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Chapter 20

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  • 1. Slide Show Intro Presentation Plus! The American Journey Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 936 Eastwind Drive Westerville, Ohio 43081
  • 2. Welcome to Presentation Plus!
  • 3. Contents Chapter Focus Section 1 The New Immigrants Section 2 Moving to the City Section 3 A Changing Culture Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to go to the corresponding content area. Press the ESC (escape) key at any time to exit the presentation.
  • 4. Chapter Focus (1) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Moving to the City Analyze the positive and negative effects of city life. (Section 2) 
    • A Changing Culture Describe the changes in American culture at the beginning of the twentieth century. (Section 3)
    • The New Immigrants Evaluate the impact of the “old” and the “new” immigrants on American Society . (Section 1) 
    Chapter Objectives
  • 5. Chapter Focus (2)
    • Science and Technology After the Civil War, the United States changed from a rural to an urban nation. Developments in science and technology helped push Americans off the farms and pull them to the cities. (Section 2) 
    • Continuity and Change By the turn of the century, a unique American culture had developed, affecting all aspects of American life. (Section 3)
    • Culture and Traditions In the mid-1800s the pattern of immigration changed from “old” to “new” immigrant groups. The “old” blended readily into American society, but the “new” held on to cultural differences. (Section 1) 
    Chapter Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 6. End of Chapter Focus Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide. End of Chapter Focus
  • 7. Section 1-1a Terms to Learn emigrate, ethnic group, steerage, sweatshop, assimilate Read to Discover… • what opportunities and difficulties immigrants found in the United States.  The New Immigrants Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Additional lecture notes appear on the following slides. • how the arrival of new immigrants in the 1880s changed American society. 
  • 8. Section 1-1b Section Theme Culture and Traditions In the mid-1800s the pattern of immigration changed from “old” to “new” immigrant groups. The “old” blended readily into American society, but the “new” held on to cultural differences. Section Objective Evaluate the impact of the “old” and the “new” immigrants on American Society .  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Additional lecture notes appear on the following slides. The New Immigrants
  • 9. Section 1-2 Introduction
    • The greater part of these “old” immigrants were Protestant, spoke English, and blended readily into American society.
    • Before 1865 most immigrants to the United States–except for enslaved African Americans–came from northern and western Europe. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 10. Section 1-3 A Flood of Immigrants Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • After the Civil War, growing numbers of immigrants made the journey to the United States. 
    • The tide of newcomers reached a peak in 1907, when nearly 1.3 million people came to America.
  • 11. Section 1-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • By 1907 only about 20 percent of the immigrants came from northern and western Europe, while 80 percent came from southern and eastern Europe.
    • Greeks, Russians, Hungarians, Italians, Turks, and Poles were among the newcomers of the mid-1880s. 
    New Immigration
  • 12. Section 1-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Few spoke English, so they did not blend into American society as easily as the “old” immigrants had. 
    • After 1900 immigration from Mexico also increased. 
    • In addition many people came to the United States from China and Japan. 
    • Many of the newcomers from eastern and southern Europe were Catholics or Jews. 
    New Immigration (cont.)
  • 13. Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Leaving Troubles Behind
    • Many people emigrated , or left their homelands, because of economic troubles.
    • Many immigrants were “pushed” away by difficult conditions in their homelands and “pulled” to the United States by new opportunities. 
  • 14. Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Leaving Troubles Behind (cont.)
    • Some countries passed laws or followed policies against certain ethnic groups – minorities that spoke different languages or followed different customs from most people in a country.
    • Persecution also drove people from their homelands. 
  • 15. Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Seeking Opportunity
    • Although some immigrants returned to their homelands after a few years, most came to America to stay.
    • Immigrants saw the United States as a land of opportunity and jobs, plentiful and affordable land, and a chance for a better life. 
  • 16. Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Most of the journey was a long ocean voyage to America–12 days across the Atlantic or 60 days across the Pacific. 
    • Immigrants usually could afford only the cheapest tickets, and they traveled in steerage –cramped, noisy quarters on the lower decks.
    • Immigrants often had a difficult journey to America. 
