• Constitution is designed to share powers
between a federal government and regional
• Power moves top down.
• Under a confederal
states have the most
power, and the nat’l
gov’t is weak.
• Power moves bottom
• Authors of the
• Voters pick
executive branch (but not judicial).
• expressed powers: those found directly in the
Const. for the federal gov’t.
– Ex: declare war
• reserved powers: belong exclusively to the
– Ex: establish public schools
• concurrent powers: those shared by the
states and the fed gov’t.
– Ex: raise taxes
• implied powers: not
stated in the
Const., but are
by the expressed powers.
– Ex: interstate highway (interstate trade)
• The Supremacy Clause establishes the Const.
as the “supreme law of the land” – the trump