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Closer Look At Infrastructure Sustainability - Engineering Perspective - Infrastructure Summit MEA, 2009
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Closer Look At Infrastructure Sustainability - Engineering Perspective - Infrastructure Summit MEA, 2009


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Property Developers, after a slow start, acknowledged the concept of development lifetime costing and swiftly realized the need to review their project, its components to accommodate sustainability as …

Property Developers, after a slow start, acknowledged the concept of development lifetime costing and swiftly realized the need to review their project, its components to accommodate sustainability as a driver of the engineering systems. The presentation sheds light on most Engineering systems explored including Energy and water Efficiencies through both Passive Design and Active Designs, District Cooling , Alternative Energy like Cogeneration, Solar Harvesting and Geothermal Energy with some highlights on Transportation, Parking, Foundations and Geotechnical Investigation

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  • 1. Infrastructure Summit MEA, 2009 Loay Ghazaleh – Burooj Properties 1
  • 2.  Mechanical Design - Basics Energy Efficiency - Lifecycle solutions Energy Building - Passive & Active Design Smart Metering Water Efficiency Landscape , Irrigation & wastewater Building Control System (BCS) District Cooling Alternative Energy - Cogeneration Alternative Energy - Solar Harvesting Alternative Energy - Geothermal Energy Transportation, Parking & Pavements Foundations – Geotechnical Investigation 2
  • 3. • Looking at distribution - Long, large pipe runs require large insulation + supports.• Bigger fan / pump motors, more power consumption. More heat gain to water• Reduce flow rates and pumping costs using large two way valves• Dynamic balancing valves-size ducts for minimum pressure drops• Use variable speed drives and variable air volumes (VAV’s) for large AHU’s• Achieve cost savings by reducing pipe/duct runs, which also reduces pump/fan sizes• Reduce pump/fan sizes by reducing pressure drop. 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. Building Energy - Passive Design• Shade windows from direct solar while still use daylight.• Orientate buildings and/or glazing to reduce East - West faces.• Have less glazing (less than 25%) to reduce transmission gains.• Consider shallow plan to get good daylight penetration.• Use good solar control glass with UV reflective exterior, green pre- cast systems ,• Use solar reflective paints reduce heat by 50%• Make it air tight for summer operation. target low air permeability• Consider natural ventilation for winter operation.• Consider multi level above ground to avoid ventilation, energy use• External and Practical Shading Strategies;• All main distribution and switching boards must have kWh meters• Educate people to turn it off when not in use. 5
  • 6. Building Energy - Active Design• Small power kit which has low connected load.• Lower lux levels where appropriate (especially in car parks),• Variable speed fans / pumps• Heat/cool recovery.• Automatic control on temperature and CO2.• Use efficient chillers configured to respond efficiently to load.• Consider chilled water storage and reduce connected load.• Use regenerating, low energy consumption, lifts.• Install daylight/ occupancy controls. Use High efficiency lighting Space by Space Lighting power density• Centralized Mechanical Systems; Electrical Room; Efficient DC Plant;• Micro-Generation/Co-generation/Solar Steam generation;• Wind Power (determine feasibility);• High Efficiency Appliances; 6
  • 7. Smart Metering• Smart metering as the first step & vehicle for smart grids• Smart Grids is about essentially better measurement and control enabling better greater asset efficiency• Smart meters provide measurement at the periphery of the networkSmart Meters can provide data and alarms to support;• Distribution / energy management - Feeding real time data• Energy planning - better visibility of energy flows (and losses)• Real time outage - Incident management• Demand management, demand control -time & volume of use• Non technical loss managementSmart metering takes after the telecoms pre-paid world allowing;• Flexible tariffs allowing better demand management• Flexible pre-payment / actions on credit expiry• Variety of recharge mechanisms• Simplified meter and home display• Reduced cost base 7
  • 8. Water Efficiency• Use of low water systems, low flushing rate W/C, maximum of 1.6 gallons per flush . Showers 6-8 liters/minute• Waterless Urinals, Vacuum systems .dual flush toilets .toilets using untreated shower water-24hrs storage• Low flow plumbing fixtures• Automatic faucets &, delayed action shutoff• High efficiency dish washers• Irrigation via re-cycled non-potable water;• Waste Collection System / Consider Bio -Incineration• Separate Grey water and Black water collection system. (Red = Grey water; Blue =Purified water; Yellow = Black water)• Grey Water Recycling• Black Water Treatment Plant use of Methane Reactor and Micro Filtering;• Swimming pool covers to eliminate evaporation 8
