Lesson 12 hermenuetics


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Lesson 12 hermenuetics

  1. 1. Today’s Culture vs. the Bible How Should Christians Respond? Hermeneutics Part I (How to Interpret the Bible) Lesson 12: By: Lynn S. Nored Copyright Lynn S. Nored. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior consent of the author.
  2. 2. Issues To Be Addressed <ul><li>What is hermeneutics? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the history and background? </li></ul><ul><li>What are methods employed? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the “new hermeneutic” </li></ul><ul><li>What is happening in the church? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we do legitimate hermeneutics? </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is Hermeneutics? <ul><li>“ The science of interpretation of written texts in accordance with scientifically formulated rules and principles .” (New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The art of understanding” (Anchor Bible Dictionary) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gk. hermēneuō (‘interpret’), is used to denote (a) the study and statement of the principles on which a text—for present purposes, the biblical text—is to be understood, or (b) the interpretation of the text in such a way that its message comes home to the reader or hearer. “ (1996)New Bible dictionary (3rd ed. /). </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Is Hermeneutics? <ul><li>Exegesis: The “process of examining a test to ascertain what its first readers would have assumed it to mean.” ( Biblical Interpretation ”, W.Tate, Hendrickson, 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation: “The task of explaining the implications of that understanding for contemporary readers” ( Ibid.) </li></ul><ul><li>Hermeneutics : “The science of reflecting on how a word or an event in the past time and culture may be understand and become existentially meaningful in our present situation” (Carl Braaten, History and Hermeneutics, Phil.: Fortress, 1996) </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Is the Problem? <ul><li>“ When I use a word” Humpty said, in rather a scornful tone, “it means just what I choose it to mean---neither more nor less.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The question is’, said Alice, “ whether you can make words mean so many different things?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The question is,” said Humpty Dumpty, “which is to be master —that’s all.” </li></ul><ul><li>Alice was much too puzzled to say anything. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Is the Problem? L E N S Geography 2000+BCE 1000 BCE 500 BCE 0 –100 CE 100-1800 CE 1800-2004 CE Time Culture                                                                                                 Howdy Partner Language
  7. 7. What Is the Problem? Presuppositions <ul><li>Ancient Religious Texts </li></ul><ul><li>Revelation From God </li></ul><ul><li>Unified Texts </li></ul><ul><li>Dispensationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Patternism </li></ul><ul><li>Allegorical Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Commands/Examples/inferences </li></ul><ul><li>Love Letters </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Feminist </li></ul><ul><li>Christocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Liberation </li></ul><ul><li>Narratives/Metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>The Church and Salvation </li></ul>
  8. 8. What Is the Problem? <ul><li>1)Impossibility of understanding one part until you understand the whole; Impossibility of understanding the whole without understanding the parts. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Everyone has a pre-supposition. The text modifies that presupposition. The text modifies that presupposition…… </li></ul>Hermeneutical Spiral Klein, et.al. Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, Word Publishing, 1993
  9. 9. What Is the Problem? <ul><li>Modern: </li></ul><ul><li>The meaning of the text lays behind it in the mind of the author, the original setting, and the original audience </li></ul>Postmodern Implications for Interpretation Postmodern: The meaning of the text lays in front of the text with the reader himself, not even with the text itself Goncalves, j. “ The Deconstructing of the American Mind: An Analysis of the Hermeneutical Implications of Postmoderism” , Premise, Vol II, No. 8)
  10. 10. What Is the Problem? <ul><li>Current Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of instrumental music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Praise teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessity of baptism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Silence” of the scriptures </li></ul></ul>Division Within the Churches of Christ Revolving Around Hermeneutics
  11. 11. What Is the Problem? <ul><li>“ Midrash and Postmodern Inquiry” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Another Look at Adventist Hermeneutics” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A New Church Planting Hermeneutic of Mass. Baptists” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Hermeneutical Crisis in Muslim Evangelism” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Place of Women in the Church” (Reformed ) </li></ul><ul><li>“ A Catholic Faith for the Postmodern Era” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Towards a Wesleyan Hermeneutic of Scripture” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Elements of a Postmodern Holiness Hermeneutic..” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Incarnate Christ, The Apologetic Thrust of Lutheran Theology” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Hermeneutics of Reading Scripture and Symbols of Faith in the Presbyterian Church in America” </li></ul>The Present Problem in Hermeneutics Affects All Religious Groups!! 108 Articles 9 Books
  12. 12. What Is the Problem? <ul><li>Examples of Previous Divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Church Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating/kitchens/Fellowship Halls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bible Classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congregational Cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orphan Homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Located Preachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One cup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support of Colleges </li></ul></ul>Division Within the Churches of Christ Revolving Around Hermeneutics
  13. 13. What Is the Problem? <ul><li>“ The movement spawned by Thomas and Alexander Campbell, Barton W. Stone, and Walter Scott in the early 1800’s has become one of the most splintered, fractured, and floundering of the professing “non-denomination” sects. The “Ancient Order” ship launched in the last century is springing leaks all along it’s hull.” </li></ul>Division Within the Churches of Christ Revolving Around Hermeneutics Ross, Bob. L. “Winds of Change in the Restoration Movement” alias the “ Church of Christ”, Pilgrim Magazine, Editor.(Baptist)
  14. 14. What Is the History? <ul><li>The First Recorded Interpreters </li></ul> 7  The Levites—Jeshua, Bani, Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Hanan and Pelaiah—instructed the people in the Law while the people were standing there.  8  They read from the Book of the Law of God, making it clear  a and giving the meaning so that the people could understand what was being read .   (Ne 8:7).
