal • Stack-ability enables efficient trans port and storage
  42. 42. Case Study 2 1-2-paint by Flex design • Innovative design • Reduction of materials (no need for a paint tray) • Easy to recycle (one material • Saves paint (no left over) • Saves water (4-5 litres per bucket) • Customer satisfaction (selling 70% more than traditional buckets)
  43. 43. Case Study 3 Papcorn Dinnerware by Anne Bannick & Lene Vad Jensen • Renewable material • Biodegradable • Multi use or single use
  44. 44. EU Summary • Environmental agencies and policy affecting product design • Sustainable design in industry • Academia • Networks • Tools and methods
  45. 45. New Zealand Context
  46. 46. Areas to be Investigated • Key environmental impacts of products in NZ (i.e. Transport & and end of life) • Update of Smythe report • Gaps to be filled by experiences in Europe • Environmental policy development in NZ • Awareness of industry in regards to ecodesign.
  47. 47. Sector Oriented Toolboxes Academia Industry • Teaching the teachers • Environmental management • Sustainability in the curriculum systems development • Strategies • Simple tools • Supply chain management • Hands on training • CSR • Recommended reading list • Green marketing • Policy & legislation Design professionals • Specific tools • Manuals • Strategies • Simplified LCA • Policy & legislation
  48. 48. Mechanisms for Change • Conference • Lectures • Workshops • Website/guide • Network • Research • Ecodesign tools specifically for NZ • Policy development • Tax incentives for sustainable product development • Academic and industry combined projects • Pilot projects in NZ companies • Project between Delft TU and NZ counterpart.