    The Journey to America
  • 17. Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Statue of Liberty
    • On the base of the statue, the words of Emma Lazarus , an American poet, welcomed immigrants from Europe: 
    • After 1886 the magnificent sight of the Statue of Liberty , a gift from France, greeted the immigrants as they sailed into New York Harbor . 
    “ Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”
  • 18. Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • In the East immigrants were processed at Castle Garden, a former fort on Manhattan Island, and after 1892 at Ellis Island in New York Harbor. 
    • Most Asian immigrants arrived in America on the West Coast and went through the processing center on Angel Island in San Francisco Bay .
    • Before the new arrivals could actually enter America, they had to register at government reception centers. 
    Entering America
  • 19. Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Entrance Examinations
    • recorded the immigrants’ names. 
    • asked the immigrants where they came from, their occupation, and whether they had relatives in the United States. 
    • gave health examinations. 
    • Examiners at the centers... 
    • The new arrivals often found this process bewildering.
  • 20. Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Some had relatives or friends to stay with and to help them find jobs, but others knew no one and would have to strike out on their own.
    • After passing through the reception centers, most immigrants entered the United States. 
    The Immigrant Experience
  • 21. Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Finding Work
    • Some of America’s fastest-growing industries, such as the steel mills of Pittsburgh, hired immigrant workers.
    • Sometimes organizations in an immigrant’s homeland recruited unskilled workers for menial jobs in the United States. 
  • 22. Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Women and Children at Work
    • The work was repetitious and hazardous, the pay low, and the hours long.
    • Many immigrants, including women and children, worked in sweatshops –dark, crowded workshops where workers made clothing. 
  • 23. Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Adjusting to America
    • At the same time, most wanted to assimilate , or become part of the American culture. 
    • Some immigrants found that their American-born children had little interest in the culture of their European or Asian homeland.
    • In their new homes, immigrants tried to preserve some aspects of their own cultures. 
  • 24. Section 1-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Adjusting to America (cont.)
    • Immigrant women who worked in factories and at other jobs made friends and developed interests that their families did not always understand.
    • Language highlighted the differences between generations of families. 
  • 25. Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Building Communities
    • Relatives who had immigrated earlier helped new arrivals get settled, and people of the same ethnic group naturally tended to form communities. 
    • As a result neighborhoods of Jewish, Italian, Polish, Chinese, and other groups quickly developed in New York, Chicago, San Francisco, and other large cities.
    • Most of the new immigrants settled in industrial cities because they lacked money to buy farmland in America. 
  • 26. Section 1-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Building Communities (cont.)
    • The communities they established revolved around a number of traditional institutions, the most important of which were the houses of worship. 
    • Priests and rabbis often acted as community leaders. 
    • The immigrants published newspapers in their native languages, opened stores and theaters, and organized social clubs to preserve their cultural heritage.
    • The immigrants sought to recreate some of the life they had left behind. 
  • 27. Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Native-born Americans React to Immigrants
    • Some American-born workers resented the immigrants, fearing that they would take away jobs or drive down everyone’s wages by accepting lower pay.
    • American employers were happy to hire immigrant workers at low wages. 
  • 28. Section 1-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Anti-Immigrant Sentiment
    • People found it easy to blame immigrants for increasing crime, unemployment, and other problems in American society. 
    • The nativist movement, which had opposed immigration since the 1830s, gained strength in the late 1800s.
    • Ethnic, religious, and racial differences contributed to tensions between Americans and the new immigrants. 
  • 29. Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. New Immigration Laws
    • In 1882 Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act , which prohibited Chinese workers from entering the United States for 10 years. 
    • In 1908 the Japanese government agreed to limit the number of immigrants to the United States.
    • Lawmakers responded quickly to the tide of anti-immigrant feeling. 
  • 30. Section 1-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. New Immigration Laws (cont.)
    • An 1882 law made each immigrant pay a tax and also barred criminals from entering the country. 
    • In 1897 Congress passed a bill requiring immigrants to be able to read and write in some language. 
    • Although President Cleveland vetoed the bill as unfair, some years later Congress passed the Immigration Act of 1917 , which included a similar literacy requirement.