  • 9. Landscape , Irrigation & wastewaterLandscape & Irrigation• Use of arid zone landscaping design, drought & salt tolerant plants• Employ drip irrigation system (except lawns) & controlled by central control system,• Use soil moisture retention methods. Sub soil irrigation reduces surface evaporation• Use recycled water from on-site water treatment system.• Grass can be irrigated at 6-8l/m2 in summer.• Need to consider rising chloride levels and salinity levels.• Need a comprehensive management strategy.Energy from wastewater• Waste plant designed to process solid waste and liquid waste. Solid waste would be recycled and the remainder processed through a gasification plant to provide electricity for the development. By-product ash from the plant could in turn be recycled in road making. 9
  • 10. Building Control System (BCS) All systems on a single integrated backbone 10
  • 11. Building Control System (BCS)• Buildings greater than 10,000 m2 built-up area require Building control system• BCS must be able to achieve a minimum 20% reduction in building energy usage.• Power monitoring and analysis• Reduce equipment run time• Efficient unloading of equipments• Automatic fault detection and diagnostics• Perform control over water usage• Ensure indoor environmental quality -Integrated BMS• Home control systems – Shutter, Lighting, Multimedia Consider Remote Control• Alarm handling Site audits• Remote monitoring and optimization 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. Why District Cooling –SYSTEMS ENERGY CONSUMPTION 13
  • 14. District Cooling• District cooling has been recognized as probably the biggest quick win in terms of the impact on the supply side of the power equation.• W/TR Power Consumption District Cooling 0.9 ,Water Cooled Central AC 1.1 ,Air Cooled Central AC 1.7 ,Split System AC1.8 ,Window AC 2.2• Financial – power is a subsidized commodity. The impact on demand is an impact on National resources.• Fuel – Natural gas is a finite resource. An impact on demand of gas for power generation is part of National gas conservation strategy.• Carbon footprint – district cooling has an impact on the supply side of the equation and is a major quick win as a saving on carbon emissions.• Spatial – Reflected in savings on power transmission/distribution networks and on the space (corridor consumption) and substation construction 22kv s/s, 66kv s/s, 11kv s/s and associated cabling. 14
  • 15. Developers Benefit thru District Cooling Service Providers • Reduced electrical infrastructure and lower capital cost. • Reduction in power demand & consumption • Reduce buildings maintenance & staffing - No operation and maintenance of chiller plant • Stable and cost-competitive operating costs and lower life cycle costs. • Potential for better aesthetic design, more rentable space, liberation of the roof area for other uses rather than chillers. • No Chillers Noise and Vibration. • Less risk from legionnaire’s disease. • Better buildings: Higher rents with longer internal and external life. • Pay for what you use. • The flexibility to increase or decrease you’re cooling requirement. • Generating capacity can be maximized by off peak load management (thermal storage). • Better load demand management (differential tariffs for electricity). • More available land for development, uptake can be located outside the development. • Guaranteed Service availability means , availability of power on time , security of water for the system (TSE or Potable) is in place, 15
  • 16. District Cooling Service ChargesDistrict cooling compromise three types of charges:• Capacity charge related to the declared load• Connection Charge for delivering chilled water to the units.• Energy charge as consumption• water & electricity charges; represents consumption of the whole common areas of the building or community including swimming pool, recreation centers and common facility• Irrigation water TSE: This represents the cost of treated effluent that is totally utilized for landscaping Service charge components Service componentsIssues Encountered In Traditional DC Contract• The DCSP does not feel accountable for several issues & quality aspects;• Minimal correlation between service quality and remuneration• Who will bear loss in revenue in case of water & electricity delays?• cost allocation-Major conflict of interest 16
  • 17. What is Cogeneration?• Combined Heat and Power Generation (CHP)• Power Generated for Electrical Purposes• Heat Recovered for: Cooling ,Heating & Process PurposesWhy Cogeneration?• replaces Traditional Power Acquiring methods• Reduces the burden on national government for power generation• Energy Efficient Systems• No Transmission and Distribution losses• Sustainable & Environment friendly System• Power Savings up to 35% on total energy expenditures.• Single Source Energy Input.• Multiple Energy outputs• Cost effective , 4-6 years pay backWhere Cogeneration is needed?• Lack of Power Sources• Outage / Interruption of City mains• Extensive Loadings on Power grids• High Electric Rates• Sufficient electrical and thermal base loads• Site /Space Availability 17
