Is a fact we unconsciously use grammar all the time when we uselanguage for speaking, listening, reading and writing, and if we wantto improve our English language abilities, there is no escape fromaddressing grammar issues. Grammar is a very wide topic, but notso difficult to learn if you really like it. So, what its grammar? Atits core, the term grammar refers to either the inherent structureof words and sentences (morphology and syntax respectively) in alanguage; or to the study and description of this structure (what welearn from the books). Other approaches include more topics likeorthography (spelling, punctuation and capitalization), semantics(word meanings), phonetics andphonology (sounds) and pragmatics (languageuse in context). In this portfolio we are going to give you aconcrete review of the most important grammar topics,and we are going to keep it simple, direct and tothe point.. We hope you like it, and we hope thiscould be useful and valuable for you..
Ends with Add -es boss -> bosses“s”, “x”, “ch” tax -> taxesor “sh” bush -> bushesEnds with Change “y” to Baby -> babiesconsonant + “y” “i” then add –es Candy -> candies Curry -> curriesmost others Add –s cat -> cats face -> faces
Ends with -fe Change “f” to “v” knife -> knives then life -> lives Add –s wife -> wivesEnds with -f Change “f” to “v” half -> halves then wolf -> wolves Add –es loaf -> loavesEnds with -o Add –es potato -> potatoes tomato -> tomatoes volcano -> volcanoesends with -us Change -us to –i cactus -> cacti
Proper Nouns Proper nouns name specific people, places, things, or ideas. Examples: Karla, Loany, Rosa, George, R obert.Common Nouns Since these nouns are namingCommon nouns are the specific things, they alwaysopposite of proper nouns. begin with a capital letter.They are generic nouns. Theyname people, places, things Sometimes, they contain two oror ideas that are not more important words.specific. Examples:Examples: Britney Spears, Central Parkwoman, city, dog, shoe Zoo, Pacific Ocean.Since these nouns are not If this is the case, bothnaming anything important words arespecific, they do not need to capitalized, and the whole thingstart with a capital letter is still considered to be oneunless they begin a sentence.
One class of nouns is concrete. You can experience this group ofNouns name nouns with your five senses: youpeople, places, and things. see them, hear them, smell them, taste them, and feelCollective nouns, a special them.class, name groups [things] Examples:composed of members Student, fire[usually people]. fighter, dog, pencil, computer, i ce cream etc.Examples:army, audience, board, cab Not all nouns are concrete. Ainet, class, committee, com second class of nouns ispany, corporation, council, abstract. You cannot experience abstract nouns with your senses.department, faculty, family Examples:, firm, group, jury, majorit Intelligence, bravery, loyalty, el
The possessive form of a noun is used to show ownership. A noun is possessive if a phrase can be changed to say that an item or idea belongs to someone or something.Example:The new car belongs to Peter. -> Peter‟s car is new.The possessive noun always comes before what it owns or has.How can we form the possessive of singular nouns?The possessive of singular nouns (a name, place, thing or idea) isformed by adding an apostrophe plus an “s”.Examples:Monica‟s house -> The house belongs to Monica.Flower‟s petals -> The flower has petals.
Count nouns use singular and Non-count nouns use onlyplural verbs and pronouns: singular verbs and pronouns:There is an apple. (singular) There is some fruit. (singularThere are some apples. verb)(plural)I like that chair. ("that" is I like that furniture.singular). I like those furniture. (no!)She likes those chairs.("those" is plural)A car is an expensive thing to Traffic was heavy today.own. (singular verb)Cars are an expensive form oftransportation.
