Soil Ingredients
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Soil Ingredients

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Soil Ingredients Soil Ingredients Presentation Transcript

  • Soil ingredients
    Lindsay Schulz Educ. 373
  • Science Standard 3: Earth and the Processes that Shape It
    Indicator: 4.3.7
    Explain that smaller rocks come from the breakage and weathering of bedrock and larger rocks and that soil is made partly from weathered rock, partly from plant remains, and also contains many living organisms.
    Taken from:
    http://www.indianastandards.org/standard.asp?Subject=sci&Grade=4&Standard=3
    Link to Activity:
    http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi?LPid=2494
  • Definitions
    Soil – the portion of the earth's surface consisting of disintegrated rock and humus
    Humus - the dark organic material in soils, produced by the decomposition of vegetable or animal matter and essential to the fertility of the earth
    Organic - characteristic of, pertaining to, or derived from living organisms
    Mineral – any substance that is neither animal nor vegetable
    Sediments – mineral or organic matter deposited by water, air, or ice
    Observations - an act or instance of viewing or noting a fact or occurrence for some scientific or other special purpose
    Taken from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/observation
  • Background Information
    “The National Cooperative Soil Survey identifies and maps over 20,000 different kinds of soil in the United States. Most soils are given a name, which generally comes from the locale where the soil was first mapped. Named soils are referred to as soil series.
    Soils are named and classified on the basis of physical and chemical properties in their horizons (layers). “Soil Taxonomy” uses color, texture, structure, and other properties of the surface two meters deep to key the soil into a classification system to help people use soil information. This system also provides a common language for scientists.”
    Taken from: http://soils.usda.gov/education/facts/formation.html
  • What is soil?
    First ask the students a series of questions for a sense of previous knowledge:
    What color is soil?
    What texture does soil have?
    Is the soil moist? Dry?
    What does the soil smell like?
    Before the activity ask students, to name some organic materials. This process will help gauge whether or not the students understand what organic materials are. Encourage them to write down their ideas in their science journals and keep a master list of their answers on the blackboard.
  • What do you find? Beginning…
    Group the students.
    Put newspaper on each student’s desk.
    Each student should have tweezers, hand lens, soil, measuring tape and worksheet.
  • What do you find? Middle…
    Instruct the students to sort through the soil particles and decide if the particles they find are plants, animals, or mineral and rocks. The particles should be placed in the appropriate section of the worksheet.
  • SOIL INGREDIENTS WORKSHEET
    NAMES _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________
    INSTRUCTIONS:
    Look at the soil parts in the boxes labeled Animal, Plant, and Mineral, and answer these questions.
    1. Which section has more sample pieces? ___________________
    2. Which section has the largest pieces? ______________________
    3. With your centimeter ruler, measure the width, height, and depth of your largest rock particle.
    width ________ height________ depth________
    4. Name an object that is about the same size as your largest rock.
    5. Look at the rocks in your sample with your hand lens. Describe their color and shape. Record other observations.
    6. Do you think you could easily break the rock particles into smaller pieces?_____________
    Why or why not? ______________________________
    7. Looking at the soil as a whole, do you think that it is about the same color as the individual rocks? yes no Why or why not do you think this is so?
    8. What are the ingredients of soil?
  • What do you find? Ending...
    After sorting the particles, the students should complete the worksheet, "Soil Ingredients."
    When the students are finished with the worksheets, go over the information together.
    Ask them what the ingredients of soil are. As a class, make a list on the board of four general ingredients of soil:
    plant and animal parts, rock sediments (mineral), air, and water.
    Ask the students to identify which ingredients are living (any insects they may have found), nonliving (air, water, rock sediments) and once living (plant and animal parts).
  • Soil Recipe
    After the Soil Ingredients lesson, students could produce their own soil.
    http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi?LPid=2508
  • Children’s Literature
    Dirt: The Scoop on Soil By: Rosinsky, Natalie M, Boyd, and Sheree
    Soil! Get the Inside Scoop By: David L. Lindbo and Others
    Soil Basics By: Lindeen and Carol K.
  • Resources
    • http://www.indianastandards.org/standard.asp?Subject=sci&Grade=4&Standard=3
    Dirt: The Scoop on Soil By: Rosinsky, Natalie M, Boyd, and Sheree
    Soil! Get the Inside Scoop By: David L. Lindbo and Others
    Soil Basics By: Lindeen and Carol K.
    http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi?LPid=2508
    http://soils.usda.gov/education/facts/formation.html
    http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/observation
    • http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi?LPid=2494