  • 18. Cogeneration Technology 18
  • 19. Cogeneration System Components 19
  • 20. Alternative Energy - Solar HarvestingSolar Thermal Energy• Solar heating - hot water• Path Lighting• Swimming Pool water heating & cooling• Evaporative coolingGiven the flexibility of the Photovoltaic technology, PV installations are popular• They are relatively easy to conceptualize• Require simple installations and connections• Generate electricity –a pure form of energyThere are several impediments to installation of solar harvesting strategies:• Dust is a major inhibitor to their performance• humidity levels can significantly reduce solar availability• Active orientation of the panels needed to optimize energy production• Environmental degradation of equipment• Reduction in efficiency of PV at higher temperatures- Up to 40% reduction in solar energy at PV panel 20
  • 21. Alternative Energy - Geothermal Energy 21
  • 22. Geothermal EnergyGeothermal energy using energy piles• saves lifetime costs, Renewable energy• Reduction of energy consumption• Environmental-friendly energy• Forward-looking ,thinkingDifferences between Geothermal Drilling and Oil Well Drilling• In Geothermic, the demanded flow rates are far higher. Therefore, bigger hole diameters have to be drilled to avoid a pressure drop while lifting the water from depth to surface.• Geothermal well targets into high temperature - therefore the casing design needs to take into account the high temperature cycles.• The cements need to be designed for high temperature, and very often for high salinity 22
  • 23. Transportation , Parking & Pavements 23
  • 24. Transportation Developer’s Role in Transportation is to Increase cycling, walk-ability, reduced vehicle movements, public transport attractiveness with higher end public transportReduced reliance on cars means;Social• Affordable transport+ better health through activity+ less time in traffic= better quality of life• Increased safety+ amenity+ less noise= better quality of lifeEconomic• Reduce vehicle movements, underground metro = reduce roads = more developable land.• Less congestion= more productive workforceEnvironmental• Less air pollution + less noise= higher quality environmentHigh proportion of residents creates special challenges for car vs. transit(High density: Critical role for transit but not sufficient for effective transit)Multi-tiered public transport service to provide coverage / integration through primary and supporting Networks (Feeders)Public transport as the primary mode of transport-HK is 90%, NYC 50%Density clustered around public transport node.Personal Rapid Transit –The Vehicle - Offering car-like service 24
  • 25. Personal Rapid Transit 25
  • 26. Parking Management• Many new high-density developments offer substantial private parking for residents –result of regulation, marketing considerations, and under priced automobile use.• Reserved private parking is: Expensive, Poorly utilized and is in conflict at the policy level with the goal of high-rider ship mass transit,• Planning regulations / guidelines are under review to offer greater flexibility to enhance sustainability and cost-effectiveness for integration with transportation policies and objectives• High-density developments are weighing the benefits / trade-off with relatively lower automobile use, even for residents 26
  • 27. Pavement Treatment - Preventive maintenance is better than treatmentsLook For Diagnosis• Depression along lanes / sections near the median / along all lanes• Surface Corrugation that create poor riding quality• Earlier Maintaining did not workInvestigate Causes• Existing high water table / storm water line• Poor compaction / unsuitable layers , poor materials• Existing of Sebkha Soil - Problematic Soil• Poor backfilling around pipes and culvertsProvide Treatments• Removal of top layers• Use of a filtration ,geo-textile , course aggregates layers• Alternate drains system - draining to storm water 27
  • 28. Foundations – Geotechnical Investigation 28
  • 29. Foundations – Design Issues• Piled raft system – likely to be the most economical and effective for many Gulf & Middle East sites. Combined pile-raft foundation Advantages;• saves construction costs / construction time• same level of stability and serviceability• reduction of piles by up to 70 %• construction of the building pit / first floors at the same time• Raft system can be used where;• Where the raft can provide a reasonable amount of stiffness and load capacity, eg• Relatively stiff clay profiles• Relatively dense sands• Where soil movements due to external causes do not occur• Problematic soils: mica sands carbonate rich soils, sensitive clays• Boreholes to cover the depth of Influence• Uncertainty about, variable conditions, construction methods and quality lead to conservatives strength parameters in design. Engineers underestimate ultimate capacity of a deep foundation to mask the uncertainty – Factor of Safety! 29
  • 30. Conclusions! 30
  • 31. Loay Ghazaleh – Sharjah ; 31