How to count non-counts nouns.. Common Measurement Nouns used with it words Although non-count nouns are Bar Chocolate Soapsupposed to be uncountable, we Cube Sugarsometimes need to count them. IceAt least, we sometimes need to Game Tennis explain the quantity of Soccer something which is non-count. Cards We can do this by using a Glass Wine measurement word, or Beer Water counter, like this: Juice -a bar of chocolate Piece Advice Information -two loaves of bread Baggage Clothing Furniture -three slices of meat Homework Machinery
When we group adjectives together there is a general rulefor the position of each type adjective, these are: Position 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Opinion Size Age Shape Color Material Origin Purpose Nice Small Old Square Black Plastic British Racing Ugly Big New Circular Blue Cotton American Running
A compound adjective is formed when two or moreadjectives work together to modify the same noun.These terms should be hyphenated to avoidconfusion or ambiguity. Example: The black-and-blue mark suggested that he had been involved inan altercation.Adjectives of Quantity answer the question„How much?‟Examples : Some, Little, Any, Enough
A derived adjective is an adjective derivedfrom a noun or verb. Example: dreamyfrom dream, sterilized from sterilizeThis form of adjective is used in a sentencebefore a noun to indicate possession. Forinstance, in the sentence, “ Do not touch mydiary. It is personal.”, the word “my”inserted just in front of the noun “diary” isthe adjective. Few other examples ofpossessive adjectives are “your”, “his”,“her”, “our”, “their”, etc.A superlative adjective expresses the extreme orhighest degree of a quality. We use a superlativeadjective to describe the extreme quality of onething in a group of things. Examples: large ->largest; big -> biggest; fat -> fattest.Comparative adjectives are used to compare thedifference between 2 nouns, or a collective noun .Examples: large -> larger; big -> bigger; fat->fatter
This form of adjective is used to demonstrateor indicate certain things. For instance, in thesentence, “Parents of only those students, whohave not managed to pass in all subjects, willhave to come for tomorrow‟s parents-teachersmeeting.” The word “those” indicates aparticular lot of students who have failed intheir test. Placed before the noun “students”,this is a form of demonstrative adjective.Other such adjectives are “that”, “these”,“this”, etc.Interrogative Adjectives are used to askquestions about a noun.Examples : What, Which, WhoseWhile demonstrative adjectives point out specificthings, indefinite adjectives do not indicateanything specific. Indefinite adjectives areformed from indefinite pronouns and the mostcommon ones among them are“any”, “many”, few”, “several”, etc. In thesentence, “Several soldiers died in the PacificWar.”, the word “several” placed just before thenoun “soldiers” is an adjective, which does not
ADVERBS OF PLACE ADVERBS OF TIME These answer the These answer the question where? question when? This adverb usually This adverb usually comes after thecomes either at the very object, otherwise after beginning of the the verb: sentence or at the end. Examples: Examples: -We saw you there.-Afterwards we decided -We were sitting here. to go by car. -We looked everywhere.-Ive done that journey -Have you seen my before. glasses anywhere? -We haven‟t started -Im sure I left them yet. somewhere. -She is still a student.
ADVERBS OF MANNER These answer the question how? This adverb usually comes after the direct object or if there is no ADVERBS OF DEGREEdirect object, after the These answer the question verb: to what extent? Examples: This adverb can modify an adverb or an adjective and -She speaks Italian comes before the word it beautifully. modifies: -He works well. Examples:-You must drive your car -The bottle is almost carefully. full, nearly empty. -Eat quietly. -They should be able to pass their exams quite easily. The following adverbs of degree can also modify verbs: almost, nearly, quite, hardly , scarcely, barely, just.
ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY These answer the question how many times?This adverb comes after the verb to be: Examples: -She is always honest.Comes before simple tenses AFFIRMATIVE of all other verbs: ADVERBS-They sometimes spend the (yes) and Adverb of whole of Saturday fishing. negation (No) Comes after the first Examples: auxiliary in a tense yes, surely, certainly, inconsisting of more than one deed, by all verb: means, no, not at-I have often wondered how all, by no means. they did that. -I hope my parent just I can sometimes go without for once will say yes to food for days. my latest idea. -You must have heard about the haunted house surely?
