Dining etiquette and table manners


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How to know a proper and polite manner

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Dining etiquette and table manners

  1. 1. Dining Etiquette and Table Manners (Common for AllCultures and Environment)Dining etiquette and table manners vary from country to country and culture to culture. While one may liketo know all these varieties of dining etiquette and table manners in depth, yet it may not be alwayspossible. However, the minimum one should learn is the general decencies one must observeeverywhere, in any cultural setting, at the dining table.We have distilled from all the dining etiquette and manners of all the cultures, some common factors andessentials that everyone should know and follow in practice so as not to shock or embarrass the hosts orthe other guests or the traditionalists on the dining table as well as to use the more sophisticated andpleasant side of you.Given below are the essential dining etiquette and table manners: Arrive on the appointed time. You may arrive a bit early but never be late. When invited for dinner at homes, decision to remove the shoes at the entrance of the home willdepend upon the cultural aspects. For example, in many Asian countries, it is expected that you removethe shoes before going inside of the house. As the dinner is announced, take your seat at the table. If there is any particular seatingarrangement planned by the host, be guided by it. Hosts will normally provide cloth napkins to guests. When paper napkins are provided, theyshould be treated the same as cloth napkins by the guests. After you take your seat, remove the napkin placed on the dining table in front of you, unfold it,and spread it in your lap. Do not shake it open. At some formal restaurants, the waiter may do this foryou, but even there, it is OK if you place the napkin in your lap. At a private dinner party the meal begins when the host or hostess unfolds his or her napkin. Thisis your signal to do the same. Or at times, the hostess or host will announce the start of the dinner. Keep the napkin on the lap till the end of the meal. Do not clean the cutlery or wipe your face or nose with the napkin. If you have to move away from the table for some reason, fold the napkin loosely and place it tothe left or right of your plate. Do not place the napkin on your chair. Setting of plates and the silverware on the table may vary from place to place and culture toculture. For example, in USA, UK, Canada and France etc, food is eaten using fork, knife and spoon, inChina and Japan chopsticks are used more and in India, most of the items of food are eaten with fingers. Given such differences, most formal restaurants and homes almost all over the world followsimilar table settings for plates and silverware for a sit down dinner. Bread or salad plates are placed onthe left side of the main plate. Beverage and water glasses are placed to the right of the main plate. Saladfork is on your outermost left, followed by dinner fork. Soup spoon is on your outermost right, followed bybeverage spoon, salad knife and dinner knife. Your dessert spoon and fork are above your plate orbrought to you when dessert is served. Start using the silverware from the outer most silverware to the inner most. Use appropriatesilverware. For example, soup is generally served at the beginning of the meal and soup spoon is theouter most silverware on the right side of the plate; so you should use the soup spoon being theoutermost.
  2. 2. While in western culture, formal dinner may be served in several courses served one afteranother in sequence, in Asian countries and particularly in India, all the food items will be put at one timeon the table for everyone to see, from where the food will be served. If you have dietary restrictions, it will be preferable not to request other food at a private function.If you have any food allergies and if you must inform about it, do so politely and preferably whenaccepting the invitation. In a restaurant, start to eat only after all the other guests have been served. At private dinners orat homes, when your host or hostess picks up the fork to eat, then you may start to eat. Do not startbefore this unless the host or hostess insists that you start eating. In this case, host may request theguests to start eating. Soup is normally served in the beginning of a meal. When eating soup, you should hold yoursoup spoon in your right hand and dip your spoon away from you into the soup, scooping the soup inmovements away from yourself. Take soup noiselessly, from the side of the spoon. When there is a smallamount left in the soup bowl, you may lift the front end of the dish slightly or tip the bowl slightly with yourfree hand to enable collection of the remaining small quantity of soup with your spoon. For