PERFORMING: group fully functional, devoted to task at hand.
ADJOURNING: end of group/ new modified group
Heterogeneous group with diverse abilities and information more effective.
Effective outcome with heterogeneous group in terms of gender, personality, opinions, skills and perspective.
Common demographic attributes like age, sex, race, education level strength of service in organisation result in better outcome.
Composition of a group acts as a predictor of turn over.
Groups which have cohorts( persons with common attributes) are likely to perform better.
Does the size of a group affect the group’s overall behaviour? YES
For completion of a particular task ( something productive)- smaller group but for problem solving a larger group more effective.
Individual becomes a free rider.
Preferable to have odd number.
All groups have norms.
These are acceptable standards of behaviour that are shared by group members.
These define what ought/ought not to be done by members.
When accepted and agreed upon by members these act as behaviour influencing parameters for conduct without outside control.
Norms differ group to group.
These could be formally or informally laid down.
Performance norms: laid down parameters as to how hard a person is required to work, what production level to achieve and so on.
Appearance norms: dress, seeming to look for a new job etc.
Arrangement norms: basically applicable to informal groups. These laid down degree of social interaction. In essence participative social activities.
Allocation of resources norms: these could include pay, bonus, tools equipment, assignment of difficult jobs etc.
Norms normally develop in one or more ways:
Explicit statement by manager: no personal calls during working hours.
Critical events in group’s history: monitoring each other, eg: accident.
Primacy: the first behaviour pattern that emerges sets the norms.
Carry over behaviour: what one followed.
It facilitate group survival- as group they don’t want to fail and forbid interference from other groups.
It increases the predictability of group members predictability of behaviour.
It reduces embarrassing inter personal problems of group members.
It allows group members to express the central values of the group and clarify.
Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 1: Goals and strategies Foundation 2: Right people Foundation 3: Right resources Foundation 4: Effective decision making Foundation 5: Trust Foundation 6: Effective leadership Foundation 7: Optimism
Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 1: Goals and strategies Successful teams need to have clearly defined goals or outcomes that they are aiming to achieve.
Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 2: Right people Teams will only prosper if they have the right people with the right skills, knowledge, experience and attributes in place. As a leader of the team, take care to select people who will help you to achieve the outcomes you desire
Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 3: Right resources The absence of this vital resource will have a huge impact. Teams are no different. If they don't have the right resources at their disposal they will struggle to deliver.
Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 4: Effective decision making Without effective decision making, teams will generate lots of ideas without ever translating these into action and results. Decisions are what moves things from concepts to results.
Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 5: Trust Unless there is trust in teams, people will continue to act in their own interests rather than the interests of team results. Building trust is a vital foundation in successful teams.
Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 6: Effective leadership Teams without effective leadership will drift and struggle to achieve meaningful outcomes. As a leader of the team it is important to avoid drift.
Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 7: Optimism Optimistic teams are positive. They believe that they can achieve better results and outcomes. They also recognize that obstacles will arise and will require effort to overcome.
Seven Characteristics of an Effective Team
Team members share leadership roles
Team develops own scope of work
Team schedules work to be done and commits to taking time allotted to do work
Team develops tangible work products
Team members are mutually accountable for work products