INTERROGATIVE ADVERB (Question): When? Where? How? Why? How much/often? Examples:-When was the last time you saw the accused? RELATIVE ADVERB-Where have you been all when, where, how, why the while? These words are the -How could you have same in form as overlooked all these Interrogative Adverbs; mistakes? but they are not -Why do you have to do questions. such a stupid thing? Examples: -The time when he arrived is still unknown. -The scene where the accident occurred is close to the hospital.
Perfect SIMPLE FORMS FORMS PerfectPROGRESSIVE progressive FORMS FORMS
Present Tense Past Tense Present tense expresses an unchanging, Past tense expresses an action or situation repeated, or reoccurring action or situation that was started and finished in the past.that exists only now. It can also represent a Most past tense verbs end in -ed. The widespread truth. irregular verbs have special past tense forms which must be memorized. Example Meaning Example MeaningThe mountains are Unchanging actiontall and white. W.W.II ended in Regular -ed pastEvery year, the Recurring action 1945.school council electsnew members. Ernest Hemmingway Irregular form wrote "The Old ManPb is the chemical Widespread truth and the Sea."symbol for lead. Future Tense Future tense expresses an action or situation that will occur in the future. This tense is formed by using will/shall with the simple form of the verb. Example: The speaker of the House will finish her term in May of 1998. The future tense can also be The surgeon is going to perform the expressed by using am, is, or are with first bypass in Minnesota. going to. We can also use the present tense The president speaks tomorrow. form with an adverb or adverbial (Tomorrow is a future time adverb.)
Present Progressive Tense Past Progressive Tense Present progressive tense Past progressive tense describes adescribes an ongoing action that is past action which was happening happening at the same time the when another action occurred.statement is written. This tense is This tense is formed by using formed by using am/is/are with was/were with the verb form the verb form ending in -ing. ending in -ing. Example: Example: The sociologist is examining the The explorer was explaining the effects that racial discrimination latest discovery in Egypt when has on society. protests began on the streets. Future Progressive Tense Future progressive tense describes an ongoing or continuous action that will take place in the future. This tense is formed by using will be or shall be with the verb form ending in -ing. Example: Dr. Jones will be presenting ongoing research on sexist
Past Perfect Tense Present Perfect Tense Past perfect tense describes an Present perfect tense describes an action that took place in the past action that happened at an indefinite before another past action. This time in the past or that began in the tense is formed by using had with past and continues in the present. This the past participle of the verb. tense is formed by using has/have with Example: the past participle of the verb. Most By the time the troops arrived, past participles end in -ed. Irregular the war had ended. verbs have special past participles that must be memorized. Example Meaning Future Perfect Tense Future perfect tense describes anThe researchers have At an indefinite time. action that will occur in the futuretraveled to many before some other action. Thiscountries in order to tense is formed by using will havecollect more with the past participle of thesignificant data. verb.Women have voted in Continues in the Example:presidential elections present. By the time the troops arrive, thesince 1921. combat group will have spent several weeks waiting.
Present Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Present perfect progressive tense Past perfect progressive tensedescribes an action that began in the describes a past, ongoing action that past, continues in the present, and was completed before some other may continue into the future. This past action. This tense is formed by tense is formed by using has/have using had been and the present been and the present participle of perfect of the verb (the verb form the verb (the verb form ending in - ending in -ing). ing). Example: Example: Before the budget cuts, the The CEO has been considering a students had been participating in transfer to the state of Texas many extracurricular activities. where profits would be larger. Future Perfect Progressive Future perfect progressive tense describes a future, ongoing action that will occur before some specified future time. This tense is formed by using will have been and the present participle of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing). Example: By the year 2020, linguists will have been studying and defining the Indo-European language family for more than 200 years.
Active FormIn active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and thething receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]Examples: Passive FormIn passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and thething doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use thepassive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or shouldbe emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing theaction or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]Examples:
ACTIVE PASSIVEPresent Simple Tense Once a week, Tom cleans the house. Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.Present Continuous Tense Right now, Sarah is writing the letter. Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.Present Perfect Tense Many tourists have visited that That castle has been visited by many castle. tourists.Past Simple Tense Sam repaired the car. The car was repaired by Sam.Past Continuous Tense The salesman was helping the The customer was being helped by customer when the thief came into the salesman when the thief came the store. into the store.Past Perfect Tense George had repaired many cars Many cars had been repaired by before he received his mechanics George before he received his license. mechanics license.Future Simple Tense Someone will finish the work by 5:00 The work will be finished by 5:00 PM. PM.Future Perfect Tense They will have completed the project The project will have been before the deadline. completed before the deadline.