the main course or for eating solid food, you may have to use the silverware set placed on theinner side towards the plate (use the dinner fork and dinner knife). You may use one of two methodswhen using fork and knife, either American Style or Continental/European Style. In American style, holdthe knife in right hand, fork in left hand holding food. After a few bite-sized pieces of food are cut, placeknife on edge of plate with blades facing in. Eat food by switching fork to right hand (unless you are lefthanded). In Continental/European Style, hold the knife in right hand and fork in left hand. Eat food withfork still in left hand. The difference is that, in continental style, you do not switch hands- you eat with yourfork in your left hand, with the prongs curving downward. Do not blow on food to cool it. If it is too hot to eat, wait till it cools down. Once used, your silverware should not touch the table again. Always rest forks, knives andspoons on the side of your plate or in the bowl. For more formal dinners, from course to course, your pates and cutlery (tableware) will be takenaway and replaced as needed. To signal that your are done with the course, rest your fork, tines up andknife blade in, with the handles resting at five oclock, on tips pointing to ten oclock on your plate. Anyunused silverware is simply left on the table. If you must leave the table or you are resting, your fork should be at eight o’clock and your knifeat four o’clock positions (with the blade inwards). Also, while moving away from your seat temporarily, asmentioned earlier, fold the napkin loosely and place it to the left or right of your plate. Do not place thenapkin on your chair. Ask for permission from the host and excuse yourself if you need to leave the table. Say "Excuseme," or "Excuse me. I will be right back," before leaving the table. Do not mention that you are going tothe restroom or for any other reason. Do not use your cell phone during the dinner. Use it only in emergency. In that case apologize,excuse yourself and move away from the dining table so that your telecommunication does not disturb the Do not talk loudly during dinner. Also give others opportunities for conversation. Preferable speakwith the persons sitting by your sides. Avoid speaking with the persons seated across the table. Do not turn a wine glass upside down to decline wine. It is more polite to let the wine be pouredand not make fuss of it. Alternatively, you may also hold your hand over the wine glass to indicate thatyou do not want wine.
  3. 3. When a dish is offered from a serving dish as per the traditional manner in most homes, the foodmay be passed around or served by a host or staff. If passed, you should pass on the serving dish to thenext person in the same direction as the other dishes are being passed. Place the serving dish on yourleft, take some and pass to the person next to you. You should make a rough judgment of the quantity offood on the serving dish and take from it onto your plate only a proportional amount so that everyone mayhave some. If you do not want a particular dish, pass it to the next person without comment. If beingserved by a single person, the server will request if the guest want the dish. The guest may say "Yes,please," or "No, thank you." Do not lean over somebody else’s plate. If you need something to be passed, request the personclosest to it. If you have to pass something, only pass it if you are closest to it and pass it directly to themif you can. Pass on the salt and pepper together. Remember to say "please" and "thank you" as appropriate. Before taking additional helping, finish the serving on your plate first. Bring the food to your mouth by the fork while you sit straight and not lean towards your plate. Cut and eat in small bites and slowly. Chew with your mouth closed. Do not slurp and do not talk with food in your mouth or make loud or unusual noises while eating. Do not put your elbows on the table. You may rest forearms on the table. Avoid constant clinking of the cutlery. Do not play with your food or cutlery. Do not wave or point silverware at others. Do not blow your nose at the dinner table. Do not use the napkin to wipe your nose. Avoid burping, coughing, yawning and sneezing at the table. If you do so, say, "Excuse me." Do not slouch over the table or tilt back your chair. Do not stare at others. Never pick food out of your teeth with your fingernails or even with toothpick in public. Do not apply makeup at the table. When you have finished eating, place your knife and fork together at six o’clock with your fork onthe left (tines facing up) and knife on the right with the knife blade facing in. This signals that you arefinished. Some people signal by resting the fork, tines up and knife blade in, with the handles resting atfive oclock, and tips pointing to ten oclock on your plate. At the completion of the dinner, leave the napkin neatly but loosely on the table. Do not make aball of it or do not screw it. Also you need not fold it back meticulously. Give the same treatment to boththe types of napkins, the cloth napkin and paper napkin. Wait for your host or hostess to rise before getting up from the table. Once dessert and after-dinner coffee have been served, do not be tempted to overstay. Theguest who first wishes to leave should rise and may say, "This has been such a nice evening. We hopewe can see you again soon." Thank your host and hostess when leaving.http://dining-manners.blogspot.com/
