The Philosophical Foundations of Education                          Foundations of Education                              ...
Topic OutlineThe Philosophy of the Renaissance PeriodModern Philosophies of Education
Renaissance PeriodMonalisa by Leonardo   Pieta by Michelangelo       Da Vinci
Renaissance Period                             C. Columbus discoveredGutenburg Perfect Printing                           ...
Renaissance Period Columbus discovers theearth revolved around the   Martin Luther founded a new           sun            ...
The Philosophy of the RenaissancePeriod Most authorities agree that modern times began with the  RENAISSANCE. It was a g...
Different movements that arise duringthe Renaissance Period   Humanism   The Reformation   Protestant Reformation   Ca...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period -HUMANISM Derived from studia humanitatis which means  “stud...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period -HUMANISM It was a way of life concerned with the fullest  r...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period -HUMANISM Humanistic Education was the outgrowth of the  ren...
1.   Italian or     individual     humanismThis stressedpersonalculture,individualfreedom andthe developmentof the elite g...
Popular Humanist during this time:DANTEALIGHIERIAuthor of DivineComedy
Popular Humanist during this time: Petrarch A prolific writer and a progressive thinker
Popular Humanist during this time: Da Feltre A scholar and educator who opened the schools for the poor
1.   Social     Humanism this gave moreemphasis on moraland social reformsas the best meansfor providing richand full live...
Popular Humanist during this time:Erasmus-     a Dutch scholar-     Known for his      educational works      “Liberal Edu...
HUMANISM contributed the following toeducation:1. Allowed the development of educational talent.2. Encouraged involvement ...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – THE REFORMATION This was one of the movements during the 1...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – THE REFORMATION – Protestant Reformation• The aim of Protes...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – THE REFORMATION – Protestant Reformation3 Types of Protesta...
Popular scholar during this time:Melanchtion-    One of the greatestScholars who made aSurvey of what was inGermany.-the o...
Popular scholar during this time:MelanchtionMethods used in school were:   Reading   Correct pronunciation of words   M...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATION This was another movement int...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATIONThe different religious congreg...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATIONJesuits schools were designated...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – REALISM Realism maintained that education should be  conce...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period     – REALISM – various groups1.     Verbal Realist aimed at ...
Popular scholar during this time:Vives (Spanish) believed that educationshould develop personality. To do this ateacher sh...
Popular scholar during this time:Rabelais (French)stressed that the aim oflearning was thedevelopment of a wholeperson
Popular scholar during this time:  Milton (English) said that  education was to prepare  for actual living
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – REALISM – various groups2. Social Realists were members of ...
Popular scholar during this time:  Montaigne – a     famous social     realists. He     proposed a     broad social     ed...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – REALISM – various groups3. Sense Realists emphasized a prac...
Popular scholar during this time:  Comenius had  More symphathy  for the  masses and he  Championed  education for all.
Popular scholar during this time:  Mulcaster  emphasized that  children must be  Studied  thoroughly, their  innate abilit...
Popular scholar during this time:  Bacon  Stressed man’s  dominance over  things. He used  the inductive  method of  learn...
Popular scholar during this time:  Ratke  Emphasized the  development of a  natural method  of teaching.  Repetition he  i...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period  – DISCIPLINISMIt was the two doctrine characterized by two  ...
Popular scholar during this time: John Locke Strongly Advocated the disciplinary theory of education in his Some Thoughts ...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – RATIONALISMIt was the movement that upheld the right of eac...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – NATURALISMThe most influential movement of the 18th century...
Popular scholar during this time: Jean-Jacques     Rousseau Believed that the basic tenet of naturalism was conviction and...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period  – NATURALISM – Key Concepts and the Educators  role based on...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period  – NATURALISM – Key Concepts and the Educators  role based on...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period  – NATURALISM – Key Concepts and the Educators  role based on...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – NATIONALISMThe rapid rise of nationalism in the 19th centur...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period     – NATIONALISMThe salient points brought about by naturali...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – DEVELOPMENTALISMThis was a child centered theory that empha...
Popular scholar during this time: Johann Heinrich     Pestalozzi He combined physical, moral, intellectual and manual work...
Popular scholar during this time: Johnann     Freidrich     Herbart His central principle was that ideas are developed in ...
