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  • 1. Shaping Sheet (Due Monday)What is PTSD?Paragraph 1: Shell ShockTS: Shell Shock was a term used back when the symptoms of PTSD were first started to showduring and after the war.CD1: “ The term Shell Shock gave the impression that person had been close to an explosion,but military physicians realized at proximity had nothing to do with it.” (Thomas, 10) CM1: The thought of a soldier being frightened from the blasts and loud noises was thought to have caused this strange sickness CM2: The military started to realize this wasnt true when the noticed soldiers nowhere near the explosions were experiencing the same symptoms. CD2: Charles Myers, a psychologist serving at the front, wrote that Shell Shock occurred“where the tolerable or controllable limits of horror, fear, anxiety etc. are overstepped.” (Thomas,11) CM1: This just explains the major agony that the soldiers go through and whatthey have witnessed. CM2:( Need more info) CD3: “The battles were so intense that it was not uncommon to find soldiers on thebattlefield suffering from amnesia, unable to recall their name or the name of theirhometown.”(Thomas, 11 & 12) CM1: Soldiers brains refused to face what horror was before them so they wouldjust strike up random amnesia. CM2: This was the brain’s way of dealing with what was going on at the moment.WS: Even long after the war was over, doctors were still dealing with veterans that weresuffering from Shell Shock or what is now known today as PTSD.Paragraph 2: How did the military/doctors treat it?TS: The military and physicians dealt with Shell Shock a lot differently than they do currently. CD1: “There was no room for unfit soldiers at the front. They were evacuated,hospitalized and often treated with electric shock therapy.”(Thomas, 12)
  • 2. CM1: The soldiers were needed back on the front line so they would evacuatethe mentally sick soldiers and gave the electric shock therapy until their symptoms went awayand they would send them right back in the war. CM2: (More Info needed) CD2: “ Men who wandered away from the front on their own were branded deserters andset before a firing squad.”(Thomas, 12) CM1: These men were thought as cowards and to be shamed for deserting theircountry. CM2: Soldiers were killed in front of others as an example if they tried to leavebefore their time was served or were not on leave. CD3: “ It was an embarrassment to a military that needed strong fearless soldiers, andwas viewed as a sign of weakness.”(Thomas, 12) CM1: (More Info) CM2:( More Info)WS: This disorder was soon forgotten until is seen in later wars to come.Paragraph 3: How PTSD is defined now?TS: Today Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is defined as an anxiety disorder that can occur afterexperiencing or witnessing a traumatic or life threatening event that causes intense feelings orfear of helplessness. CD1: “The disorder primarily arises from life threatening incidents such as war, terrorism,rape,abuse, a severe accident, or natural disasters like hurricanes and tornados.”(Thomas, 17) CM1: (More Info) CM2: (More Info) CD2: “About 6 to 8 percent of the population will experience PTSD. That means that 5 to6 million adult americans suffer from the disorder. Researchers estimate that number will riseover the next decade baue of increased exposure to the growing turmoil in the world.”(Thomas,17) CM1: More Info CM2: More Info CD3: “ PTSD is a complex disorder with several components. To be diagnosed, a patientmust exhibit three types of symptoms: re-experiencing symptoms, avoidance behaviors, andsymptoms of hyper vigilance.”(Thomas, 17)
  • 3. CM1: (Need Info) CM2:(Need Info)WS: Most patients have most of all of the symptoms.Taken:Video: http://streaming.factsonfile.com/PortalViewVideo.aspx?xtid=39414&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=PTSD: Post-Traumatic StressDisorder&IsSearch=Y&parentSeriesID=&loid=58325Picture: In Folder and soldier holding his head.What are the symptoms of PTSD?Paragraph 1: Re-experiencing symptomsTS: Soldiers have many different symptoms of PTSD and sometimes they are re experiencingones that remind them of the horrors of war that they’ve experienced. CD1: “In severe cases patients have flash backs that feel so real the person sees,smells, and hears the same sensations they experienced at the time of the trauma.” (Thomas,18) CM1:The re-experiencing symptoms can happen as nightmares or upsettingmemories of the incident. CM2: These images can bring on an overwhelming amount of emotions, makingthe veteran feel the same fear and helplessness they felt during that event. CD2: “During such flashbacks, the person is no longer aware of the real world, butmentally stuck in the moment of the tragic scene.” (Thomas, 18) CM1: This makes the soldier or veteran feel like he is reliving the event in suchan intense way. CM2: (Need another one here) CD3: “Some outside stimulus, like a sight, smell or sound that reminds the person of thepast traumatic event, often triggers reminds the person of the past traumatic event, oftentriggers these flashbacks and bad memories.” (Thomas, 18) CM1: Vietnam vets associate the smell of diesel fuel with flashbacks of combatand transport helicopters. CM2:( Need more info)
  • 4. WS: Re-experiencing symptoms are not something that these vets can control, it is triggeredand they are brought exactly into those traumatizing situations that they were once in on thebattlefield.Paragraph 2: Avoidance BehaviorsTS: Another symptom of PTSD is avoidance behavior, trying to ignore and avoid certainsituations or people. CD1: “ Avoidance behaviors appear as the person consciously or unconsciously tried toavoid experiencing any situation that reminds them of the traumatic event.” (Thomas, 18) CM1: Veterans would avoid anything that reminds them of the war. CM2: This includes loud noises, maybe giant cars or sights and smells. Thiscould bring on the re- experiencing symptoms talked about above. CD2: “ PTSD sufferers may also avoid meeting individuals who remind them of thetraumatic event.” (Thomas, 18) CM1: Veterans may not wish to see their comrade buddies after suffering somuch from the war as to it may bring back bad memories. CM2: ( More info needed) CD3: “ Avoiding emotions is another behavior common with PTSD patients.”(Thomas,19) CM1: They may have a feeling of numbness to what is happening in the outsideworld. CM2: Amnesia is an extreme form of avoidance, the mind might just block out thetraumatic event all together.WS: Patients usually show a sign of a combination of three or more types of avoidancebehaviors.Paragraph 3: Hypervigilance SymptomsTS: The last main problem that has been showed by people with PTSD is hypervigilanceSymptoms which include feeling constantly on edge and alert.