Transitive and intransitive verbsA verb can be either transitive or intransitive. A transitive verb needs an object (insentence) to give complete meaning while intransitive verb does need an object (insentence) to give complete meaning.Transitive verb. He sent a letter. (Send is a transitive verb and it needs an object Example: a letter ,to express fullmeaning.)Intransitive verb cannot be changed into passive voiceThe sentences having intransitive verbs (belonging to any tense) cannot be changed intopassive voice. The reason is that there is not any object in such sentences and withoutobject of sentence passive voice is not possible.A sentence can be changed into passive voice if it has subject and object.Intransitive Verb. He laughs. (Laugh is an intransitive verb and it does not need object for expressing fullmeaning.) -Sleep, go, reach, sit, die, are examples of intransitive verbs.The following tenses can also not be changed into passive voice.-Present perfect continuous tense-Past perfect continuous tense-Future continuous tense-Future perfect continuous tense
Types of Modals •Modals of Ability: Can, Could, Be able to, May, Might •Modals of Advice: Should, Ought to, Had better •Modals of Necessity: Must, Have got to, Have to •Modals with “Not”: Must not, Do not have to •Modals of Polite Request: Would you, Could you, Will You may not I can speak work on dads English. computer. You should I think it will drive carefully rain on Friday.in bad weather. You must be tired.
Passive voice for Present/Future ModalsActive voice: CAN Passive voice: CAN BEShe can play a violin. A violin can be played by her.She cannot play a violin.Can she play a violin?Active voice: MAY Passive voice: MAY BEI may buy the COMPUTER The computer may be bought by me.I may not buy the computer. The computer may not be bought by me.May I buy the computer? May the computer be bought by me?Active voice: MIGHT Passive voice: MIGHT BEGuests might play chess. Chess might be played by guests.Guests might not play chess Chess might not be played guests.Active voice: SHOULD Passive voice: SHOULD BEStudents should study all lessons. All lessons should be studied by students.Students should not study all lessons. All lessons should not be studied by students.Should students study all lessons? Should all lessons be studied by students?Active voice: MUST Passive voice: MUST BEYou must learn the test-taking strategies. Test-taking strategies must be learnt by you.You must not learn the test-taking Test-taking strategies must not be learned bystrategies. you.Active voice: OUGHT TO Passive voice: OUGHT TO BEThey ought to take the examination. The examination ought to be taken by them.
Prepositions are short words (on, in, to) thatusually stand in front of nouns (sometimes alsoin front of gerund verbs).There are hardly any rules as to when to use whichpreposition. The only way to learn prepositionsis looking them up in a dictionary, reading a lot inEnglish (literature) and learning useful phrasesoff by heart. Types of Prepositions Preposition for Time Preposition for Place and Direction Preposition for Agent and Instrument Prepositional Phrase
Preposition for Agent. (by) Preposition for device,Preposition for agent is used instrument or machine.for a thing which is cause of Different preposition areanother thing in the sentence. used by different devices,Such prepositions are instruments or machines.by, with etc. Examples: Such prepositions are by,-This book is written by with, on etc.Shakespeare. Examples: -The work was completed byhim. -She comes by bus daily. -The room was decorated by -He opened the lock withher. key. -The tub is filled withwater.