Popular scholar during this time: Friedrich Froebel His     theory    was       based on the       concept of the       ab...
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – DEVELOPMENTALISMFormulated 5 basic principles of teaching....
MODERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION - Idealism This school of thought holds that knowledge is  independent of sense percepti...
MODERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION - Progressivism This school of thought holds that knowledge is  independent of sense per...
MODERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION - Existentialism It is a philosophical doctrine which emphasize  the freedom of human be...
MODERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION - Essentialist It is an philosophical theory that ascribes  ultimate reality to essence ...
MODERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION Idealism Pragmantism Progressivism Existentialism Essentialism
MODERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATIONPragmantism• It claims that the child’s growth and  development as an individual depend on...
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The philosophical foundations of education

  1. 1. The Philosophical Foundations of Education Foundations of Education 1st Semester AY 2012-2013Lorie-Ann V. PlacidoMAIP
  2. 2. Topic OutlineThe Philosophy of the Renaissance PeriodModern Philosophies of Education
  3. 3. Renaissance PeriodMonalisa by Leonardo Pieta by Michelangelo Da Vinci
  4. 4. Renaissance Period C. Columbus discoveredGutenburg Perfect Printing America
  5. 5. Renaissance Period Columbus discovers theearth revolved around the Martin Luther founded a new sun religion
  6. 6. The Philosophy of the RenaissancePeriod Most authorities agree that modern times began with the RENAISSANCE. It was a general re-awakening, a revival or rebirth of learning. The renaissance upheld the dignity of the human being, renewed the spirit of nationalism. It is also the time for increased trade among countries, and a period of exploration. This lead to scientific research which was used to solve problems. Books were printed and thus were made more widely available.
  7. 7. Different movements that arise duringthe Renaissance Period Humanism The Reformation Protestant Reformation Catholic-Counter Reformation Realism Disciplinism Rationalism Naturalism Nationalism Developmentalism
  8. 8. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period -HUMANISM Derived from studia humanitatis which means “studies of humanity” This movement started in the early part of the 14th century. This period was marked by a revival of the classical influences of the Romans and Greeks, expressed in the flowering of the arts and literature as well as the beginning of modern science (Duca:1998)
  9. 9. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period -HUMANISM It was a way of life concerned with the fullest realization of human development. It may be traced to the saying of Protagoras, “Man is the measure of all things, of those that are, that they are, of those that are not, that they are not” (Tulio:1999)
  10. 10. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period -HUMANISM Humanistic Education was the outgrowth of the renaissance. It identified two phases: 1. Italian or individual humanism 2. Social humanism
  11. 11. 1. Italian or individual humanismThis stressedpersonalculture,individualfreedom andthe developmentof the elite group.
  12. 12. Popular Humanist during this time:DANTEALIGHIERIAuthor of DivineComedy
  13. 13. Popular Humanist during this time: Petrarch A prolific writer and a progressive thinker
  14. 14. Popular Humanist during this time: Da Feltre A scholar and educator who opened the schools for the poor
  15. 15. 1. Social Humanism this gave moreemphasis on moraland social reformsas the best meansfor providing richand full lives for all
  16. 16. Popular Humanist during this time:Erasmus- a Dutch scholar- Known for his educational works “Liberal Education of children” & On the Order of Study”
  17. 17. HUMANISM contributed the following toeducation:1. Allowed the development of educational talent.2. Encouraged involvement and participation in all educational opportunities.3. Encouraged students toward actualization and self fulfillment.4. Placed a premium on humanity and individual potential.5. Introduced innovations in teaching methods.6. Stimulated creativity and independence among students.7. Increased person to person interaction.
  18. 18. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – THE REFORMATION This was one of the movements during the 16th century directed against the practices of Roman Catholic Church. Reformation was not merely a reform in religious doctrine. It involved political, economic, moral, philosophical and institutional changes. Credit to its success was MARTIN LUTHER, an Augustinian monk and professor of theology at the newly-established University of Wittenburg. He was threatened with excommunication from the Catholic faith, LUTHER and other protestant reformers, formed a movement called “Protestant Reformation”
  19. 19. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – THE REFORMATION – Protestant Reformation• The aim of Protestant Reformers was religious moralism – living a worthy life would guarantee a glorious after life.• Education must provide adequate training in the duties at home.• It also promoted parental discipline and a sound family life as a foundations of a good government.