  4. 4. Etiquette and Manners: Fourth List: Some MoreAdditional MannersSome More Additional Manners 1. When you are in a line waiting to be served, wait patiently in the line for your turn. 2. Saying "thank you" to the person who gave you any kind of service does not harm anyone. So, always thank the people who helped you. 3. When you are in any public place, behave in a manner that does not inconvenience you or anyone else. If you are important, please remember that other people matter too. 4. When you are travelling in an airplane, coach or train or by any other mode of transport and your seat back has the facility to recline, do not lean back all the way. 5. Never use abusive language dotted by four letter words or their equivalents even if you have lost your temper completely. 6. Do not lose your temper. Get angry but do not hurt yourself by burning your blood, raising your blood pressure, creating a heart condition and so on. Anger harms no one but you. So learn to manage anger. Refer: http://controlling-anger.blogspot.com/Etiquette and Manners: Third List: Some More AdditionalMannersSome More Additional Manners Keep your mobile phone on vibrate or silent mode when attending a meeting, conference, training seminar or watching a movie or play in a multiplex or a theater or while being in a hospital or school etc. If you receive any urgent emergency call on the mobile and you need to contact the caller urgently, sneak outside the venue without disturbing others present and revert to the caller. Also, under the above-mentioned situations, restrict your movements inside the venue or do not chitchat with others. Do not use irritating, annoying and loud ring tones. Never ever use the crying baby or barking dogs types of ring tones on your mobile. Even if the organization where you work allows you to wear casuals in the office, select decent T-shirts/tops and jeans. Do not wear tattered jeans despite these being in fashion at times. Always wear well washed and well pressed clothes. When you need to attend meetings with bosses of your organization or with professionals of outside organizations, putting on formals is desirable. Even if your organization permits you to eat your lunch box in your work place, do not do it. Go to your organizations canteen or cafeteria to eat your lunch box. During the office time, do not eat smelly food. Do not gossip openly and on issues that should not be gossiped about. Do not waste your time in rest rooms and near the water coolers in the office. Do not waste your time in your work place and also do not visit the work places of your colleagues just to pass time. Open the door of car, elevator and office entrance for you colleague, whether female or male, if she or he is carrying heavy loads.
  5. 5. Etiquette and Manners: Second List: Human RelationsAspects Respect everyone. Do not insult anyone. Be courteous to everyone. Be genuinely interested in people. Be cheerful. Show your good and pleasant appearance. Give your best smile to others (it takes 72 muscles to frown, only 14 muscles to smile). Radiate friendliness. Radiate enthusiasm. Always be punctual; keep no one waiting. Keep your promises. Acknowledge all introductions cordially. Extend a hearty handshake; not a flabby handshake. Try to remember the names of everyone you meet. Address the persons you meet by their appropriate names. Look people in the eye while conversing with them. Speak to anyone with calm assurance. Do not raise your voice. Never indulge in gossip. Never meddle in personal affairs of others. Be a good listener. Listen to others’ viewpoints keenly. Respond; do not react. Be alert. Be fair to all. Avoid unnecessary arguments. Keep control of yourself even if provoked. When you are in the wrong or you make mistake, accept with humility. Have a good sense of humor with an ability to laugh at yourself. Be open-minded. Be tolerant. Be considerate. Be empathic. Be sympathetic. Do not complain. Do not seek sympathy. Be loyal. Be sincere. Do not boast. Do not show off. Do not drop names to show your importance. Cooperate readily and cheerfully. Be helpful. Be ready to be of service to others. Do not exploit others. Do not mislead others. Do not deceive anyone. Praise generously.