  • 5. CD1: “ In a war situation hypervigilance assures a soldiers survival. If he lets his guarddown, the enemy might kill him.” (Thomas, 20 & 21) CM1: (Need Info) CM2: (Need Info) CD2: “At home this feeling of constant alertness may manifest itself in insomnia,irritability, anger, trouble concentrating and a sharp startle reflex.” (Thomas, 21) CM1: These actions and feelings can easily interrupt a veterans everyday lifeand ruin his home life. CM2: Usually these symptoms after anyone goes through somethingtraumatizing but usually return to normal within a short time people with PTSD experience thesesymptoms or a much longer period of time. CD3: (Need Info) CM1: (Need Info) CM2: (Need Info)WS: Scientists are just beginning to understand how the brain works, but they already haveevidence of physical adverse effects of trauma.Taken:Video: http://streaming.factsonfile.com/PortalViewVideo.aspx?xtid=39414&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=PTSD: Post-Traumatic StressDisorder&IsSearch=Y&parentSeriesID=&loid=58327Poem:How Can We Trest PTSD?Paragraph 1: Guided ImageryTS: One of the treatment methods used to help victims of PTSD is guided imagery. CD1: “If the verbal side of the brain is hindered, she suggests that it is more effective touse the visual side as a basis for treatment.” (Thomas, 54)
  • 6. CM1: For some people, talking about the traumatic event can be difficult and theymay not be able to express their feelings on the matter. CM2: Traum often produces changes in the brain that weakens a persons abilityto think and talk about the event because the trauma was experienced in different ways bydifferent senses. CD2: “ Imagery-based solutions use the right hemisphere of the brain- perception,sensation, emotion and movement- rather than the left side’ standard cognitive functions ofthinking, analyzing,verbalizing an synthesizing.” (Thomas, 54) CM1: Guided imagery helps the patient through imagination find relief. CM2: It also has been called purposeful or directed daydreaming. CD3: “ For PTSD patients, it can relieve fears and increase coping skills.” (Thomas,54) CM1: Studies have shown that guided imagery dehae an effect on the physicalbody. CM2: It can lower blood pressure, decrease the number of hospital visits, andreduce pain for those who use it as a coping method.WS: ( More Info)Paragraph 2: Exposure TherapyTS: Exposure therapy helps the victim re-experience their traumatic event. CD1: “ Exposure therapy literally exposes a survivor to aspects of the trauma so theycan re-experience the feelings and fears that have overwhelmed them. (Thomas, 56) CM1: This so that the patients can face their fears and gain control of theiremotions so that the trauma is less stressful. CM2: (More Info) CD2: “ Patients are carefully and repeatedly exposed to the event in one of severalways.”(Thomas, 56) CM1: They can usually either tell their story orally or they might be showndetailed pictures. CM2: The exposure starts at least stressful to more traumatic. CD3: “ Virtual reality simulators are designed with the same technology as the latestcomputer games.” (Thomas, 58) CM1: (More Info)
  • 7. CM2:( More Info)WS: Patients treated with the simulator improved 20% more than with regular talk therapyalone.Paragraph 3: Treating PTSD with MedicationTS: For my people therapy may be all they need but if many other patients it’s not enough andmay need a little more help. CD1: “Currently he food and drug administration has only approved two medications forthe treatment of PTSD; Sertraline (Zoloft) and Paroxetine (Paxil).” (Thomas, 60) CM1: These medications are both anti-depressants,they work by blocking the siton neurons that remove serotonin from synapses. This allows the body to have a calming effect. CM2: This medication also relieves PTSD symptoms such as : hypervigilanceand intrusive thoughts, as well as countering depression and panic attacks. CD2: “ In several studies these medications have been shown to actually reversedamage to the brain due to stress,by increasing the branching of neurons in the hippocampus.”( Thomas 60) CM1: Although the effects to the medications are sleepiness, nausea,anxiety,and restlessness in sm patients. CM2: (More Info) CD3: “Physicians are continuously searching for alternative medications to help theirpatients and, though they are not approved to treat approved for PTSD, many other drugs areused to treat similar conditions or specific symptoms.” (Thomas, 61 & 62) CM1: (More Info) CM2: (More Info)WS: If patients are putting too much energy into balancing their lives with therapy, exercise, andstress relief, then medication is the next step.Taken: Video: http://streaming.factsonfile.com/PortalViewVideo.aspx?xtid=39414&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=PTSD: Post-Traumatic StressDisorder&IsSearch=Y&parentSeriesID=&loid=58328

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