    • Other immigration laws affected immigrants from all nations: 
  • 31. Section 1-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Immigrants’ Contributions
    • Many Americans–including Grace Abbott and Julia Clifford Lathrop , who helped found the Immigrants’ Protective League–believed that immigrants... 
    • supplied the country’s growing industries with the workers that were necessary for economic growth. 
    • helped shape American life by giving the nation its major religious groups– Protestants, Catholics, and Jews. 
    • enriched society with their own customs and cultures, language and literature.
  • 32. Section 1-Review 1 What opportunities and difficulties did immigrants find in the United States? The immigrants found job opportunities but faced prejudice and discrimination. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 33. Section 1-Review 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How did the arrival of new immigrants in the 1880s change American society? Many of the newcomers were Catholics or Jews, and few spoke English. They formed communities within cities that were based on nationalities.
  • 34. End of Section 1 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide. End of Section 1
  • 35. Section 2-1a Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Additional lecture notes appear on the following slides. Terms to Learn tenement, slum, suburb, The Gilded Age, settlement house Read to Discover… • how American cities grew and changed.  Moving to the City • what life was like in the cities.  • what problems cities faced and how people tried to solve them. 
  • 36. Section 2-1b Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Additional lecture notes appear on the following slides. Section Theme Science and Technology After the Civil War, the United States changed from a rural to an urban nation. Developments in science and technology helped push Americans off the farms and pull them to the cities. Section Objective Analyze the positive and negative effects of city life.  Moving to the City
  • 37. Section 2-2 Introduction
    • By 1910 nearly half of the American population were city dwellers. 
    • The United States was changing from a rural to an urban nation.
    • In 1870, 1 American in 4 lived in cities with 2,500 or more people. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 38. Section 2-3
    • Native-born Americans also contributed to urban growth as they moved, looking for jobs. 
    • New farm machinery made it possible to produce crops using fewer farmworkers. 
    • African Americans also migrated to cities in large numbers, hoping to find more jobs and less discrimination.
    • In major urban centers such as New York, Detroit, and Chicago, immigrants and their children made up 80 percent or more of the population in 1890. 
    Growth of Cities Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 39. Section 2-4 Transportation and Resources
    • Trains carried cattle to Chicago and Kansas City , making these cities great meatpacking centers.
    • Railroads helped people move to the cities and transported the raw materials for industry. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 40. Section 2-5 Transportation and Resources
    • Seaports such as New York and San Francisco developed as American trade with the rest of the world increased.
    • Pittsburgh developed rapidly as a center for iron and steel manufacturing because both iron ore and coal were found in the area. 
    (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 41. Section 2-6
    • But there was also substandard housing and desperate poverty. 
    • The gap between the rich and the poor was staggering.
    • Cities were exciting places that offered jobs, stores, and entertainment. 
    City Life Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 42. Section 2-7 Tenement Living
    • In the biggest, most crowded cities, the poorest residents–including most immigrants–lived in tenements . 
    • Originally a tenement was simply a building in which several families rented rooms; however, by the late 1800s a tenement had come to mean an apartment building in the slums –poor, run-down urban neighborhoods.
    • People poured into the cities faster than housing could be built to accommodate them. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 43. Section 2-8 Tenement Living (cont.)
    • Three, four, or more people lived in each room. 
    • Usually several families had to share a cold-water tap and a toilet. 
    • Few tenement houses had hot water or bathtubs.
    • Tenements had many small, dark rooms. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 44. Section 2-9 Middle-Class Comfort
    • Many families moved from cities to the suburbs , residential areas that sprang up outside of city centers as a result of improvements in transportation. 
    • Middle-class families might have one or two servants and the leisure time to enjoy music, art, and literature.
    • The cities also had a growing middle class that included the families of professional people. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 45. Section 2-10 The Gilded Age
    • They built enormous mansions in the cities and huge estates in the country. 
    • Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner published a novel in 1873 called The Gilded Age . 
    • The Gilded Age suggested both the extravagant wealth of the time and the terrible poverty that lay underneath.