  6. 6. Do not criticize; yet communicate your displeasure or disagreements assertively without intentions of hurting others. Never laugh or cut jokes at others expenses. Say “thank you” expressively, also profusely when needed and not just politely. Take pride in your work. Do your best today and every day. Spread your goodwill.Etiquette and Manners: The First ListExternal and Internal PersonalitiesIn learning and following the etiquette and manners, both your external andinternal personalities count- you actually display outwardly as well as what you really are. At times,you may succeed in displaying good side of you despite your internally weak personality but it requireslots of efforts. On the other side, if your internal personality is good, you can learn to display yourselfthat way easily with much less efforts. Both the types of personalities are important.While internal personality is the real you and your all time asset and that should be excellent, it isimportant to have impressive external personality too, as you are aware that at times, first impressionmay be the last impression. You mat not get another chance to correct that impression if it was not OKfor the other person who matters to you.The First List of ELQs (Executive Like Qualities)(Not in any particular order)- Knocking the door of the cabin of the person you are visiting and taking permission to enter beforeentering the cabin.- Always checking up with the executives of the company or their secretaries for an appointment forbetter time management and as manners.- Pick up the phone before two to three rings.- On phone, being polite.- On phone, answer by giving your companys name, your name and departments name.- Whenever you receive a phone for some one else, take down the name of the caller,his organization name, telephone number and pass them on to the person who was called.- Never put a caller on the hold for more than a few seconds. In case you wish to do it, request for thecallers permission to do so.- Always be 100% punctual in meetings.- Always go fully prepared for meetings, keep all the relevant data/information with you.- Say "good morning”, "good evening" etc as appropriate with a warm, firm and brief hand shake. Neverkeep holding the hand of the person with whom you are shaking hands.- Do not shake hands with particularly Indian ladies on your own (unless she takes initiative). Say"namaste" politely with folded hands. Do study the cultural aspects of such greetings and salutations forother cultures too.- In a situation where it is OK to shake hand with a lady, squeeze the hand no harder thanshe squeezes yours.- Never say "good night" when you are meeting another person in the evening/night. The correctsalutation is "good evening". When you part company in the night then only say "good night".- Try to remember the correct names of the persons with whom you are dealing and address them bytheir correct names. Never call other person by yelling a "hello" or "Shshsh" etc. They are bad manners.
  7. 7. - Never keep your mouth open while taking a yawn. Close it by keeping a palm over the mouth. In thefirst place do not yawn in front of others, control it.- While sitting do not keep shaking your legs.- Keep your mouth clean of bad breath. Do not eat garlic or onions etc during the day time if possible.- Keep your body clean of bad odors. Keep yourself clean and use perfume/deodorant.- Do not talk/gossip with a fellow colleague sitting next to you during the conduct of meetings.- In case you have to go out of a running meeting under some compulsion, do so without disturbingothers.- Always offer chair to others for sitting.- Do not shout while talking. Always keep your cool.- You must dress properly, well fitting, clean and well pressed clothes.- Do not wear the same socks every day. Wash them and then only use.- Polish your shoes regularly.- Shave daily without any exception (for men).- Avoid smoking, taking tobacco or pan masala etc in public.- Never spit.- Cut your nails regularly.- Comb your hair properly.- Do not keep scratching your body in public.- Rehearse your sentences in mind before you actually speak out.- Never talk loose.- Be friends with your subordinates but never become familiar because familiarity breeds contempt.- Keep diary and make sure that whatever tasks you undertake should be completed in time.- You should not be seen whiling away your time or gossiping.- Never encourage grapevines.- Do not have favorites. Treat every one professionally.- Never leak out company secrets, policies and confidential information.