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  • Dynamics in fact is one of the sciences that deals with the mathematical study of motion and forces causing it.A person with calculated brain and adjustable bent of mind suited to any environment with optimism may be called as dynamic.A dynamic person craves for a change consisting with morals.Dynamic attitude without morals is of no use.It may be an individual or a group Now -a days the word group-dynamics conveys the meaning of ever changing the individualities or statuses leaving aside the moral aspect resulting in the tradeunionism.For example a person setting aside the moral aspect supports an unworthy person and joins hands with him cannot be called as dynamic..Sticking on to morals,
    an individual or a group, if it becomes dynamic it is to be considered
    as real dynamism.
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Group dynamics Group dynamics Presentation Transcript

  • Lorie-Ann V. Placido
    • Hundreds of fish swimming
    • A pack of foraging baboons
    • A half dozens of crows
    • Group of Whales
    • Ants
    • Bees
    • Dogs
    • Gorillas
    • school
    • troupe
    • murder
    • gam
    • army
    • colony
    • pack
    • band
    • Two or more individuals interacting
      • who have come together to achieve a particular goal.
      • with a stable pattern of relationship between them who perceive themselves as a group.
      • Two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationship
    • A group exists when members are:
    • Motivated to join.
    • Perceived the group as a unified unit of interacting people.
    • Contribute in various degrees.
    • Have agreements and disagreements, but finally a common outcome.
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    • Classifying Groups
    • Primary Group
      • Such as family and friends, are small long term groups characterized by face to face interaction and high levels of cohesiveness, solidarity, and member identification.
    • Classifying Groups
      • Secondary Groups
        • A relatively large, often formally organized, social group in more complex societies.
    • Classifying Groups
      • Planned Groups
        • A group deliberately formed by its members or external authority
    • Classifying Groups
      • Emergent Group
        • A group that comes into existence gradually as individuals repeatedly interact with the same subset of individuals
    • Holly Arrow, Joseph E. McGrath, & Jennifer L. Berdahl (2000)extended this distinction between planned and emergent group.
    • Fourfold Taxonomy of Groups
    • Concocted Groups – are planned by individuals or authorities outside the group.
    • Founded Groups – are planned by one or more individuals who remain members of the group.
    • Circumstantial groups – are emergent, unplanned groups that arise when external, situational forces set the stage for people to join together – often temporarily – in a unified group.
    • Self-organizing groups – emerge when interacting individuals gradually align their activities in a cooperative system of interdependence..
    • GROUP, TASK, GROUPS, ASSOCIATIONS, AND CATEGORIES.
    • Brian Lickel and colleagues 2000
    • Intimacy Group – such as families, romantic couples, close friends, and street gangs, were judged to be the most group-like by perceivers.
    • Task group – included work groups in employment settings and goal focused groups in a variety of non employment situations.
    • Weak Associations – were aggregation of individuals that formed spontaneously, lasted only a brief period of time, and had boundaries that were permeable
    • Social Categories – were aggregations of individuals who were similar in terms of gender, ethnicity, religion, and nationality.
    • Describing Groups
    • Interaction . The social actions of individuals in a group, particularly those that were influenced either directly or indirectly by the group.
    • Interdependence. Mutual dependence or influence. As when one’s outcomes, actions, thoughts, feelings, and experiences are determined in whole or in part by others.
    • Structure. Norms, Rules, and stable patterns of relations among the members of a group.
    • Goals. The aim or outcome sought by the group.
    • Cohesiveness. The strength of the bonds linking members to one another.
    • The Nature of Group Dynamics
    • Orienting Assumption
    • Groups are Real
    • Group Processes are Real
    • Groups are more than the sum of their Parts
    • Groups are Living Systems
    • Groups are influential
    • Groups Shape Society
    • STAGE -I FORMING: CONFUSION- not certain about purpose, task and leadership.
    • STAGE II
    • STORMING:
    • conflict and confrontation(disagreements).
    • STAGE III
    • NORMING: settling down, cooperation, collaboration
    • STAGE IV
    • PERFORMING: group fully functional, devoted to task at hand.
    • STAGE V
    • ADJOURNING: end of group/ new modified group
    • happy
    • sad
    • depressed
    • COMPOSITION
    • SIZE
    • NORMS
    • COHESIVENESS
    • Heterogeneous group with diverse abilities and information more effective.
    • Effective outcome with heterogeneous group in terms of gender, personality, opinions, skills and perspective.
    • Contd..
    • Common demographic attributes like age, sex, race, education level strength of service in organisation result in better outcome.
    • Composition of a group acts as a predictor of turn over.
    • Groups which have cohorts( persons with common attributes) are likely to perform better.
    • Does the size of a group affect the group’s overall behaviour? YES
    • For completion of a particular task ( something productive)- smaller group but for problem solving a larger group more effective.
    • Individual becomes a free rider.
    • Preferable to have odd number.
    • All groups have norms.
    • These are acceptable standards of behaviour that are shared by group members.
    • These define what ought/ought not to be done by members.
    • When accepted and agreed upon by members these act as behaviour influencing parameters for conduct without outside control.
    • Norms differ group to group.
    • These could be formally or informally laid down.
    • Performance norms: laid down parameters as to how hard a person is required to work, what production level to achieve and so on.
    • Appearance norms: dress, seeming to look for a new job etc.
    • Arrangement norms: basically applicable to informal groups. These laid down degree of social interaction. In essence participative social activities.
    • Allocation of resources norms: these could include pay, bonus, tools equipment, assignment of difficult jobs etc.
    • HOW
    • Norms normally develop in one or more ways:
    • Explicit statement by manager: no personal calls during working hours.
    • Critical events in group’s history: monitoring each other, eg: accident.
    • Primacy: the first behaviour pattern that emerges sets the norms.
    • Carry over behaviour: what one followed.
    • WHY
    • It facilitate group survival- as group they don’t want to fail and forbid interference from other groups.
    • It increases the predictability of group members predictability of behaviour.
    • It reduces embarrassing inter personal problems of group members.
    • It allows group members to express the central values of the group and clarify.
  • Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 1: Goals and strategies Foundation 2: Right people Foundation 3: Right resources Foundation 4: Effective decision making Foundation 5: Trust Foundation 6: Effective leadership Foundation 7: Optimism
  • Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 1: Goals and strategies Successful teams need to have clearly defined goals or outcomes that they are aiming to achieve.
  • Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 2: Right people Teams will only prosper if they have the right people with the right skills, knowledge, experience and attributes in place. As a leader of the team, take care to select people who will help you to achieve the outcomes you desire
  • Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 3: Right resources The absence of this vital resource will have a huge impact. Teams are no different. If they don't have the right resources at their disposal they will struggle to deliver.
  • Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 4: Effective decision making Without effective decision making, teams will generate lots of ideas without ever translating these into action and results. Decisions are what moves things from concepts to results.
  • Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 5: Trust Unless there is trust in teams, people will continue to act in their own interests rather than the interests of team results. Building trust is a vital foundation in successful teams.
  • Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 6: Effective leadership Teams without effective leadership will drift and struggle to achieve meaningful outcomes. As a leader of the team it is important to avoid drift.
  • Foundation of Successful Teams Foundation 7: Optimism Optimistic teams are positive. They believe that they can achieve better results and outcomes. They also recognize that obstacles will arise and will require effort to overcome.
  • Seven Characteristics of an Effective Team
    • Team members share leadership roles
    • Team develops own scope of work
    • Team schedules work to be done and commits to taking time allotted to do work
    • Team develops tangible work products
    • Team members are mutually accountable for work products
    • Performance is based on achieving team products
    • Problems are discussed and resolved by the team
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