    • The wealthy lived very different lives from most Americans. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 46. Section 2-11
    • Among the problems that the rapidly growing cities faced were overcrowding, public health dangers, and crime.
    Cities in Crisis Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 47. Section 2-12 Living Conditions
    • Garbage and horse manure accumulated in city streets, and the sewers could not handle the flow of human waste. 
    • In a poor Chicago neighborhood in 1900, many babies died–of whooping cough, diphtheria, or measles–before their first birthday. 
    • A section of New York was called the “lung block” because so many residents had tuberculosis.
    • The terrible overcrowding in tenement districts created sanitation and health problems. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 48. Section 2-13 Living Conditions (cont.)
    • The city also established public health clinics for those who could not pay for medical care.
    • New York City began to screen schoolchildren for contagious diseases and to provide visiting nurses to mothers with young children. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 49. Section 2-14 Urban Crime
    • Orphaned and homeless children sometimes resorted to picking pockets and other minor crimes to survive. 
    • As reported by New York journalist Jacob Riis , gangs roaming the poor neighborhoods committed more serious crimes.
    • The poverty in the cities inevitably led to crime. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 50. Section 2-15 Seeking Solutions
    • In 1890 Jacob Riis wrote How the Other Half Lives, which showed the terrible conditions of the tenements. 
    • His book helped establish housing codes to prevent the worst abuses.
    • Many dedicated people worked to improve urban life and help the poor. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 51. Section 2-16 Seeking Solutions (cont.)
    • Organizations such as the YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association) and YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association) offered recreation centers where city youngsters could meet and play.
    • The Salvation Army , started in the United States in 1879, set up soup kitchens to feed the hungry and opened shelters for homeless people. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 52. Section 2-17 Settlement Houses
    • These provided medical care, playgrounds, nurseries, and libraries, as well as classes in English, music, and arts and crafts. 
    • One of the most famous settlement houses was Chicago’s Hull House , founded by Jane Addams in 1889.
    • The poor also received assistance from establishments called settlement houses . 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 53. Section 2-18
    • In the late 1800s, cities saw the introduction of a new type of building, new kinds of public transportation, and public parks.
    • Urban growth led to important, new developments. 
    The Changing City Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 54. Section 2-19 Building Up–Not Out
    • In the 1860s architects started to use iron frames to strengthen the walls of buildings. 
    • Iron supports–together with the safety elevator that Elisha Otis invented in 1852–made taller buildings possible. 
    • In 1884 William LeBaron Jenney constructed a 10-story office building in Chicago–the world’s first skyscraper .
    • Because of the limited space in cities, imaginative architects began building upward rather than outward. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 55. Section 2-20 Building Up–Not Out (cont.)
    • New York’s Woolworth Building , completed in 1913, soared an incredible 55 stories–nearly 800 feet high. 
    • Frederick Law Olmsted , a leader in the “City Beautiful” movement, designed New York’s Central Park as well as several parks in Boston.
    • Architect Louis Sullivan gave style to the skyscraper, changing the face of America’s cities. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 56. Section 2-21 New Forms of Transportation
    • In 1873 San Francisco began construction of cable-car lines. 
    • In 1888 Richmond, Virginia, pioneered the use of the trolley car, a motorized train that was powered by electricity supplied through overhead cables. 
    • In 1897 Boston opened the nation’s first subway, or underground railway.
    • As cities grew, people needed new means of transportation. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 57. Section 2-22 Building Bridges
    • Bridge construction provided another improvement in urban transportation. 
    • The 520-foot Eads Bridge across the Mississippi River in St. Louis opened in 1873. 
