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Who, what, why, and where
 

Who, what, why, and where

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    Who, what, why, and where Who, what, why, and where Presentation Transcript

    • THE WHO, WHAT, WHY, AND WHERE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING AND ASSESSMENT Lorie-Ann V. Placido Psychology 202
      • Who are the parties in the assessment enterprise?
      • In what types of settings are assessments conducted?
      • Why is assessment conducted?
      • Where does one go for authoritative information about tests?
      • psychological testing and assessment
      • Who are the parties in the assessment enterprise?
      • In what types of settings are assessments conducted?
      • Why is assessment conducted?
      • Where does one go for authoritative information about tests?
      WHO, WHAT, WHY, AND WHERE of psychological testing and assessment
      • Who are the Parties?
      • Parties in the assessment enterprise include:
        • Developers and publishers of test.
        • Users of Test
        • People who are evaluated by means of tests
        • Society at large (frequently over looked party)
      WHO, WHAT, WHY, AND WHERE of psychological testing and assessment
      • THE TEST DEVELOPERS AND PUBLISHERS
      • Test Developers and publishers create tests or other methods of assessment
      • The American Psychological Association (APA) estimate that more than 20,000 new psychological test are developed each year.
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST DEVELOPERS AND PUBLISHERS
      • Among this new tests are some that were created for a:
        • Specific Research Study
        • Some that were created I the hope that they would be published
        • Some that represent refinements or modifications of existing test.
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST DEVELOPERS AND PUBLISHERS
      • Test creators bring a wide array of backgrounds and interest to the test development process.
      • Test developers and publishers appreciate the significant impact that test results can have on people’s life.
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST DEVELOPERS AND PUBLISHERS
      • The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing covers issues related to test construction and evaluation, test administration and use, and special application of test, such as special considerations when testing linguistic minorities.
      • The Standards is an indispensable reference work not only for test developers but also for test users as well.
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST USERS
      • Test are used un a wide range of professional including:
        • Clinicians
        • Counselors
        • Human Resource Personnel
        • Teachers
        • Other school personnel
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST USERS
      • The Standards, as well as the official guidelines of various professional organizations, have much to impart to test users about how, why, and under what condition tests should be used.
      • No matter how sound a test is, its purpose will be defeated if the test user fails to competently manage all phases of the testing or assessment process.
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST USERS
      • A responsible test user has obligation before, during, and after a test is administered.
      • Ethical guidelines dictate that before a test is administered, is should be stored in a way that reasonably assures that its specific contents will not be made known in advance
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST USERS
      • Another obligation of the test user before the test administration is to ensure that a prepared and suitably trained person administers the test properly.
      • The test administrators (or examiner) must be familiar with the test materials and procedures and must have at the test site all materials needed to properly administer the test. Materials needed might include a stop watch, a supply of pencil, and a sufficient number of test protocols.
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST USERS
      • In addition to having sufficient supplies, the examiner also ensures that the room in which the test will be conducted is suitable and conducive to the testing
      • To the extent that it is possible, distracting conditions such as excessive noise, heat, cold, interruptions, glaring sunlight, crowding, inadequate ventilation, and so forth should be avoided.
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST USERS
      • During test administration, and especially in one on one or small group testing, rapport between the examiner and the examinee can be critically important context of the testing situation.
      • After the test administration, test users have many obligations as well. These obligations may range from safeguarding the test protocols to conveying the test results in a clearly understandable fashion.
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST USERS
      • In between, there are other obligations such as those related to scoring the test. If a test is to be scored by people, scorers need to be in agreement about scoring criteria. – even if that is not always the case every day, non test, evaluation situation.
      • Interpreting the test result and seeing to it that test data are used in accordance with established procedures and ethical guidelines are additional obligations of the users.
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST TAKERS
      • Test takers approach an assessment situation in different ways, and test users must be sensitive to the diversity of possible responses to a testing situation.
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST TAKERS
      • On the day of test administration, test takers may vary on a continuum with respect to numerous variation including
        • The amount of test anxiety they are experiencing and the degree to which that test anxiety might significantly affect the test result.
        • Their capacity and willingness to cooperate with the examiner or to comprehend written instructions.
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST TAKERS
        • The amount of physical pain or emotional distress they are experiencing.
        • The amount of physical discomfort brought on by not having enough to eat, having had too much to eat, or other physical conditions.
        • The extent to which they are alert and wide awake as opposed to nodding off.
        • The extent to which they are predisposed in agreeing or disagreeing when presented with stimulus statements.
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE TEST TAKERS
        • The extent to which they have received prior coaching.
        • The importance they may attribute to portraying themselves in a good (or bad) light.
        • The extend to which they are, for lack of a better term, “lucky” and can “beat the odds” on a multiple-choice achievement test (even though they may not have learned the subject matter).
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE SOCIETY AT LARGE
      • The societal need for “organizing” and systematizing” has historically manifested itself in such varied questions as:
        • Who is a witch?
        • Who is schizophrenic?
        • Who is qualified?
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE SOCIETY AT LARGE
      • The specific questions asked have shift with societal concerns.
      • Methods used to determine the answers have varied throughout history as a function of factors such as intellectual sophistication and religious preoccupation.
      WHO are the parties?
      • THE SOCIETY AT LARGE
