American Colonies 5- Canada and Iroquoia France needed a steady and enduring share in the America trade. Found profit in fish and fur along the mouth of the St. Lawrence river. French traders were hostage to the Indian trade protocols because the Natives considered a cutoff trade an act of war and the French needed them as allies.
By 1580, the fisheries and whale and seal hunts employed 4 vessels and around 12,000 men Mariners traded Indians fur for European manufactured goods. Furs hot commodity in Europe French established permanent but small posts around Tadoussac in Canada. Did this to allow for fur trade all year long.
The French reclaimed the St. Lawrence Valley, now Canada. Canada was perfect for 5 reasons: Valley was safely distant from Spanish power Northern location meant especially thick and valuable furs Resident Montagnais and Algonkin were especially skilled hunters St. Lawrence river offered deepest access westward At Quebec, the river narrowed which provided a good harbor and higher ground for posts
Firearms were introduced to Indian warfare when the French helped their ally natives to the north fight the Five Nation Iroquois. Selling of firearms was previously prohibited, but it was such a profitable sale it was allowed. The Iroquois were a formidable enemy with large, fortified hilltop villages. Their cohesion was a direct result of practicing ceremonial torture and cannibalism of their captured enemies.
American Colonies 16- French Colonies French Canadians stayed safe from invasion because of their small numbers and location. The small number of people kept the friction down with the Indians and their northern setting kept them safe from British Invasion. Recruited Natives to help fight against British expansion Founded Louisiana at the end of the 17th century This new colony became the chief rival for British Carolina in American southeast. Like new France, Louisiana was thinly populated and relied on Indian allies
Until 1663, Canada belonged to the fur-trading company of New France, not the French crown. Saw no need to have colonists shipped from France to build a bigger colony because it would drive up cost, and they had the Indians to do the work. Eventually they had to bring people over to help defend against the British. Most were male emigrants from the northern and western seaports of France
Most people that went to Canada and stayed significantly improved their standard of living Plots of farm lands much bigger, more meat and bread available, able to hunt and fish, which was denied to peasants in France Had a more militaristic, paternalistic, and centralized form of authority compared to British. Governed by 3 people: a military govenor-general, a civil administrator known as an intendant, and a Catholic bishop Selective settlement divided Louisiana into 2 different landscapes: a small plantation core remade by settlers, and an immense hinterland led by Indians
New France and Louisiana cost the crown more to run than they profited. As Indians became dependent on French trade, the French empire became captive to Indian demands. Indian alliances were more for political well-being rather than financial profit
Carolina Established by West Indian planter during the 1670’s Was founded to honor King Charles II Included present day North and South Carolina and Georgia Owned by 8 of the kings political favorites-the Lords Proprietor Ran by Sir John Yeamans and his son
Carolina In 1670 3 ships from Barbados bore 200 colonists to the mouth of he Ashley River Named this Charles Town Changed to Charleston in 1783 Defied Spanish claim to the coast, signifying England’s new confidence in its emerging imperial power
Carolina Attracted more colonists by offering religious tolerance, political representation in an assembly with power over public taxation and expenditures, a long exemption from quitrents, and large grants of land. South Carolina grew from 200 colonists in 1670 to 6,600 in 1,700 Attracted mostly farmers and artisans of modest means Common colonists were essential to build farms in the forest and fighting the frontier warfare.
Carolina A male servant who survived his term received “freedoms dues”- a set of clothes, barrel of maize, an an, a hoe, and a land grant of 100 acres Also wanted to attract great planters so they offered “absolute power and Authority of is Negro Slave” Since the slave was defined as a family member, the planter also received a full 150-acre headright per slave
Virginia Originally named for the whole coast from Florida to Arcadia Named after Queen Elizabeth I because she was a supposed virgin Started out with get rich quick schemes such as gold mines and raiding Spanish ships, but this was found to be too expensive Instead found profit in tobacco which permitted an explosive growth in land, power, and wealth The crown subcontracted out colonization because it lacked the financial stability to pay for such a venture itself
Virginia Earliest English colonial promoters were dreamers and gamblers driven by visionary imagination. Most were politically well connected from the wouthwestern counties of England Known as “West Country men” and included: Sir Francis Drake, Sir Richard Greenville, Sir John Hawkins, Sir Walter Ralegh, and Sir Humphrey Gilbert
Virginia Planters, led by John Rolfe, learned to raise tobacco in 1616. Was an ideal colonial commodity because people were willing to pay high prices to satisfy their addictive cravings. Virginia’s tobacco production grew from 200,000 pounds in 1624 to 3,000,000 in 1638 Chesapeake outstripped the West Indies to become the principal supplier of tobacco to Europe Because of the boom of profit, more laborers were needed This increased Chesapeake’s population from 350 in 1616 to 13,00 by 1650
Virginia New land was needed to supply the tobacco. This land came at the Indians’ expense. They brought with them voracious pigs and cows that destroyed Indian corn fields The English would attack the Indians and destroy their crops right before harvest as to force them to suffer a miserable winter and spring. In may 1623, they invited 250 starving Indians to a toast of alcohol. The Indians’ share had poison.