    • Ten years later New York’s majestic Brooklyn Bridge , 1,600 feet long, connected Manhattan and Brooklyn.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 58. Section 2-Review 1 How did American cities grow and change? American cities grew as immigrants and rural Americans moved into them in search of work. As space became tight, skyscrapers came to dominate the skyline. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 59. Section 2-Review 2 What was life like in the cities? If a person lived in the tenements, life was crowded and dirty. Middle- and upper-class families lived comfortably, often with servants. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 60. Section 2-Review 3 What problems did cities face, and how did people try to solve them? Cities faced overcrowding, poor sanitation, and homelessness. While not solved, these problems were alleviated somewhat through legislation and private groups. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 61. End of Section 2 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide. End of Section 2
  • 62. Section 3-1a Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Additional lecture notes appear on the following slides. Terms to Learn land-grant college, yellow journalism, realism, regionalism, ragtime, vaudeville Read to Discover… • how education became more widely available to Americans.  A Changing Culture • what new trends shaped American literature.  • how Americans spent their hours of leisure time. 
  • 63. Section 3-1b Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Additional lecture notes appear on the following slides. Section Theme Continuity and Change By the turn of the century, a unique American culture had developed, affecting all aspects of American life. Section Objective Describe the changes in American culture at the beginning of the twentieth century.  A Changing Culture
  • 64. Section 3-2 Introduction
    • Government and business leaders and reformers believed that for the nation to progress, the people needed more schooling. 
    • Toward the end of the 1800s, the “treasure” of education became more widely available to Americans.
    • Most Americans in 1865 had attended school for an average of only four years. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 65. Section 3-3 Expanding Education
    • More than 80 percent of all children between the ages of 5 and 17 were enrolled in elementary and secondary schools.
    • By 1914 nearly every state required children to have at least some schooling. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 66. Section 3-4 Public Schools
    • Most high school students were girls. Boys often went to work to help their families instead of attending school. 
    • In the South many African Americans received little or no education.
    • The expansion of public education was particularly notable in high schools, whose numbers increased from 100 in 1860 to 6,000 in 1900 to 12,000 in 1914. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 67. Section 3-5 Public Schools (cont.)
    • Supporters of this “progressive education” wanted to shape students’ characters and teach them good citizenship as well as facts. 
    • John Dewey , the leading spokesperson for progressive education, argued that schools should relate learning to the interests, problems, and concerns of students.
    • Around 1900 a new philosophy of education emerged in the United States. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 68. Section 3-6 Higher Education
    • An 1862 law called the Morrill Act gave the states large amounts of federal land that could be sold to raise money for education. 
    • The states used these funds to start dozens of schools called land-grant colleges . 
    • Wealthy individuals, such as Ezra Cornell and Leland Stanford, also established and supported colleges and universities.
    • Colleges and universities also changed and expanded. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 69. Section 3-7 Women and Higher Education
    • The new land-grant schools admitted women students, as did new women’s colleges. 
    • By 1890 women could attend a wide range of schools, and by 1910 almost 40 percent of all American college students were women.
    • In 1865 only a handful of American colleges admitted women. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 70. Section 3-8 Minorities and Higher Education
    • Howard University in Washington, D.C., founded shortly after the Civil War, had a largely African American student body. 
    • Booker T. Washington founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama to train teachers and to provide practical education for African Americans.
    • Some new colleges, such as Hampton Institute in Virginia, provided higher education for African Americans and Native Americans. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 71. Section 3-9 Schools for Native Americans
    • The Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania was founded in 1879. 
    • Although these schools provided Native Americans with training for jobs in industry, they also isolated Native Americans from their tribal traditions.
    • Reservation schools and boarding schools opened to train Native Americans for jobs. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 72. Section 3-10
    • Public libraries opened across the nation, and new magazines and newspapers were created for the reading public.
    • As opportunities for education grew, a growing number of Americans became interested in reading. 
    A Nation of Readers Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 73. Section 3-11 Public Libraries
    • In the next 30 years, Carnegie donated more than $30 million to found more than 2,000 libraries throughout the world. 
    • With gifts from Carnegie and others and the efforts of state and local governments, every state in the Union established free public libraries.
    • In 1881 Andrew Carnegie , a wealthy steel industrialist, pledged to build a public library in any city that would agree to pay its operating costs. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 74. Section 3-12 Spreading the News
    • In 1883 Joseph Pulitzer purchased the New York World and built up its circulation to more than 1 million readers every day. 
    • William Randolph Hearst’s New York Morning Journal became even more successful, attracting readers by exaggerating some aspects of stories.