      • Palmistry, podoscopy, astrology, and phrenology, among other pursuits, have had components who argued that the best means of understanding and predicting human behavior was through the study of the palms of the hand, the feet, the bumps on the head, tea leaves, and so on.
      WHO are the parties?
      • OTHER PARTIES
      • Beyond the four primary parties, there are others that may participate in varied ways in the testing and assessment enterprise.
        • Organizations
        • Companies
        • Government agencies sponsor the development of test for various reason, such as certifying personnel.
      WHO are the parties?
      • EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS
      • School Ability Test
      • Achievement test: evaluations of accomplishment or the degree of learning that has taken place.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS
      • Diagnostic test is a tool of assessment used to help narrow down and identify areas of deficit to be targeted for intervention. Diagnostic test for reading, mathematics and other academic subjects may be administered in educational settings be teachers, school counselor and school psychologist to assess the need from educational interventions as well as eligibility for special education program.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS
      • Informal evaluation is the typical non systematic assessment that leads to the formation of an opinion or attitude.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • GERIATRIC SETTINGS
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • GERIATRIC SETTINGS
      • Wherever older individuals reside, they may at some point require psychological assessment to evaluate cognitive, psychological, adaptive, or other functioning.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • COUNSELING SETTING
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • COUNSELING SETTING
      • Assessment in a counseling context may occur in environments as diverse as schools, prisons and government or privately-owned institutions.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • COUNSELING SETTING
      • Regardless of the particular tools used, the ultimate objective of many such assessment is the improvement of the assessee in terms of adjustment, productivity, quality of life, or some related variable. Measure of social and academic skills and measure of personality, interest, attitudes, and values are among the many types of test that counselor might administer to a client.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • COUNSELING SETTING
      • Referral questions to be answered range from “How can this child better focus on task?” to “For what career is the client best suited?” to “What activities are recommended for retirement?”.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • COUNSELING SETTING
      • Because the test taker is in many instance the primary recipient and user of the data from the test administered by the counselor, it is imperative that the counselor understand the strengths and limitations of the findings and be able to completely convey the test result to the client.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • CLINICAL SETTING
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • CLINICAL SETTING
      • Test and many other tools of assessment are widely used in clinical setting such as public, private, and military hospitals, inpatient and outpatient clinics, private practice consulting rooms, schools, and other institutions.
      • These tools are used to help screen for or diagnose behavior problems.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • CLINICAL SETTING
      • These are the types of situations the might prompt the employment of such tools.
        • A private psychotherapy client wishes to be evaluated to see it the assessment can provide any non obvious clues regarding his maladjustment.
        • A school psychologist clinically evaluates a child experiencing learning difficulties to determine what factors are primarily responsible for it.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • CLINICAL SETTING
        • A psychotherapy researcher uses assessment procedures to determine if a particular method of psychotherapy is effective in treating a particular problem.
        • A psychologist-consultant retained by an insurance company is called on to give an opinion as to the reality of a client’s psychological problem; is the client really experiencing such problems or just malingering?
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • CLINICAL SETTING
        • A court appointed psychologist is asked to give an opinion as to a defendant’s competency to stand trial.
        • A prison psychologist is called on to give an opinion regarding to the extent of a convicted violent prisoner’s rehabilitation.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • CLINICAL SETTING
      • Test employed in clinical setting may be intelligence test, personality tests, neuropsychological test, or other specialized instruments, depending on the presenting or suspected problem area.
      • The hallmark of testing in clinical testing is that the test or measurement technique is employed with only one individual at a time.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • BUSINESS AND MILITARY SETTING
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • BUSINESS AND MILITARY SETTING
      • Tests are used in many ways, perhaps most notably in decision making about the careers of the personnel.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • ENVIRONMENTAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CREDENTIALING
      • One of the many applications of measurement is in governmental licensing, certification, or general credentialing of professionals.
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • ENVIRONMENTAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CREDENTIALING
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • OTHER SETTING
      • Many different kinds of measurement procedures find application in a wide variety of settings.
      •  
      IN WHAT TYPES OF SETTINGS ARE ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED, AND WHY?
      • TEST CATALOGUES
      • Perhaps the most readily accessible sources of information about a test is a catalogue distributed by the publisher of the test.
      • The objective of the catalogue is to sell the test
      •  
      WHERE TO GO FOR AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION: REFERENCE SOURCES
      • TEST CATALOGUES
      WHERE TO GO FOR AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION: REFERENCE SOURCES
      • TEST MANUALS
      WHERE TO GO FOR AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION: REFERENCE SOURCES
      • TEST MANUALS
      • Detailed information concerning the development of a particular test and technical information relating to it should be found in the manual for the test itself.
      WHERE TO GO FOR AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION: REFERENCE SOURCES
      • REFERENCE VOLUMES
      WHERE TO GO FOR AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION: REFERENCE SOURCES
      • JOURNAL ARTICLES
        • Articles in current journal may contain reviews of the test, updated or independent studies of its psychometric soundness, or examples of how the instrument was used in either research or an applied context.
      WHERE TO GO FOR AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION: REFERENCE SOURCES
      • ON LINE DATA BASE
      WHERE TO GO FOR AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION: REFERENCE SOURCES
      • OTHER SOURCES
      WHERE TO GO FOR AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION: REFERENCE SOURCES http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sc4EF3ijVJ8&feature=related marchmallow test http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQvBrEEYS20&feature=related