  20. 20. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – THE REFORMATION – Protestant Reformation3 Types of Protestant Schools1. Vernacular school. This was organized for popular education. The educational system was compulsory.2. Secondary School. The protestant reformation gained greatest strides in the secondary level.3. University School. Trained the masses and other future leaders.
  21. 21. Popular scholar during this time:Melanchtion- One of the greatestScholars who made aSurvey of what was inGermany.-the outcome of whichbecame the basis of theSAXONY Plan toestablish a secondaryschool in every townunder the control of thestate.
  22. 22. Popular scholar during this time:MelanchtionMethods used in school were: Reading Correct pronunciation of words Memorization of answers from the Gospel Hymns and PsalmsEventually, classroom instruction became morerigid, discipline was harsh and religiousIndoctrination was the chief method used.
  23. 23. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATION This was another movement intended to clarify doctrine and improve the practices of the catholic practices of the Catholic Church. This aimed to develop an unquestioning obedience to the authority of the church
  24. 24. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATIONThe different religious congregation also stressedtheir own aims: The Jesuit schools were designated to train leaders The Christian Brothers Jansenists will teach spiritual salvation.
  25. 25. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATIONJesuits schools were designated to train leadersthrough the following:1. Doing a small amount of work at a time and doing it well.2. Two steps in the teaching method: pre selection and repetition.3. Adapting the lesson to the abilities and interests of the children.4. Student participation through the question and answer method.5. Repetition for mastery.6. Review7. Motivation by rivalry and emulation.
  26. 26. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – REALISM Realism maintained that education should be concerned with actualization of life. They believed that the new type of education should be developed to prepare the child for the concrete duties of practical living. The difference between realist, humanist and reformers gave rise to various groups of realists.
  27. 27. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – REALISM – various groups1. Verbal Realist aimed at complete knowledge and understanding of human society and to fit the individual to the environment in which he lived. 3 Famous verbal realists a. Vives b. Rabelais c. Milton
  28. 28. Popular scholar during this time:Vives (Spanish) believed that educationshould develop personality. To do this ateacher should study each pupil individuallyadapt school work.
  29. 29. Popular scholar during this time:Rabelais (French)stressed that the aim oflearning was thedevelopment of a wholeperson
  30. 30. Popular scholar during this time: Milton (English) said that education was to prepare for actual living
  31. 31. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – REALISM – various groups2. Social Realists were members of the aristocracy who claimed that education should best develop man’s contact with people and their activities rather than through books.
  32. 32. Popular scholar during this time: Montaigne – a famous social realists. He proposed a broad social education that would make young aristocrats “men of the world”
  33. 33. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – REALISM – various groups3. Sense Realists emphasized a practical type of education that stressed scientific training. They favored democratic education and the uses of vernacular.
  34. 34. Popular scholar during this time: Comenius had More symphathy for the masses and he Championed education for all.
  35. 35. Popular scholar during this time: Mulcaster emphasized that children must be Studied thoroughly, their innate abilities should respected. He recommends that games, play, exercise in tandem with Learning.
  36. 36. Popular scholar during this time: Bacon Stressed man’s dominance over things. He used the inductive method of learning.
  37. 37. Popular scholar during this time: Ratke Emphasized the development of a natural method of teaching. Repetition he insisted must be done as often as possible. He also prescribed that learning through senses must first Be done before exploration.
  38. 38. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – DISCIPLINISMIt was the two doctrine characterized by two reactions during the 1st half of the 18th century: the rise of formal discipline; and the development of reason or rationalism.
  39. 39. Popular scholar during this time: John Locke Strongly Advocated the disciplinary theory of education in his Some Thoughts Concerning Education believing that the mind of the child at birth was a blank tablet or tabula rasa
  40. 40. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – RATIONALISMIt was the movement that upheld the right of each individual to his own opinion, liberty of conscience and freedom of thought.This was considered as the age of REASON, some times known as the AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT.
  41. 41. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – NATURALISMThe most influential movement of the 18th century which stood for education in accordance with nature.
  42. 42. Popular scholar during this time: Jean-Jacques Rousseau Believed that the basic tenet of naturalism was conviction and that the natural growth of children in a Natural Environment Constituted Adequate education.