    • Technological advances in printing, paper making, and communications made it possible to publish a daily paper for a large number of readers. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 75. Section 3-13 Spreading the News (cont.)
    • Between 1865 and 1900, the number of magazines in the United States rose from about 700 to 5,000. 
    • Some magazines of that era–the Atlantic Monthly , Harper’s , and Ladies’ Home Journal –are still published today.
    • Hearst’s style of sensational writing became known as yellow journalism –a name that came from the paper’s popular comic strip, “The Yellow Kid.” 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 76. Section 3-14 Changes in Literature
    • Their approach to literature was called realism because they sought to describe the real lives of people of the time. 
    • Related to realism was regionalism , writing that focused on a particular region of the country.
    • Many writers of the late 1800s and the early 1900s explored new themes and subjects. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 77. Section 3-15 Changes in Literature (cont.)
    • Many of his books, including Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer , are set along the Mississippi River, where Twain grew up. 
    • Stephen Crane wrote about city slums in Maggie and about the Civil War in The Red Badge of Courage .
    • Mark Twain was a realist and a regionalist. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 78. Section 3-16 Changes in Literature (cont.)
    • Edith Wharton described the joys and sorrows of the upper-class Easterners in The House of Mirth and The Age of Innocence . 
    • Paul Laurence Dunbar , the son of former slaves, wrote poetry and novels that used the dialects and folktales of Southern African Americans.
    • In books such as The Call of the Wild and The Sea Wolf , Jack London portrayed the lives of miners and hunters in the far Northwest. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 79. Section 3-17 Paperback Books
    • Many paperbacks featured lively adventure tales or stories of athletic boys and girls. 
    • Horatio Alger wrote a successful series of young adult books with such titles as Work and Win and Luck and Pluck . Alger’s books sold about 40 million copies.
    • Paperback books appeared for the first time in the late 1800s, and these inexpensive books helped expand the reading public. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 80. Section 3-18
    • After the Civil War, Americans began to develop a uniquely American style.
    • For most of the 1800s, the work of American artists and musicians reflected a European influence. 
    Art and Music Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 81. Section 3-19 American Artists
    • Thomas Eakins painted the human anatomy and surgical operations. 
    • One of Eakins’s students, Henry Tanner , depicted warm family scenes of African Americans in the South. 
    • Frederic Remington portrayed the American West, focusing on subjects such as cowhands and Native Americans. 
    • Winslow Homer painted Southern farmers, Adirondack campers, and stormy sea scenes.
    • Some American painters pursued realist themes. 
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  • 82. Section 3-20 American Artists (cont.)
    • James Whistler’s Arrangement in Grey and Black , commonly known as Whistler’s Mother , is one of the best-known American paintings. 
    • Mary Cassatt was influential in the French Impressionist school of painting.
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  • 83. Section 3-21 Music in America
    • Bandleader John Philip Sousa composed many rousing marches, including “The Stars and Stripes Forever.” 
    • African American musicians in New Orleans developed jazz in the late 1800s.
    • More distinctively American kinds of music were also becoming popular. 
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  • 84. Section 3-22 Music in America (cont.)
    • The symphony orchestras of New York, Boston, and Philadelphia–all founded before 1900–were among the world’s finest. 
    • Great singers and conductors came from all over the world to perform at New York’s Metropolitan Opera House.
    • Popularized by Scott Joplin , ragtime music became the dominant force in popular music in the early 1900s. 
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  • 85. Section 3-23
    • Unlike round-the-clock farmwork, professional and industrial jobs gave people hours and even days of free time. 
    • Americans developed new forms of recreation for their leisure time.
    • Middle-class people and even some factory workers enjoyed increasing amounts of leisure time. 
    Leisure Time Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 86. Section 3-24 The World of Sports
    • After the Civil War, baseball and other sports–including football, basketball, and boxing–gained popularity. 
    • Leagues of spectator sports teams were organized in the late 1800s. 
    • Improvements in the bicycle in the late 1800s helped bicycle riding take the country by storm.
    • A version of baseball was played as early as the 1830s. 