  15. 15. What Is the History? Klein, et. Al, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, Word. 1993 Jewish Interpretations Rabbinic Halakah : Regulations for conduct from OT legal material Haggadah : All of OT to illustrate texts and edify. Midrash : Rules to uncover deeper meanings of scripture. Hellenistic Platonic and Allegorical : True meaning lies behind the text’s words. Gen. 2:14- Philo. The Eden river represents goodness. The four rivers represent prudence, temperance, courage, and justice. <ul><li>Qumran </li></ul><ul><li>Pesher: </li></ul><ul><li>Change text to support interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Find fulfillment of prophecy in present events </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret separate phrases regardless of context </li></ul>
  16. 16. What Is the Apostolic History? (30-300 CE) Klein, et. Al, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, Word. 1993 Literal Fulfillment : Jesus in the synagogue.“Today this scripture is fulfilled in your hearing.” Is. 61:1-2 Typological: OT events /ideas repeated in NT Mt. 2:17 “A voice was heard in Ramah of painful crying and deep sadness”..for Jer. 31:15. Herod’s killing for Babylonian exile Literal-Contextual: According to their normal meaning. Jesus Temptation:“It is also written: ‘Do not put the Lord your God to the test.’’ Matt. 4:4-7   Principal/Application: “ Do not muzzle the ox while it is treading out the grain,”   and “The worker deserves his wages”. I Tim 5:17-18 for Deut. 25:4
  17. 17. What Is the Church Fathers History? (100-590 CE) Apostolic Fathers (100-150): Allegory: most common Typology: Midrashiic Traditional: That which the churches taught Alexandra: (150-400) Allegorical. Clement- literal +Spiritual Meaning. Origin-literal, Spiritual, &Moral or Ethical Meaning Antiochene (150-400) Typically rejected allegory. Historical Grammatical: Each text has one plain, simple meaning. E.g. Song of Solomon not about Christ and the church.
  18. 18. What Is the Church Fathers History? (325-590 CE) http://www.piar.hu/councils/~index.htm Church Councils Only church leaders, the apostles successors, could interpret the scripture. Council of Nicea (325). Affirms divinity of Christ First Council of Constantinople (381) Affirms Divinity of Holy Ghost Council of Ephesus (431 ) Mary Mother of God Council of Chalcedon (451 ) Affirmed human and divine nature of Christ <ul><li>Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>All aspects of scripture </li></ul><ul><li>interpreted according to love, the focal point of scripture. </li></ul><ul><li>Consult what clear passages say on the subject discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>Consult the authority of the church (tradition). </li></ul><ul><li>Then consult context . </li></ul>
  19. 19. What Is the History? Middle Ages (590-1500 CE) Catholic Enccyclopedia First Approach Four meanings: e.g Jerusalem- Literal -city Allegorical - the church. Moral -the soul Eschatological - the heavenly city Third Approach Scholasticism: By question and answer, use logic to reconcile faith and reason. Followed Aristotle Thomas Acqinas: Elevated the literal sense as first, others after that. Second Approach Catena: Traditions of Fathers. Interpretative Glosses in Margins of Bible
  20. 20. Summary <ul><li>It is notable that for 1500 years the primary methods of biblical interpretation were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allegory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Reformation will see a break and the beginnings of “our” hermeneutic </li></ul><ul><li>We will also see the “new hermeneutic” had it’s beginning in the 1700’s </li></ul>