- If you do not drink, say a polite "no, thanks" for drinks. If you do drink, keep it in limits in parties.We will publish second list of desired etiquette and manners (the ELQs) in the next post. Till thenpractice upon the first list given here.http://executive-manners.blogspot.com/Table Etiquette:Table Etiquette Marsha Collins AGED 410 Spring 2001Slide2:Basic Etiquette Tips & Table Manners Serve guests of honor, woman first, then male, then counterclockwise aroundthe table. Serve host then hostess last. Small part of 6 or less, wait to eat until hostess begins. At a large party,hostess urges everyone to begin as they are served Place knife and fork on plate after using, knife with sharp edgefacing in and fork with tines up (American) or down (Continental) and placed so they will not fall off the plate. Neverplace used silverware on the table or leave it in a cup or small bowl. A used soup spoon is left in a large soup plate oron the plate under the soup bowl. A used coffee spoon is placed on the saucer beneath the handle of the cup.Unused silver is left on the table.Slide3:
  8. 8. When you are finished, place the fork and knife parallel to each other, so they lie either horizontally across the centerof the plate or are on the diagonal, with the handles pointing to the right. Dessert silverware – Place so the spoon canbe picked up with the right hand and the fork so it can be picked up with the left hand. The napkin – as soon as youare seated, remove the napkin from your place setting, unfold it, and place it in your lap. If your napkin falls on thefloor during a formal meal, do not retrieve it. You should be able to signal a waiter that you need a fresh one. Whenyou leave the table at the end of a meal, place your napkin loosely next to your plate. It should not be crumpled ortwisted, it may be casually folded. You may place it in the napkin ring if one is present. When you leave the table atthe end of a meal, place your napkin loosely next to your plate. It should not be crumpled or twisted, it may becasually folded. You may place it in the napkin ring if one is present.Slide4:Do not place your napkin in your empty plate. When eating soup or dessert that has liquid, it is acceptable to tip thebowl when necessary, but tip it away from you. Test liquids before eating by testing a small amount with a spoon tosee if it is too hot. Never blow on food to cool it. Do not automatically add salt or pepper before tasting. If you need toadd to suit your taste, do it unobtrusively. When asked to pass the salt or pepper, pick up both the salt and pepperand place them on the table within reach of the person next to you who will do the same, and so on, until they reachthe person who asked for them. They are not passed hand-to-hand.Slide5:To remove inedible items from the mouth, it should go out the same way it went in. Olive pits can be delicatelydropped onto an open palm before putting them onto your plate. A piece of bone discovered in a bit of chicken shouldbe returned to the plate by way of the fork. Fish is an exception to the rule. It is fine to remove the tiny bones withyour fingers, since they would be difficult to drop from your mouth onto the fork. Cherry pits should be removed with aspoon. An extremely fatty piece of meat that you simply can’t bring yourself to swallow, it will be necessary tosurreptitiously spit it into your napkin, so that you can keep it out of sight. Or you can remove it with a fork and place iton your plate and camouflage it with another morsel of food. Just like your mother told you, Keep your elbows off thetable!Slide6:When passing food, pass to the right. When passing items such as a creamer or gravy boat, pass it with the handlepointing toward the person to who you are passing it. Bread and rolls should never be eaten whole. Break intosmaller, more manageable pieces, buttering only a few bites at a time. Toast and garlic bread may be eaten as wholepieces. A hot muffin or biscuit may be broken in half crosswise, butter and put the pieces back together. When thebutter is passed, put some on your bread plate sot that as you butter each smaller piece of bread, you do not need toask for the butter to be passed again.Slide7:If you are someone’s guest at a restaurant, ask the person what he/she recommends. By doing this, you will learn theprice range guidelines and have an idea of what to order. Usually order an item in the mid price range. Keep in mindthat the person who typically initiates the meal will pay. Don’t order appetizers or dessert unless your hot does. It isinappropriate for your meal to cost more than your host’s meal. When ordering, avoid foods that are difficult to eatgracefully. Struggling with spaghetti or barbecued ribs will distract your from the conversation and may make you looksloppy. Be prepared. If there is a purpose to the luncheon or dinner meeting, make it clear when extending oraccepting an invitation. Bring writing materials.Slide8:If your dining at someone’s home and aren’t sure what to do, follow the actions of