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  • 87. Section 3-25 Theatrical Entertainment
    • Plays ranged from serious dramas by Shakespeare to vaudeville shows– affordable variety shows with dancing, singing, comedy, and magic acts. 
    • The circus also attracted large crowds. In 1910 the United States had about 80 traveling circuses.
    • Large cities had many theaters. 
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  • 88. Section 3-26 Early Movies
    • The “movies” soon became enormously popular. 
    • Some theaters, called nickelodeons, charged 5 cents to see short films.
    • Thomas Edison invented “moving pictures” in the 1880s. 
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  • 89. Section 3-Review 1 How did education become more widely available to Americans? Almost all states required at least some primary and secondary education. Higher education boomed as many land-grant colleges opened. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 90. Section 3-Review 2 What new trends shaped American literature? Many American authors began to use realism and regionalism. Advances such as daily newspapers, magazines, public libraries, and paperbacks also shaped American literature. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 91. Section 3-Review 2 How did Americans spend their hours of leisure time? Spectator sports, vaudevilles, and movies became widely popular. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 92. End of Section 3 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide. End of Section 3
  • 93. Chapter Assessment (1) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Immigrants came to America to leave behind economic troubles, escape persecution, and find new opportunities. Why did so many people want to leave their homelands and immigrate to the United States in the late 1880s and early 1900s?
  • 94. Chapter Assessment (2) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Unsanitary conditions created breeding grounds for disease. How did overcrowding in the cities affect public health?
  • 95. Chapter Assessment (3) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Journalists exposed problems; religious groups provided basic services; settlement houses provided medical services, arts, education, protection, child care; the YMCA and YWCA provided places for children to meet and play. Describe some of the ways in which reformers tried to help the urban poor.
  • 96. Chapter Assessment (4) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Morrill Act gave states large amounts of federal land to be sold to raise money for education. What was the purpose of the Morrill Act?
  • 97. Chapter Assessment (5) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Jazz and ragtime both emerged during this period. What new forms of music emerged during the late 1800s and early 1900s?
  • 98. Chapter Assessment (6) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Immigrants often maintained their native language, formed ethnic communities, published their own newspapers, and founded churches, stores, theaters, and social organizations. How did immigrants try to preserve their cultural heritage?
  • 99. Chapter Assessment (7) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Industrialization freed up time for farmers and their wives, made transportation to the cities easier, and created jobs in the cities. Why did so many people move from farms to cities in the late 1800s and early 1900s?
  • 100. Chapter Assessment (8) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. American authors adopted realism and regionalism. What new styles of writing did American authors adopt during this period?
  • 101. Chapter Bonus Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What was the title of the first motion picture that told a complete story, setting a pattern of suspense and drama that future moviemakers followed? The Great Train Robbery was the first motion picture to tell a complete story, setting an example for future moviemakers.
  • 102. End of Chapter Assessment Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide. End of Chapter Assessment
  • 103. Goto Contents
  • 104. ABCNews 1
    • Identify factors that led people to emigrate. 
    • Discuss the challenges immigrants faced once they arrived in the United States.
    • Describe the immigration procedure at Ellis Island. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Historic America Electronic Field Trips: Ellis Island
  • 105. ABCNews 2 Click the Videodisc button anytime throughout this section to play the complete video if you have a videodisc player attached to your computer. Click the Forward button to view the discussion questions. Click in the above window to show a preview of the ABCNews InterActive video. Side 2 Chapter 7 Historic America Electronic Field Trips: Ellis Island
  • 106. ABCNews 3 What happened to some who couldn’t read or were sick? They were deported, or sent back to their home country. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Side 2 Chapter 7 Historic America Electronic Field Trips: Ellis Island
  • 107. End of ABCNews End of ABCNews InterActive Click the mouse button to return to the main presentation.
  • 108. Primary Sources 1 Introduction: A Nation of Cities Corresponding text appears on pages 716-717 of the textbook. With the growth of industry, the landscape of the United States changed. Railroads crisscrossed the continent. Where farms once stood, factories spewed forth black smoke. Thousands of Americans left their farms hoping to make their fortunes in the city. Millions of immigrants came hoping to share in the benefits of the new industrial age. As you read these primary source selections, think about what problems as well as what benefits resulted from the Industrial Revolution.