A prepositional phrase is a combination of a verb and a preposition. It is just a verb followed bya preposition.Some verbs need particular prepositions to be used after them in sentences having a directobject. Such a verb with its required preposition is called a prepositional phrase.For example: “He knocks at the door”.In above sentence “knock at” is prepositional phrase which contains a verb “knock” and apreposition “at”. Without the use of correct preposition after a prepositional verb in asentence, the sentence is considered to be grammatically wrong. For example if we say, “heknocks the door”, it is wrong because it lacks the required preposition “at”. So the correctsentence is “he knocks atthe door”.Prepositional Verbs are transitive and they have a direct objectin sentence. Some of the frequently used preposition verb are,laugh at, knock at, listen to, look at, look for, look after, wait for,agree to, agree with, talk about, talked to.Examples: -She is listening to music. -She looked at the blackboard. -We believe in God. -They were waiting for the teacher. -Do you agree with me? -Do you agree to my proposal? -Someone is knocking at the door.
it. You use a coordinating conjunction ("and," "but," "or," "nor," "for," "so," or "yet") to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. Note that you can also use the conjunctions "but" and "for" as prepositions. In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a coordinating conjunction: -Lilacs and violets are usually purple. In this example, the coordinating conjunction "and" links two nouns. -This movie is particularly interesting to feminist film theorists, for the screenplay was written by Mae West. In this example, the coordinating conjunction "for" is used to link two independent clauses. -Daniels uncle claimed that he spent most of his youth dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish. Here the coordinating conjunction "and" links two participle phrases ("dancing on rooftops" and "swallowing goldfish") which act as adverbs describing the verb "spends."
it. A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s). The most common subordinating conjunctions are "after," "although," "as," "because," "before," "how," "if," "once," "since," "than," "that," "though," "till," "until," "when," "where," "whether," and "while." Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a subordinating conjunction: -After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent. The subordinating conjunction "after" introduces the dependent clause "After she had learned to drive." -If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday. Similarly, the subordinating conjunction "if" introduces the dependent clause "If the paperwork arrives on time." -Gerald had to begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed. The subordinating conjunction "when" introduces the dependent clause "when his computer crashed."
it. Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs -- you use them to link equivalent sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are "both...and," "either...or," "neither...nor,", "not only...but also," "so...as," and "whether...or." (Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a coordinating conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb.) The highlighted words in the following sentences are correlative conjunctions: -Both my grandfather and my father worked in the steel plant. In this sentence, the correlative conjunction "both...and" is used to link the two noun phrases that act as the compound subject of the sentence: "my grandfather" and "my father". -Bring either a Jello salad or a potato scallop. Here the correlative conjunction "either...or" links two noun phrases: "a Jello salad" and "a potato scallop." -Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school or to go to law school. Similarly, the correlative conjunction "whether ... or" links the two infinitive phrases "to go to medical school" and "to go to law school."
SIMPLE SENTENCE Some students like to study in theAlso called an independent clause. mornings. COMPOUND SENTENCE Contains two independent clauses Alejandro played football, sojoined by a coordinator: FANBOYS Maria went shopping. COMPLEX SENTENCE has an independent clause joined The students are studying becauseby one or more dependent clauses. they have a test tomorrow.
Spatial Order: Conclusions: -on the other -in final side analysis -opposite to-in conclusion -in the back -in final -in the frontconsideration -at that point Opinions: -I agree/disagree Time Order: that/with/ -as soon as -I am for/against -before long the idea of -in the first -There are reasons place why.. -in the meantime
Comma: tells the reader to pause, just Semicolon: To separate twoas the blinking yellow light tells a independent clauses. One or bothdriver to slow down and proceed with of the clauses are short and thecaution. ideas expressed are usually veryExample: similar.-Let‟s play hockey, baseball and Example: He loves studying; Hetennis. cant get enough of school.Colon: To provide additional details and Apostrophe: The superscriptexplanation. sign ( ) used to indicate theExample: omission of a letter or letters•He had many reasons for joining the from a word, the possessiveclub: to get in shape, to make new case, or the plurals offriends, to lose some weight, and to get numbers, letters, andout of the house. abbreviations.Question Mark: The question Exclamation Mark: Is used to express amark is used at the end of a sense of urgency or a strong emotion.question. Example: Look out!Example: Where do you live?