  43. 43. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – NATURALISM – Key Concepts and the Educators role based on the Doctrine of Naturalism accdg, to Tulio. Key Concepts Naturalist Education1. Education must satisfy the -it is the role of education to basic needs of man as an provide knowledge and skills that individual. are fundamental forces within the individual to seek satisfaction.2. Education is geared to -Believes that each child follows a individual growth each child. logical pattern of growth and development and that education must be attuned to these natural patterns.
  44. 44. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – NATURALISM – Key Concepts and the Educators role based on the Doctrine of Naturalism accdg, to Tulio. Key Concepts Naturalist Education3. Education is not simply mental -Advocates the education of both in nature. mind and body. Encourages the development of moral character, discipline and physical well being.4. Students educate themselves -Education involves self activity Activities are offered for exploratory purposes and for the development of aesthetics and self expression.
  45. 45. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – NATURALISM – Key Concepts and the Educators role based on the Doctrine of Naturalism accdg, to Tulio. Key Concepts Naturalist Education5. The teacher has an awareness -Awareness that natural of the nature of the child. environment is responsible for the development of the individual differences, each child has a distinct learning needs that require individualized learning activities.6. Teacher as a guide in the -The education and instruction intellectual process, used must be based on the understanding level of the children to naturally develop them according to their needs and interests.
  46. 46. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – NATIONALISMThe rapid rise of nationalism in the 19th century stimulated the development of the state- controlled and state supported public school system because naturalism focused on the patriotic citizenship.
  47. 47. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – NATIONALISMThe salient points brought about by naturalist education.1. Grammar became the leading subject in the curriculum.2. Acquisition of knowledge and skills through the 3r’s3. Use of the “project method” which gave pupils a chance to work on actual practical problems.4. Increase in public funds to support colleges and universities.
  48. 48. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – DEVELOPMENTALISMThis was a child centered theory that emphasized a careful study of the child. Developmentalists viewed education as a natural process, a growth and unfolding of innate talents and potentials.
  49. 49. Popular scholar during this time: Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi He combined physical, moral, intellectual and manual work in his aim to “psychologize education”.
  50. 50. Popular scholar during this time: Johnann Freidrich Herbart His central principle was that ideas are developed in the mind through external stimuli.
  51. 51. Popular scholar during this time: Friedrich Froebel His theory was based on the concept of the absolute as a creative force.
  52. 52. Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – DEVELOPMENTALISMFormulated 5 basic principles of teaching. The Principle of Self Activity The Principle of Interest The Principle of Apperception Principle of Individual Difference Principle of Socialization.
  53. 53. MODERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION - Idealism This school of thought holds that knowledge is independent of sense perception or experience. This also claims that man’s knowledge is based on his mental state and the mental stimulus perceived by man’s soul comes from an infinite spirit which is God. The idealist expects the teachers to be role models of intellectual, moral, aesthetic, and vocational excellence to their students. They should teach by example.
  54. 54. MODERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION - Progressivism This school of thought holds that knowledge is independent of sense perception or experience. This also claims that man’s knowledge is based on his mental state and the mental stimulus perceived by man’s soul comes from an infinite spirit which is God. The idealist expects the teachers to be role models of intellectual, moral, aesthetic, and vocational excellence to their students. They should teach by example.
  55. 55. MODERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION - Existentialism It is a philosophical doctrine which emphasize the freedom of human beings to make choices, in a world where there is no absolute values outside man itself. The decisions that a man makes will enable him to realize what kind of person he will be and will make him distinct from other people. And if a person has developed and is aware of his own identity, he will be able to find meaning and purpose for his existence. Education to the existentialist should enable man to make choices for his life.
  56. 56. MODERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION - Essentialist It is an philosophical theory that ascribes ultimate reality to essence embodied in a thing perceptible to the senses. In education, it is a philosophy holding that certain basic ideas and skills or disciplines essential to one’s culture are formulable and should be taught to all alike by certain time- tested methods.
  57. 57. MODERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION Idealism Pragmantism Progressivism Existentialism Essentialism
  58. 58. MODERN PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATIONPragmantism• It claims that the child’s growth and development as an individual depend on his experiences and self activity.• Emphasizes that educational concern must be on the child’s interest, desires and the learners freedom as a an individual rather than the subject matter.• Adheres to the ideas that thinking and reasoning should be emphasized, and that good
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