  • 109. Primary Sources 2 Background Information and Reader’s Dictionary An allusion is a short reference to a person, a place, an event, or another work of literature. Writers use allusions to extend the meanings of their works. Writer Mary Antin writes about “a confounding babel of voices.” Research the term babel . What is this an allusion to? Corresponding text appears on pages 716-717 of the textbook. It is an allusion to the story of Babylon in the Book of Genesis. Reader’s Dictionary inclined : slanted or leaning poultice : dressing applied to the body repose : rest kosher : approved by Jewish law babel : a scene of noise and confusion
  • 110. Primary Sources 3 Why did the workers in the sweatshop work quickly? Interpreting Primary Sources The faster they worked and the more items they produced, the more money they made. Corresponding text appears on pages 716-717 of the textbook.
  • 111. Primary Sources 4 What words does Mary Antin use to describe the townspeople? Interpreting Primary Sources She uses the words eager , foolish, and friendly . Corresponding text appears on pages 716-717 of the textbook.
  • 112. Primary Sources 5
    • Interview a relative, friend, or acquaintance who immigrated to the United States. Find out…
    • where they came from.
    • why they emigrated.
    • what adjustment problems they experienced.
    Corresponding text appears on pages 716-717 of the textbook.
  • 113. End of Primary Sources End of Primary Sources Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.
  • 114. MindJogger Disc 3 Side A Chapter 20 Use the MindJogger videoquiz as a preview, review, or both. Click the Videodisc button to play the MindJogger video if you have a videodisc player attached to your computer. If you experience difficulties, check the Troubleshooting section in the Help system.
  • 115. Cyberlink Explore on-line information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Presentation Plus! Web site. At this site, you will find a complete list of Web sites correlated with the chapters in The American Journey textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.glencoe.com/ushistory/cyberlinks
  • 116. Current Events Explore on-line news resources to find out what is currently happening in the United States and around the world. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Glencoe Current Events Web site. At this site, you will find numerous links to different news agencies. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.glencoe.com/sec/socialstudies/currentevents
  • 117. Time Line 1
  • 118. Time Line 2
  • 119. Time Line 3
  • 120. Section Focus 1
  • 121. Section Focus 1 (Answers)
  • 122. Section Focus 2
  • 123. Section Focus 2 (Answers)
  • 124. Section Focus 3
  • 125. Section Focus 3 (Answers)
  • 126. Extra Credit Immigration to the United States peaked in 1907. Some Americans favored immigration, and others opposed it. Scan the chapter to read about these differing viewpoints. Write and present a two-minute speech supporting your viewpoint.
  • 127. NG Journey 1 Corresponding text appears on pages 582-583 of the textbook. Click the speaker to hear an excerpt from a recollections of Lee Chew, published in Plain Folk: The Life and Stories of Undistinguished Americans by David Katzman and William Tuttle, 1982.
  • 128. NG Journey 2 Corresponding text appears on pages 582-583 of the textbook.
  • 129. NG Journey 3 Corresponding text appears on pages 582-583 of the textbook.
  • 130. NG Journey 4 Corresponding text appears on pages 582-583 of the textbook.
  • 131. NG Journey 5 Corresponding text appears on pages 582-583 of the textbook.
  • 132. NG Journey 6 Corresponding text appears on pages 582-583 of the textbook.
  • 133. LPP 1 Vaudeville to Virtual Reality From the 1880s to the 1930s, vaudeville was the most popular form of entertainment. In the 1980s, a new form of entertainment emerged–virtual reality. The term virtual reality (VR) was introduced into the English language in 1985. VR is a realistic simulation of an environment through high-speed, three-dimensional computer graphics. VR provides a three-dimensional effect as if the viewer is truly experiencing the action.
  • 134. End of Custom Shows (Do not remove.) End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.
  • 135. End of Slide Show Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide. End of the Slide Show