Insel10ebrup Ppt Ch14
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Insel10ebrup Ppt Ch14 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Challenge of Aging Chapter 14
  • 2. Life is Like a River
    • “The flow is continuous, and you never step in the same place twice.”
    • There is no precise age when a person becomes “old.”
  • 3. Generating Vitality As You Age
    • What happens As You Age?
      • Characteristics associated with aging are not due to aging but to abuse and neglect.
    • Life-Enhancing Measures: Age-Proofing
      • Challenge Your Mind.
        • Stay mentally active
      • Develop Physical Fitness.
      • Eat Wisely.
      • Maintain a Healthy weight.
      • Control Drinking and Overdependence on Medications.
      • Don’t Smoke.
      • Schedule Physical Examinations to Detect Treatable Disease.
      • Recognize and Reduce Stress.
  • 4.  
  • 5. Confronting the Changes Of Aging
    • Planning for Social Changes.
      • Changing Roles and Relationships.
      • Increased Leisure Time.
      • The Economics of Retirement.
  • 6. Adapting to Physical Changes
    • Some physical changes are inevitable
    • Hearing Loss
    • Vision Changes
      • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
      • Presbyopia
      • Cataracts
    • Arthritis
      • Osteoarthritis (OA)
      • Rheumatoid arthritis
      • Lupus
  • 7.  
  • 8. Adapting to Physical Changes
    • Menopause
    • Osteoporosis
      • Build bone throughout your life
      • Diet and exercise
      • Avoid tobacco
      • Manage depression and stress
  • 9. Handling Psychological and mental Changes
    • Dementia
      • Severe and significant brain deterioration
      • Two most common forms
        • Alzheimer’s disease
        • Multi-infarct dementia
    • Grief
    • Depression
      • Unresolved grief can lead to depression
      • Suicide
  • 10. Life In An Aging America
    • America’s Aging Minority
      • 65 or Older.
        • 35 million people, about 13% of the total American population in 2000.
        • Affecting the stereotypes.
        • Political attention to the growing population.
        • The Aging population is increasing proportionately.
  • 11.  
  • 12. Family and Community Resources for Older Adults
    • Family Involvement in care giving.
    • Other Living and Care Options.
    • Community Resources.
      • Senior citizens’ centers
      • Homemaker services
      • Visiting nurses
      • Household services
      • Friendly visitor
      • Home food delivery
      • Adult day hospital care
      • Low-cost legal aid
      • Transportation.
  • 13. Government Aid and Policies
    • Food stamps
    • Housing subsidies
    • Social Security
    • Medicare and Medicaid
    • Life insurance and old-age pension plan
  • 14. What is Death?
    • Defining death.
      • Defined as cessation of the flow of bodily fluids.
      • Life-support systems.
      • 1968 Harvard Medical School Committee, Brain death involves:
        • Lack of receptivity and response to external stimuli.
        • Absence of spontaneous muscular movement and breathing.
        • Absence of observable reflexes.
        • Absence of brain activity.
          • Electroencephalogram (EEG).
        • Second set of tests after 24 hours
          • Hypothermia (Below 90 degrees F)
          • Central nervous system depressants
      • Clinical death
      • Cellular death
  • 15. Dying Versus Welcoming Death
    • Anxiety associated with death.
    • Many seek to avoid any thought or mention of death.
      • “Out of sight, out or mind”
    • United states attitude is to “death denying”.
  • 16. Planning for Death
    • Making a will.
      • Legal instrument expressing a person’s intentions and wishes for the disposition of his or her property after death.
      • Estate.
        • Money, property, and other possessions
      • Testator.
        • The person making the will
      • Interstate.
        • Without having left a valid will
  • 17.  
  • 18. Considering Options for End-of Life Care
    • Spending your last days at home, cared for by relatives and friends?
    • -OR-
    • Access to the sophisticated medical technologies in the hospitals.
    • Home care.
    • Hospital-based palliative care.
    • Hospice programs.
  • 19. Deciding to Prolong Life or Hasten Death
    • Would you want aggressive treatment to keep you alive, even if it meant that your were put on life-support?
    • Modern medicine.
      • Persistent vegetative state.
      • Ethical questions about the “right to die”.
    • U.S. Supreme Court
      • 1990. Cruzan case
      • 2003. Schiavo case
      • The right to refuse life sustaining treatment is constitutionally protected.
      • The importance of expressing one’s wishes about life-sustaining treatment
  • 20. Deciding to Prolong Life or Hasten Death
    • Withholding or Withdrawing Treatment.
      • The right of a competent patient to refuse unwanted treatment.
      • Passive euthanasia.
    • Assisted Suicide and Active Euthanasia.
      • Physician-assisted suicide (PAS).
        • 1997. Supreme Court cases
          • Washington v. Glucksberg
          • Vacco v. Quill
        • Oregon is the only state permitting PAS
          • The Death with Dignity Act (1994)
      • Active euthanasia.
  • 21. Completing an Advance Directive
    • Living will.
      • Enables individuals to provide instructions about the kind of medical care they wish to receive.
    • Health care proxy.
      • Durable power of attorney for health care
      • Appoint another person to make decisions about medical treatment
      • Surrogate.
  • 22. Becoming an Organ Donor
    • Human body is a valuable resource.
    • Each day 60 people receive an organ transplant.
    • Each day 18 people on the waiting list die because not enough organs to assist.
    • Uniform Donor Card.
  • 23.  
  • 24. Planning a Funeral or Memorial Service
    • Disposition of the body.
      • Considerations:
        • Social
        • Cultural
        • Religious
        • Psychological
        • Interpersonal
    • Arranging a Service.
      • Choice of last rites
        • Traditional funeral ceremony
        • Simple memorial service
        • Costs between $5,000-$7,000
      • Non-profit memorial society.
  • 25. Coping With Dying
    • No one right way to live or die of a life-threatening illness.
      • Doctors treat diseases; people suffer from illness.
      • Concerns with:
        • Costly medical care.
        • Loss of income.
        • Repeated and lengthy hospitalization.
        • Physical pain.
  • 26. The Tasks of Coping
    • On Death and Dying (Elisabeth Kubler-Ross).
      • 5 Psychological stages:
        • Denial.
        • Anger.
        • Bargaining.
        • Depression.
        • Acceptance.
    • Charles Corr’s primary dimensions in coping with dying.
      • Four primary dimensions in coping with dying
        • Physical.
        • Psychological.
        • Social.
        • Spiritual.
  • 27. Coping With Loss
    • Experiencing Grief.
      • Reaction to loss
        • Thoughts, feelings, physical and mental responses.
      • Bereavement.
      • Mourning.
    • Tasks of Mourning.
        • Accepting the reality of the loss.
        • Working through the pain and grief.
        • Adjusting to a changed environment.
        • Emotionally relocating the deceased and moving on.
  • 28. Coping With Loss
    • The Course of Grief.
      • Early phase
      • Middle phase
      • Last phase
  • 29. Supporting a Grieving Person
    • Give kind and loving support.
    • Be a good listener.
    • Refrain from making judgments about the survivor’s feelings are “good” or “bad”.
    • Social support is critical.
  • 30. Coming To Terms With Death
    • Confronted with emotions and thoughts that relate to the immediate loss but also to our own mortality.
    • Teaches us that relationships are more important than things
    • Allow ourselves to make room for death
    • Denying death, it turns out, results in denying life.
  • 31. Aging: A Vital Process Chapter 14