the host or hostess as a guide.Remember what your parents told you. Don’t talk with your mouth full, finish chewing, swallow the food and then talk.Cut food into small pieces for eating. If you try to eat large pieces, you may have difficulty chewing and might choke.People from different countries and cultures have table manners that may be different from yours. Respect andaccept people with other customs.Slide9:Flatware doesn’t require a road map. Place pieces in the order they’ll be used, working from the outside in. Here’show the items shown are traditionally used, from left to right: Cocktail fork: seafood or fruit cocktail, lobster, and forserving pickles or olives. Salad for: salads, fish pies, pastries, and cold meats. Fish fork: in place of the dinner forkwhen fish is served. Dinner fork: all entrees except fish. Steak knife: fur cutting meats.Slide10:
  9. 9. Fish knife: in place of dinner or steak knife when fish is served. Butter knife: butter pats, soft cheeses, chutneys andrelishes. Dinner knife: all entrees except fish. Soup spoon: desserts, cereal, soup, or as a small serving spoon.Teaspoon: coffee, tea, fruits, and some desserts. Iced beverage spoon: any tall beverage or dessert. Demitassespoon: after-dinner coffee, condiments, and caviar.Slide11:Water goblet or glass Red wine glass White wine glass Champagne flute All-purpose glass GlasswareSlide12:Glassware Brandy snifter: Short-stemmed, small-mouthed, oversized glass is designed to be cupped in the hand sothe brandy is warmed. White wine glass: Tulip-shaped glass is designed for white wines, which don’t need as muchoxygen to bring out their flavor as reds do. Red wine glass: Rounded bowl helps direct the wine’s bouquet to thenose. Highball glass: Tall, straight-sided and clear, this glass is perfect for iced tea. Double old-fashioned (also rocksor lowball) glass: Squatty glass works well for on-the-rocks and straight-shot drinks. Martini glass: Sophisticated andsmall, it has a distinctive V-shape.Slide13:Glassware Champagne flute: Tall, slim shape and narrow rim help preserve the bubbles in champagne. Pilsner:Glass suits any type of beer. Frozen or iced beverage glass: Useful for water, iced tea, or tropical drinks. Single old-fashioned glass: Smaller than the double old-fashioned, it allows a drink to be finished quickly, before the ice canmelt. Balloon wine glass: Largest of all wine glasses, it allows aged red wine to breathe more effectively.Slide14:Butter Plate and Butter Knife Dinner Plate and Napkin Salad Fork, Dinner Fork, Fish Fork Dinner Knife, Fish Knife,Soup Spoon Dessert Fork and Dessert Spoon Water Goblet, Red-Wine Goblet, White-Wine Goblet Formal TableSettingSlide15:Dinner Plate and Napkin Salad Fork and Dinner Fork Dinner Knife and Soup Spoon Water Goblet and All-purposeGoblet Casual Table SettingSlide16:Table Setting Placement Guide Salad Plate: If salad is served as a first course, this plate is usually put on top of themain plate. Bread plate, with butter knife: When you take butter, do not put it directly onto your bread. Put anadequate amount on your bread plate first, then butter appropriate sized pieces of bread as you are ready to eatthem. Salad fork: It is usually on the outside. If your salad is served at the same time as your entrée, you can use thedinner fork for both. Dinner fork: The larger, inside fork. Dessert spoon and fork: You can use the spoon for yourcoffee or tea if there is not a spoon with the cup and saucer.Table Setting Placement Guide:Table Setting Placement Guide Dinner plate and napkin: At the end of the meal, you should put your napkin on thetable only after your host does so an may be draped along side the plate. At some place settings, the napkin may beplaced at the left of the forks rather than on the dinner plate. If so, the fold of the napkin should be on the outside.This makes it easier to take the napkin and unfold it as you place it on your lap. Water glass: No double-fisting – It’s ano-no to hold, say a piece of bread or your fork in one hand and your water glass in the other. Red wine glass: Ifyou’re refraining from wine, signify by holding your fingers above the glass when the waiter comes to pour or simplysay no thank you to your host.Slide18:Table Setting Placement Guide White wine glass: The more slender of the two wine glasses. Dinner knife: Can beused to push runaway foods, like peas or rice, onto the fork. Salad knife: Sits on the outside. Use it to cup up saladpieces that are too large. It can then be 0laced on the salad plate along with the salad fork when that plate isremoved. Dinner spoon: Useful for twirling pasta. Soup spoon: to prevent splashing on your clothing, you should turnthe spoon away from yourself when eating soup. Place settings: Place all settings one inch from the edge of the tableand align each piece.Slide19:Types of Meal Service American or Family Service: Serving dishes are filled in the kitchen and brought to the table.They are passed around the table and diners serve themselves. After the table is cleared, the dessert may be served
  10. 10. at the table or plated in the kitchen and then brought to the table. Russian or Continental Service: This is the mostformal style. Serving dishes are never placed on the table. Instead, servants serve guests filled plates of food, onecourse at a time. Plate replaces plate as one course is removed and another is served. This type of service is oftenused in fine restaurants and at state dinners. English Service: Plates are filled at the table by the hot or hostess andpassed from guest to guest until everyone is served. Because English service requires a lot of passing, it is best usedwith a small group.Slide20:Types of Meal Service Compromise Service: A compromise between Russian service and English service. The salador dessert course is often served from the kitchen. For other courses, one of the host fills the plates and passes themaround the table. The host or hostess acts as waiter or waitress to clear one course and bring in the next. Blue PlateService: Used at home when serving small groups of people. The plates are filled in the kitchen and served in thedining room. Second helpings can be offered at the table or served in the kitchen. One person clears the main courseand brings in the dessert.Slide21:Buffet Service: Usually used when large numbers of people must be served. Guests serve themselves from thebuffet. Guests may then eat at one large table, several small tables or eat from a plate held in the hand while sittingor standing. The menu for a buffet must be chosen carefully. Food should be able to be eaten without having to cutthem into bite sized pieces if no seating is available. When serving, serve from the left and clear from the right. Typesof Meal ServiceSlide22:Eating with Your Fingers Artichoke – Pull a leaf off, dip it, scrape the flesh from the base of the leaf with your topteeth and discard the leaf on the plate provided. At the “choke”, switch to fork and knife, first to remove the choke,then to eat the heart and base. Asparagus – May be eaten with fingers as long as it is not covered with sauce orotherwise prepared so it is too mushy to pick up easily. You can also use a fork and knife to eat. Bacon – Whencooked until very crisp, and there is no danger of getting the fingers wet with grease, it is okay to pick it up to eat it.Trying to cut a crisp piece of bacon usually results in crushing it into shards that are difficult to round up onto a fork.Slide23:Bread – Tear off a piece that is no bigger than two bites worth and eat that before tearing off another. If butter isprovided, butter the small piece just before eating it. Cookies – It is never necessary to try to eat the cookie thatcomes as a garnish to your dessert with a spoon, unless it has fallen so far into the chocolate sauce that there isn’t aclean corner by which to pick it up. Corn on the Cob – It is unlikely that this will be served at a formal event, but if youencounter corn on the cob, it may be picked up and eaten. The approved method of doing so is to butter one or tworows at a time and to eat across the cob cleanly.Slide24:Chips, French Fries, Fried Chicken and Hamburgers – All these items simply will not be served in a formal setting.Most are intended to be eaten with the hands, although a particularly messy hamburger could be approached withfork and knife, and steak fries (the thick-cut, less crispy variety) may be best eaten with a fork. Horsd’Oeuvres,Canapés, Crudités – Almost everything that is served at a cocktail party or during a pre-meal cocktail hour is intendedto be eaten with the finger. Some of these foods make appearances at regular meals as well (although not often veryformal ones). When they do, it is still permissible to use the fingers to eat them. This includes olives, pickles, nutsdeviled eggs and chips.Slide25:Sandwiches – The straightforward sandwich – that is, any sandwich that is not open-faced, not too tall to fit in themouth, not saturated with dripping sauces or loaded with mushy fillings – is intended to be picked up and eaten.Otherwise, use fork and knife. Small fruits and Berries on the Stem – If you are served strawberries with the hulls on,cherries with stems, or grapes in bunches, then it is okay to eat them with your fingers. Otherwise, as with all berries,the utensil of choice is a spoon. In the case of grapes, you may encounter a special scissors, to be used to cut off asmall cluster from the bunch. If not, tear a portion from the whole, rather than plucking off single grapes, which leavesa cluster of unattractive bare stems on the serving platter.